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THE POLITICS OF WEB 2.0
E-GOVERNMENT OR STATE SURVEILLANCE AND CYBER WARS?
Mario Lubenka
Abitur Hessen 2015 – presentation...
22
STRUCTURE
• What is Web 2.0?
• Uses of the internet
• Internet in daily life
• Wisdom of the crowd
• Use for politics –...
3
WHAT IS WEB 2.0?
• Web 2.0 - Definition
Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and E...
44
WEB 2.0 - DEFINITION
Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
Web 2.0
Soc...
5
USES OF
THE INTERNET
• Internet in daily life
• Wisdom of the crowd
• Use for politics – Case study: Barack Obama
• Impa...
6
COMMUNICATION (SN)
• Creating and sharing content,
connecting with others
CROWDFUNDING
• realising own ideas
• demand =>...
77
• Starbucks
• Wisdom of the crowd (Collective Intelligence)
• feedback for improvement
• helped strengthening the brand...
88
• use of social media (Twitter)
• 2008 election campaign
• @BarackObama – support
• Support for policies; respond to th...
99
Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
DIGITAL VS TRADITIONAL MEDIA
Sur...
1010
• Potential to change
• Organising protests
• 2006: supporting campaign for an Egyptian blogger
• February 2008: prot...
1111
EGOVERNMENT
• Digital administration
• Estonia
• First country with online elections
• 97% online banking
• High-spee...
12
RISKS OF THE INTERNET
• Security issues
• NSA – Techniques and goals
• Cyber-war
Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - p...
1313
SECURITY ISSUES
• 2007: Aurora Experiment (US Homeland Security)
• 2011: LÜKEX experiment (BSI)
• 2013: APG, Austria:...
1414
NSA – TECHNIQUES AND GOALS
• PRISM => email, videos, photos, files, social networks
• XKeyscore => real-time internet...
1515
THE STRUCTURE OF THE INTERNET
Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
1616
NSA – TECHNIQUES AND GOALS
• Goals („Black Budget“)
1. Cyber-espionage and mass surveillance
2. Gain access to critic...
1717
CYBER-WAR
• Different concepts => different definitions
• „employment of computer network operations with the intent ...
1818
CYBER-WAR
• Attribution problem
• Critical infrastructure
• internet exchange points
• no emergency calls
• >100 stat...
19
INTERNET LAWS
• “Territorial rights” – possession of the internet
• International Cyber Laws
Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hes...
2020
• Names and numbers regulation
• Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
• No uniform Internet la...
2121
• no need for internet law
• Everyday cases in new technology?
• need for internet law
• Definitions of internet arch...
2222
• Tallinn Manual
• NATO Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence (CCD CoE)
• Proposal for a „Law of Cyber War“
• Cyber warf...
23
CONCLUSION
Political implications of the Internet:
eGovernment or state surveillance & cyber war?
Mario Lubenka - Abitu...
24
Political chances of the internet
• Importance for the future
• direct contact to the people (Obama)
• potential to cha...
25
Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
HTTPS://DONOTTRACK-DOC.COM
2626
SOURCES
• http://www.atlantic-community.org/app/webroot/files/articlepdf/Web_2.0_Change_Politics.PDF, 08.04.2015, 07:...
2727
IMAGE SOURCES
• http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Internet_map_1024_-_transparent.png, 27.03.2015
• ...
THANK YOU FOR
YOUR ATTENTION!
Mario Lubenka
Abitur Hessen 2015 – presentation exam
Political Science and Economy
29
INTERNET OF THINGS
SEMANTIC WEB („WEB 3.0“) VIRTUAL REALITY
Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Po...
3030
Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/...
3131
Data by user
• Registrations
• Likes, shares, wish lists
COLLECTION AND USE OF DATA
Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 201...
3232
COLLECTION OF DATA
Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
3333
CONDUCTING A CYBER-ATTACK
Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
Cybe...
3434
IDENTIFYING AN ATTACK
• Attribution problem
• IP spoofing, botnets
• Digital fingerprint
• Code fragments
• Language,...
3535
DIGITAL FINGERPRINT – CODE ANALYSIS
Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Ec...
3636
DEFINITIONS OF CYBER-WAR
• The Congressional Research Service:
“warfare waged in cyberspace. It can include defending...
3737
CLASSIFICATION SCHEME BY
ANDREAS M. KAPLAN & MICHAEL HAENLEIN
• Six different types of social media
• collaborative p...
3838
FACEBOOK‘S INFLUENCE IN POLITICS
• Saudi Arabia (2008)
• national hunger strike against the
kingdom’s imprisonment of...
