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Communication genres in Norwegian 2013 parliamentary election

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Slides for a paper presentation at the 2014 ePart Conference held in Dublin, Ireland

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Communication genres in Norwegian 2013 parliamentary election

  1. 1. Genres of participation in social networking systems: A study of the 2013 Norwegian parliamentary election 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 2
  2. 2. Outline • Compare trends 2009-2013 parliamentary elections – Numbers (followers, posts etc) – Communication genres • Examine findings in light of Chadwick & Howard’s «principles of online politics» 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 3
  3. 3. Context & background • Voter/membership decline, activism (the usual suspects) • 2009: The first serious attempt at social media use in a Norwegian election • 2013: Second parliamentary election where social media plays a role in the campaign • Using the same methods, compare the two elections and see if social media use is evolving 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 4
  4. 4. Findings: Numbers Party 2009 2013 Voters Followers % f/v Posts Voters Followers % f/v Posts Socialist 166 361 1176 0,7 % 111 116 021 13027 11,2 % 565 Labour 949 049 1745 0,18 % 167 874 769 59065 6,7 % 1021 Center 165 006 446 0,27 % 60 155 357 6642 4,2 % 250 Christian 148 748 266 0,17 % 24 158 475 6469 4,08 % 290 Lib.dem 104 144 1075 1,03 % 100 148 275 12505 8,4 % 546 Conserv-atives 462 458 1331 0,28 % 194 760 232 26854 3,5 % 928 Progress party 614 717 5835 0,94 % 688 463 560 59980 12,9 % 873 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 5
  5. 5. Genre theory • Used to examine online communication by – Form: Physical and linguistic features – Content: themes and topics of communication – Functionality: What the technology allows us to do – 5W1H-method: uncover the purpose, contents, placement in time, location, participants, structure and medium for communication • Used to identify political party objectives for communication and to examine how citizens and politicians communicate in social media 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 6
  6. 6. Political objectives as genres Dialogue Contribution Involvement Why Involve citizens in debate Knowledge about citizen concerns Raise funds. Get people to volunteer When Continuous Election time Election time What Conversation between citizens and politicians Q&A. Voter stories Competitions, membership forms, information Who Politicians, party members, citizens Politicians, party members, voters Voters, sympathizers Where SNS, web site SNS, web site SNS, web site How Encourage dialogue. Open and personal language. Citizen-generated content. Encourage contributions and questions from voters Competitions, theme sites, cross-publication 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 7
  7. 7. Genres in 2009 election Genre Producer User Medium Related to Policy comment Citizen Citizen, party Facebook, blog, Twitter, video Dialogue, contribution Call for action Citizen, party Citizen Facebook, Twitter, video Contribution, involvement Q&A Citizen Party Facebook, Twitter, blog Dialogue Appeal to Citizen Party Facebook, Twitter, blog party Dialogue, contribution Greeting Citizen Party Facebook, blog Dialogue Personal accounts Citizen Party blog contribution Video response Citizen, party Citizen, party YouTube Contribution 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 8
  8. 8. Genres in 2013 election Genre Producer User Medium Related to Policy comment Citizen Citizen, party Facebook, blog, Twitter, video Dialogue, contribution Call for action Citizen, party Citizen Facebook, Twitter, video Contribution, involvement Q&A Citizen Party Facebook, Twitter, blog Dialogue Appeal to party Citizen Party Facebook, Twitter, blog Dialogue, contribution Greeting Citizen Party Facebook, blog Dialogue Personal accounts Citizen Party blog contribution Debate Citizen, party Citizen, party Facebook Contribution Support Citizen Party Facebook, Twitter Dialogue nonsupport Citizen Party Facebook, Twitter Dialogue Link Citizen, party Citizen, party Facebook Contribution Disgruntlement Citizen Party Facebook, Twitter Dialogue 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 9
  9. 9. Example: asking for input • “Thank you, everyone who took the time to comment on the government’s budget. We have sent all your comments to the PM. Have a lovely weekend” • 1066 likes, 66 comments praising the new cabinet for listening to voters 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 10
  10. 10. Principles of online politics • The Internet is a platform for political discourse • The collective intelligence emergent from political web use. • The importance of data over particular software and hardware applications • Perpetual experimentalism in the public domain • The creation of small scale forms of political engagement. • The propagation of political content over multiple applications. • Rich user experiences on political web sites. Chadwick & Howard, 2009 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 11
  11. 11. Principles of online politics • Network effects • ability to respond rapidly to new situations, activist campaigns etc • Using social media to crowdsource ideas and get access to demographic data about voters • Data mash-ups, citizens volunteering information through smartphone sensors and mobile cameras • Reaching out by using the same content in different ways, and adding multimedia etc. 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 12
  12. 12. Towards politics 2.0? • Increase in numbers indicate that social media is becoming a platform for political discourse • Our «collective intelligence» is somewhat extended to those who are not otherwise heard (but are their comments being listened to?) • Introduction of banners, multimedia indicate a willingness to experiment from the side of political parties • Small scale political engagement visible mainly through comments. In 2009 also through citizen-created videos. Perhaps activism is more relevant for this point? 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 13
  13. 13. Towards politics 2.0? • All parties have become proficient in spreading their content over multiple applications, and adapting the form and presentation to fit with the medium – This helps to draw users to content posted on the party’s own web site, for those who want to know more • Rich user experiences is increasing. – 2009: Criticism for posting pamphlets and press releases. – 2013: multimedia-rich and interactive content. Responding to current issues 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 14
  14. 14. Example: rapid response • Showing support for gay people at the Europride festival 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 15
  15. 15. Example: responding • Faced with poor ratings, the Socialist Left initiated their «I Vote SL because»-campaign • Still lost a lot of voters, but managed to stay above the 4% needed for representation in parliament 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 16
  16. 16. Thank you for listening Questions? Marius Rohde Johannessen mj@hbv.no @mariusjoh 02.09.2014 BUSKERUD AND VESTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 17

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