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Basics Of 3 Dimensional Design


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Basics Of 3 Dimensional Design

  1. 1. Basics of 3-Dimensional Design: Part 1, An Introduction <ul><li>Design II ART1203c </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor: Mark Creegan </li></ul>
  2. 2. Definitions: Comparisons to 2d works <ul><li>Ways 2d and 3d are similar: </li></ul><ul><li>Ways 2d and 3d contrast: </li></ul><ul><li>Similar design elements (line, color, etc) are organized to communicate ideas, express emotions, and create functional objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts of unity, variety, tension, positive-negative, dynamism </li></ul><ul><li>Concept development, critical thinking, design as process </li></ul><ul><li>2d considers height & width on flat surface, 3d considers h + w + depth </li></ul><ul><li>Basic elements in 3d include light, volume, mass, and time (as well as others familiar to 2d) </li></ul><ul><li>Experiencing 3d in 2d work is a mental process, the effect of convincing pictorial illusion </li></ul><ul><li>In pictorial space, the relationships between the elements are confined within the pictorial space alone, with spatial work , forms have relationship to the space and forms around it </li></ul><ul><li>The total visual experience is singular and usually stable in 2d; in 3d it is fluid and dynamic; viscerally as well as visually </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of 3d work usually involve more material manipulation, tool handling, and pre-planning </li></ul>
  3. 3. The elements and principles of 3D design: <ul><li>The elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Line </li></ul><ul><li>Plane </li></ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>The organizing principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Containment </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Variation </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Unity with Variety </li></ul>
  4. 4. The elements: LINE (linear forms) Gateway Arch , St. Louis by Eero Saarinen, 1966 Shibboleth by Doris Salcedo, Tate Modern 2007 Alexander Calder, Elephant , 1928 Alberto Giacommeti, Man Striding Tom Friedman, Pencil
  5. 5. Gordon Matta-Clark, Cut House
  6. 6. The elements: PLANE (planar forms) La Grande Vitesse Calder, 1969 Charles Ginnever, Rashomon, 1998 Giacomo Balla Aaron Curry
  7. 7. The elements: VOLUME (volumed form) Richard Serra, Torqued Ellipses Martin Puryear monika sosnowska
  8. 8. The elements: MASS (massive form) Aztec head Claire Healy & Sean Cordeiro Rachel Whiteread, House Janine Antoni
  9. 9. The elements: SPACE (spatial, environmental) Yayoi Kusama David Hammons Thomas Lendvai Martin Creed
  10. 10. The elements: SPACE (positive/negative) Mike Womack
  11. 11. The elements: TEXTURE (textural) Jennifer Maestre Jeff Koons Rebecca Warren
  12. 12. The elements: LIGHT Marc Quinn Felix Gonzalez-Torres James Turrell
  13. 13. The elements: COLOR Jeff Koons Jessica Stockholder Jen Stark Dale Chihuly
  14. 14. The elements: TIME Parris Patton, Because I cant Be Beethoven , 2006
  15. 15. 3d design principles <ul><li>Gestalt is a process in which visual information is understood as a whole before it is examined separately. It can also be stated as a configuration of elements so unified as a whole that its properties cannot be derived from a simple summation of its parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Containment- a unifying force created by edge or boundary of composition, encourages visual connection of objects within boundary, also can include objects within a room </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity- unifying force due to spatial closeness of forms </li></ul>
  16. 16. 3d design principles <ul><li>Continuity - a fluid connection between compositional parts </li></ul><ul><li>Closure - describes the mind’s inclination to connect fragments to mentally complete a form </li></ul>
  17. 17. Defining “Form” <ul><li>As a physical manifestation of an idea (content)* </li></ul><ul><li>In 3d, form can also refer to the 3 dimensionality itself (ex. The sphere, cube, and pyramid are “forms”) </li></ul><ul><li>* Content- intellectual, emotional, spiritual, and symbolic implications </li></ul><ul><li>Types of forms: </li></ul><ul><li>Volume =empty </li></ul><ul><li>Mass =solid </li></ul><ul><li>Positive forms =area of substance (negative space) </li></ul><ul><li>Organic =visually suggests nature or natural forces </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric =based on cubes, spheres, or other simple volumes </li></ul><ul><li>Static = appear static, unmoving (ex. Great pyramids) </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic = imply movement </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetic = actually moves </li></ul><ul><li>Representational </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Non-objective </li></ul><ul><li>Linear , planar </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete object or Field </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical, horizontal </li></ul>
  18. 18. 3d design principles <ul><li>Scale- commonly refers to the size of the form relative to human size. </li></ul>Ron Mueck
  19. 19. Degrees of Dimensionality <ul><li>Relief </li></ul><ul><li>Three-quarters </li></ul><ul><li>Freestanding </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul>
  20. 20. Materiality and Experientiality <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological/ Conceptual </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual </li></ul><ul><li>Performative and Interactive </li></ul>
  21. 21. Methods of Construction <ul><li>Additive (modeling, casting, assemblage, armature, gluing) </li></ul><ul><li>Subtractive (carving, cutting) </li></ul><ul><li>Modular </li></ul><ul><li>Designating </li></ul>Marcel Duchamp “Fountain”, 1917 Duchamp,”In Advance of a Broken Arm” Picasso
  22. 22. The Creative Process <ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Looking </li></ul><ul><li>Doing </li></ul><ul><li>repeat </li></ul>
  23. 23. Interpretation of 3D Works <ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with descriptive: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is/are the material/s? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What type of form? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What formal elements are used? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What organizing principles are used? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What degree of dimensionality? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the method of construction? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where is it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What type/s of experience? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does it interact with the space? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do you interact with it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does negative space operate? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where does sculpture end and space around it begin? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How is it displayed (pedestal, hanging, floating, propped, lying on floor, etc) ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How is gravity dealt with? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does gravity seem to work with piece or is the piece seemingly defying gravity? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Interpretation of 3D Works <ul><li>After considering the descriptive or denotative (what it is) aspects, then consider the connotative (what it means) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Peel back the layers” of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>All the descriptive or formal considerations contribute to a work’s meaning (esp. material, context, form) </li></ul><ul><li>What associations can be made? (what does it remind you of?) If none, then it is self-referential, the form or material is the content. Some associations are unintended by the maker. </li></ul><ul><li>Is an element “foregrounded”? Does it stick out? (ex. a color, a texture, a material) </li></ul><ul><li>Who made it? When? Where? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the title? </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning is fluid and transitory! </li></ul>
  25. 25. Material and Meaning Damien Hirst Robert Lazzarini
  26. 26. Material and Meaning Marc Quinn
  27. 27. Context and Meaning
  28. 28. Context and Meaning Jan Vormann “Dispatchwork (Tel Aviv)”