3939Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
4040
OBAMA ON
•Started earlier with using Facebook
than his opponents
•$643,000 of $16 million Internet budget to promote ...
4141
OBAMA ON
•Official Twitter account: @BarackObama
• used for election efforts
• run by #Obama2012 campaign staff
• Twe...
4242
OBAMA ON
•promote legislation and support for his policies
•Responds to the public regarding the economy and
employme...
4343
MY.BARACKOBAMA.COM
• One key element of his success
• Every member had to upload a photo and provide information abou...
4444
MY.BARACKOBAMA.COM
• criticism
• collects data about the people (~Facebook)
• “Online tools for members to identify n...
4545
MY.BARACKOBAMA.COM
2008 campaign
accounts to "organize their local communities on behalf of Barack Obama" 2.000.000
e...
4646
OBAMA ON
• 29.08.2012:
surprise half-hour visit
• Ask Me Anything (AMA) format:
3.8 million page views on the first p...
4747
DEMOCRATISATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA
(„WEB DEMOCRATISATION“)
•Web democratisation
• the way people access and contribute t...
4848
PROS OF DEMOCRATISATION
•real-life benefits
• Getting help on message boards
• Possibility to spread regional news
• ...
4949
CONS OF DEMOCRATISATION
•Andrew Keen:
• tendency to believe that all our thoughts and feelings deserve to be posted,
...
5050
CONCLUSION
Pro Con
• real-life benefits
• Getting help on message
boards
• Possibility to spread
regional news
• old ...
5151
SOURCES ON SOCIAL MEDIA ATTACHMENT
• http://www.ovrdrv.com/social-media-map/ - 17.10.2013, 17:22 Uhr
• http://en.wiki...
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The Politics of Web 2.0 - E-Government or state surveillance and cyber wars?

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Presented in 2015 in my Abitur (university qualification) presentation in the subject "Politics & Economy"

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The Politics of Web 2.0 - E-Government or state surveillance and cyber wars?

  1. 1. THE POLITICS OF WEB 2.0 E-GOVERNMENT OR STATE SURVEILLANCE AND CYBER WARS? Mario Lubenka Abitur Hessen 2015 – presentation exam Political Science and Economy
  2. 2. 22 STRUCTURE • What is Web 2.0? • Uses of the internet • Internet in daily life • Wisdom of the crowd • Use for politics – Case study: Barack Obama • Impact of the internet on political decisions • eGovernment • Risks of the internet • Security issues • NSA – Techniques and goals • Cyber-war • Internet laws • “Territorial rights” – possession of the internet • International Cyber Laws • Conclusion Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  3. 3. 3 WHAT IS WEB 2.0? • Web 2.0 - Definition Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy • Uses of the Internet • Risks of the Internet • Internet laws • Conclusion
  4. 4. 44 WEB 2.0 - DEFINITION Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy Web 2.0 Social Media Crowd Sourcing Internet Business Collective intelligence Industry 4.0 Interaction, collaboration
  5. 5. 5 USES OF THE INTERNET • Internet in daily life • Wisdom of the crowd • Use for politics – Case study: Barack Obama • Impact of the internet on political decisions • eGovernment Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy • What is Web 2.0? • Risks of the Internet • Internet laws • Conclusion
  6. 6. 6 COMMUNICATION (SN) • Creating and sharing content, connecting with others CROWDFUNDING • realising own ideas • demand => innovations ECOMMERCE & EBANKING • Shopping, Online Banking • Stock market, forex trade Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy THE INTERNET IN DAILY LIFE • Research/School/Education • Entertainment • Opinions (reviews, tests, …) • … • Politics? OTHER USES:
  7. 7. 77 • Starbucks • Wisdom of the crowd (Collective Intelligence) • feedback for improvement • helped strengthening the brand and staying competitive – for free • customers ≈ creative consultants • Chance for politics • Participation of the people => Key principle of a democracy Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy WISDOM OF THE CROWD
  8. 8. 88 • use of social media (Twitter) • 2008 election campaign • @BarackObama – support • Support for policies; respond to the public • @WhiteHouse for presidential activities • own “social network”: my.barackobama.com (2008) • 2012: Reddit Ask Me Anything (AMA) • 10 of 22.000 comments and questions answered • Addressed unlikely voters • Communication stream: People  Politics Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy USE FOR POLITICS: CASE STUDY – BARACK OBAMA’S ELECTION CAMPAIGN
  9. 9. 99 Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy DIGITAL VS TRADITIONAL MEDIA Survey on the frequency of media usage of Germany’s youth (14-29yrs) 2013, Statista.com • Conveying political messages Social Networks talkativeness
  10. 10. 1010 • Potential to change • Organising protests • 2006: supporting campaign for an Egyptian blogger • February 2008: protests against the Marxist rebel group FARC • 2011: Revolution in Egypt • Online petitions • 2009: against indexing and blocking of internet sites (Zugangserschwerungsgesetz) Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy IMPACT OF THE INTERNET ON POLITICAL DECISIONS
  11. 11. 1111 EGOVERNMENT • Digital administration • Estonia • First country with online elections • 97% online banking • High-speed internet = basic right • Germany: eGovernment law • 01.07.2014: acceptance of electronic documents by federal and state authorities • 01.01.2015: allowance of electronic proof of identity • 01.01.2020: digital records Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  12. 12. 12 RISKS OF THE INTERNET • Security issues • NSA – Techniques and goals • Cyber-war Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy • What is Web 2.0? • Uses of the Internet • Internet laws • Conclusion
  13. 13. 1313 SECURITY ISSUES • 2007: Aurora Experiment (US Homeland Security) • 2011: LÜKEX experiment (BSI) • 2013: APG, Austria: almost blackout • No attack – wrong command • BELGACOM • hacked by NSA and GCHQ • Client: European Commission Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  14. 14. 1414 NSA – TECHNIQUES AND GOALS • PRISM => email, videos, photos, files, social networks • XKeyscore => real-time internet monitoring • phone records • Undersea Cable Tapping Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  15. 15. 1515 THE STRUCTURE OF THE INTERNET Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  16. 16. 1616 NSA – TECHNIQUES AND GOALS • Goals („Black Budget“) 1. Cyber-espionage and mass surveillance 2. Gain access to critical infrastructure 3. Complete control over the internet • Partnership with British GCHQ • control over mobile networks • Partnership with German BND • Transfer and share of secret information (BND → NSA) • BND can probably use XKeyscore Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  17. 17. 1717 CYBER-WAR • Different concepts => different definitions • „employment of computer network operations with the intent of denying adversaries the effective use of their own computers, information systems and networks“ (USA) • Examples • 1980: Russia => pipeline sabotaged and destroyed • 2007: Estonia => digital infrastructure -> DDoS • 2010: Iran => Reactor Turbines -> STUXNET Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  18. 18. 1818 CYBER-WAR • Attribution problem • Critical infrastructure • internet exchange points • no emergency calls • >100 states developing cyber programmes • e.g. Tunisia, Iran • NSA: automatic reverse shot system Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  19. 19. 19 INTERNET LAWS • “Territorial rights” – possession of the internet • International Cyber Laws Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy • What is Web 2.0? • Uses of the Internet • Risks of the Internet • Conclusion
  20. 20. 2020 • Names and numbers regulation • Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) • No uniform Internet law • How to behave: Etiquette in technology (“Netiquette”) • Legal aspects: License agreements, copyright, legal preconditions Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy „TERRITORIAL RIGHTS“ – POSSESSION OF THE INTERNET Shrinkwrap license clickwrap license Browsewrap license Terms of Service (TOS) Local law USA ✔ - EU ✖
  21. 21. 2121 • no need for internet law • Everyday cases in new technology? • need for internet law • Definitions of internet architecture and informal norms • International standards • mass surveillance ↯ Article 12 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights • 2002: Brussels Regulation • uniform jurisdiction and enforcement => model for global internet jurisdiction(?) Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy INTERNATIONAL CYBER LAWS
  22. 22. 2222 • Tallinn Manual • NATO Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence (CCD CoE) • Proposal for a „Law of Cyber War“ • Cyber warfare ≈ other military operations • Response by military activities (rule 5.13) • Act must be attributable to a state (rule 6.6) • UN Charter Art 51 ✔ • Attribution problem ❢ • Tallinn 2.0 • sovereignty, jurisdiction, intervention • International participation Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy INTERNATIONAL CYBER LAWS
  23. 23. 23 CONCLUSION Political implications of the Internet: eGovernment or state surveillance & cyber war? Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy • What is Web 2.0? • Uses of the Internet • Risks of the Internet • Internet laws
  24. 24. 24 Political chances of the internet • Importance for the future • direct contact to the people (Obama) • potential to change; increased talkativeness • wisdom of the crowd • easier and cheaper administration (eGovernment) Political risks of the internet • security issues • no uniform laws • Tallinn 2.0 (?) Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy CONCLUSION
  25. 25. 25 Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy HTTPS://DONOTTRACK-DOC.COM
  26. 26. 2626 SOURCES • http://www.atlantic-community.org/app/webroot/files/articlepdf/Web_2.0_Change_Politics.PDF, 08.04.2015, 07:52 Uhr • http://dare.uva.nl/document/466647, 08.04.2015, 07:54 Uhr • http://www.heise.de/tp/artikel/42/42978/1.html, 08.04.2015, 08:18 • http://www.heise.de/tp/artikel/32/32707/1.html, 08.04.2015, 08:20 • http://wirtschaftslexikon.gabler.de/Definition/web-2-0.html, 06.05.2015, 21:54 • http://www.augsburger-allgemeine.de/community/profile/sbo/Die-Luege-vom-rechtsfreien-Raum-Internet-id15158066.html, 06.05.2015, 21:56 • http://www.uni-muenster.de/Jura.itm/hoeren/materialien/Skript/Skript%20Internetrecht_April_2011.pdf, 06.05.2015, 21:59 • https://www.datenschutzzentrum.de/uploads/vortraege/20140128-Hansen-EuropaeischerDatenschutztag-BigDataBond-2.0.pdf, 06.05.2015, 22:13 • http://www.dirk-koentopp.com/downloads/saalbach-cyberwar-methods-and-practice.pdf, 23.04.2015 • http://motherboard.vice.com/de/blog/wie-man-das-rueckrat-des-internets-hackt, 16.05.2015 • http://www.cio.bund.de/SharedDocs/Kurzmeldungen/DE/2013/mitMS/e_government_gesetz.html, 08.05.2015 • https://www.icann.org/resources/pages/welcome-2012-02-25-en, 18.05.2015 • http://www.vox.com/2014/7/9/5880403/13-ways-the-nsa-spies-on-us, 19.05.2015 • https://nsa.gov1.info/surveillance/, 19.05.2015 • Rusdad, Michael L.: Global Internet Law in an nutshell, 2nd Edition, West Academic Publishing, 2013 • Cyberkrieg – Angriff aus dem Netz, Spiegel Geschichte, 2011 • Die Story im Ersten: Schlachtfeld Internet, ARD, 2015 • Interactive „Do not track“-Serie by Bayrischer Rundfunk and ARTE - https://donottrack-doc.com Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  27. 27. 2727 IMAGE SOURCES • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Internet_map_1024_-_transparent.png, 27.03.2015 • https://oye2906.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/web-1-0.png, 27.03.2015 • http://i.cbc.ca/1.2951841.1423590880!/fileImage/httpImage/image.jpg_gen/derivatives/16x9_620/twitter-newsweek.jpg, 01.05.2015 • http://www.francetvinfo.fr/image/754yxaqn4-efdf/1000/562/5944501.jpg, 01.05.2015 • https://www.flipkey.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/social-media-logos.jpg, 01.05.2015 • http://s3.amazonaws.com/Edcanvas/15349/local/webevolve.jpg, 01.05.2015 • http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Q5jA4W1xllE/TfIQ2nn1FLI/AAAAAAAAAOQ/R3Jm1DSf5XA/s1600/nobodyknowsyoureadog1.gif, 01.05.2015 • https://www.kaamranhafeez.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/23591.jpg, 01.05.2015 • http://i.imgur.com/oz0a7.jpg, 04.05.2015 • http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/x/politics-word-cloud-17738237.jpg, 05.05.2015 • http://i.imgur.com/gzKRtTt.jpg, 06.05.2015 • http://image.slidesharecdn.com/14-02-13-sia-trustedidforgovservices-140225050350-phpapp02/95/the-role-of-trusted-digital-identity-in-enabling-the-egovernment-2020-vision-22-638.jpg, 17.05.2015 • http://images.clipartpanda.com/empty-nest-clipart-9T4xyAETE.jpeg , 18.05.2015 • http://media.indiatimes.in/media/content/2013/Jul/166054890_1374059674_540x540.jpg, 18.05.2015 • https://termsfeed.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/adobe-flash-eula-accept-1.jpg, 18.05.2015 • http://www.softinterface.com/images/ShrinkWrap_WCX2.JPG, 18.05.2015 • http://lifeinlofi.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/instagram-TOS-1212.jpg, 18.05.2015 • http://thomasrid.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/fp.jpeg, 19.05.2015 • http://www.youtube.com/yt/brand/media/image/YouTube-logo-full_color.png, 17.05.2015 • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e5/Coursera_logo.PNG, 17.05.2015 • https://www.fractuslearning.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/udemy_logo_640-635x423.jpg, 17.05.2015 • https://techstuffiwant.files.wordpress.com/2014/02/lynda_logo-460x232.gif, 17.05.2015 • http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/irol/17/176060/KindleLogos/Kindlelogo/scr2555-proj697-a-kindle-logo-rgb-lg.jpg, 17.05.2015 • Sherlock, Episode S02E03, BBC Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  28. 28. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! Mario Lubenka Abitur Hessen 2015 – presentation exam Political Science and Economy
  29. 29. 29 INTERNET OF THINGS SEMANTIC WEB („WEB 3.0“) VIRTUAL REALITY Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy FUTURE OUTLOOK
  30. 30. 3030 Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-m-eger/the-internet-of-everything-boring-but-so-important_b_7193622.html
  31. 31. 3131 Data by user • Registrations • Likes, shares, wish lists COLLECTION AND USE OF DATA Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy user profile Data by tracking • Cookies • Unique Device-IDs • smartphone (GPS, accelerometer, gyroscope, …) Digital Marketing Selling on the black market
  32. 32. 3232 COLLECTION OF DATA Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  33. 33. 3333 CONDUCTING A CYBER-ATTACK Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy Cyber-attack gain access Cyber-espionage acquire data (and manipulation) Cyber-crime use data keep access; infiltration (malware, …) hacking of passwords, phishing, exploits, backdoors Sony, T-Mobile, credit cards Theft of money, identity theft, … STUXNET, Duqu, Flame, Regin STUXNET, Duqu, PRISM, XKeyScore, Tempora Controlling cyber space in case of conflicts (NSA) Cyber-warattacks on and damage of critical infrastructure
  34. 34. 3434 IDENTIFYING AN ATTACK • Attribution problem • IP spoofing, botnets • Digital fingerprint • Code fragments • Language, patterns, names Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  35. 35. 3535 DIGITAL FINGERPRINT – CODE ANALYSIS Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy 1+2=?
  36. 36. 3636 DEFINITIONS OF CYBER-WAR • The Congressional Research Service: “warfare waged in cyberspace. It can include defending information and computer networks, deterring information attacks, as well as denying an adversary’s ability to do the same. It can include offensive information operations mounted against an adversary, or even dominating information on the battlefield.” • Government security expert Richard A. Clarke: “actions by a nation-state to penetrate another nation’s computers or networks for the purposes of causing damage or disruption.” • Former National Security Advisor and CIA Director Michael Hayden: “deliberate attempt to disable or destroy another country's computer networks.” • US Army: „extends cyber power beyond the defensive boundaries of the Global Information Grid [=military network] to detect, deter, deny and defeat adversaries. Cyber war capabilities target computer and telecomunication networks and embedded processor sand controllers in equipment, systems and infrastructure.“ Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  37. 37. 3737 CLASSIFICATION SCHEME BY ANDREAS M. KAPLAN & MICHAEL HAENLEIN • Six different types of social media • collaborative projects (e.g. Wikipedia) • blogs and micro-blogs (e.g. Twitter) • content communities (e.g. YouTube, DailyMotion) • social networking sites (e.g. Facebook) • virtual game-worlds (e.g. World of Warcraft) • virtual social worlds (e.g. Second Life) • Mobile social media Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  38. 38. 3838 FACEBOOK‘S INFLUENCE IN POLITICS • Saudi Arabia (2008) • national hunger strike against the kingdom’s imprisonment of political opponents organised by a Facebook group • Egypt (2011) • nationwide work strike against the government • USA (2008) • Obama used Facebook to help build a following mainly among college students Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  39. 39. 3939Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  40. 40. 4040 OBAMA ON •Started earlier with using Facebook than his opponents •$643,000 of $16 million Internet budget to promote his Facebook account •Hired Chris Hughes (co-founder of Facebook) to build his own little social network 37.739.348 18.12.2013 Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  41. 41. 4141 OBAMA ON •Official Twitter account: @BarackObama • used for election efforts • run by #Obama2012 campaign staff • Tweets from Obama signed with “- bo” •White House's Twitter account: @WhiteHouse • presidential activities • e.g. posts about Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  42. 42. 4242 OBAMA ON •promote legislation and support for his policies •Responds to the public regarding the economy and employment •06.07.2011: "Twitter Presents Townhall @ the White House” - ask questions (#AskObama) @BarackObama (registered: 05.03.2007) @SenJohnMcCain (registered: 23.01.2009) @MittRomney (registered: 30.04.2007) @WhiteHouse (registered: 21.04.2007) 12.06.2012 16.505.044 1.732.467 ~650.000 < 3.000.000 17.10.2013 38.360.833 1.843.382 1.545.603 4.286.193 16.11.2013 39.926.514 1.848.777 1.546.416 4.361.100 17.12.2013 40.570.755 1.852.638 1.549.359 4.433.183 08.04.2015 57.660.723 1.953.783 1.625.086 6.006.920 Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  43. 43. 4343 MY.BARACKOBAMA.COM • One key element of his success • Every member had to upload a photo and provide information about him- or herself • Create blogs, post photos, form groups • Online tools for members to identify neighbours that might be potential voters and report back on any resulting conversations http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/anderkoo/files/2008/11/mybo.jpg [!] Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  44. 44. 4444 MY.BARACKOBAMA.COM • criticism • collects data about the people (~Facebook) • “Online tools for members to identify neighbours that might be potential voters and report back on any resulting conversations” -> privacy?, spying on the people http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/anderkoo/files/2008/11/mybo.jpg Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  45. 45. 4545 MY.BARACKOBAMA.COM 2008 campaign accounts to "organize their local communities on behalf of Barack Obama" 2.000.000 events organized 200.000 articles in blogs 400.000 videos that supported Obama were posted into YouTube via the official website 400.000 volunteer groups 35.000 donations (70.000 people) $30.000.000 Phone calls via the website’s virtual phone 3.000.000Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  46. 46. 4646 OBAMA ON • 29.08.2012: surprise half-hour visit • Ask Me Anything (AMA) format: 3.8 million page views on the first page of his self-post • 22.000 comments and questions; 10 he answered • most difficult decision made during his first term • a plan to end the corruption of money in politics http://i.imgur.com/oz0a7.jpg => Obama's campaign addressed unlikely voters Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  47. 47. 4747 DEMOCRATISATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA („WEB DEMOCRATISATION“) •Web democratisation • the way people access and contribute to the Internet •First: Internet for publishing; information flow in one direction •opened up Web content • active participation (e.g. comments, reviews, Wikipedia, …) •15. century: printing press to publish own ideas •nowadays: anyone can share his or her opinion and participate in politics Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  48. 48. 4848 PROS OF DEMOCRATISATION •real-life benefits • Getting help on message boards • Possibility to spread regional news • old friends can reconnect and share memories • everyone can participate (e.g. in politics) • […] Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  49. 49. 4949 CONS OF DEMOCRATISATION •Andrew Keen: • tendency to believe that all our thoughts and feelings deserve to be posted, read and discussed => digital narcissism • „When everyone claims to be an author, there can be no art, no reliable information, no audience. A flattened media is a personalized, chaotic media without that essential epistemological anchor of truth.” • Everything mixes -> no order -> anarchy • faked likes/followers = manipulation • rumors that @MittRomney bought followers • DailyMail: statistics show that 50% of @BarackObama ‘s followers are fake • not clear if a person (liker/follower) is real Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  50. 50. 5050 CONCLUSION Pro Con • real-life benefits • Getting help on message boards • Possibility to spread regional news • old friends can reconnect and share memories • everyone can participate (e.g. in politics) […] • „digital narcissism” -> anarchy • manipulatable Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy
  51. 51. 5151 SOURCES ON SOCIAL MEDIA ATTACHMENT • http://www.ovrdrv.com/social-media-map/ - 17.10.2013, 17:22 Uhr • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media#Classification_of_social_media - 17.10.2013, 17:28 Uhr • http://team1-gc.wikispaces.com/ARTICLE+-+Facebook+used+as+an+agent+of+political+change – 15.11.2013, 23:51 • http://www.prismrank.com/twitter-social-authority/ - 16.11.2013, 01:42 • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_media - 15.12.2013, 17:16 • http://www.usnews.com/opinion/slideshows/5-ways-new-media-are-changing-politics/2 - 15.12.2013, 22:15 • http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/democratization-of-web-mean - 17.12.2013, 19:10 • http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB118461274162567845 - 17.12.2013, 19:10 • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2430875/Barack-Obama-19-5m-fake-Twitter-followers.html - 17.12.2013, 20:01 • http://computer.howstuffworks.com/web-202.htm - 18.12.2013, 07:11 Mario Lubenka - Abitur Hessen 2015 - presentation exam - Political Science and Economy

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