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Automobile exhaust System

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Automobile exhaust System

  1. 1. SYNOPSIS PRESENTATION On STUDY OF AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST SYSTEM Project coordinator MR. Dinesh Dubey Asst. Prof. (mech) GROUP MEMBERS MAYANK JAGGI AAQIB JAVED ALANKRIT VERMA KARAN THINDH
  2. 2. Introduction • Exhaust gas or flue gases is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as petrol, diesel or fuel oil. • A car's exhaust system is responsible for transporting the burned exhaust, or combustion gases, from its engine and out through the tail pipe. • An exhaust system is usually tubing used to guide reaction exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine . The entire system conveys burnt gases from the engine and includes one or more exhaust pipes, depending on the overall system design.
  3. 3. Components of exhaust system The exhaust system may essentially consist of the following components: • Exhaust Manifold • Exhaust Pipes • Catalytic Converter • Muffler • The Tail Pipe
  4. 4. Components
  5. 5. Exhaust Manifold An Exhaust Manifold is the upper end of the exhaust system. • It is attached directly to the side of the engine and is the first part of the exhaust system to receive the burned exhaust gases from the car's engine. • The exhaust manifold burns any fuel that was inadequately burned by the engine and funnels it down into the main exhaust system. • Due to high temperatures, Excellent oxidation resistance, High-temperature strength, Thermal fatigue properties are required.
  6. 6. Exhaust Pipes • The exhaust pipes are responsible for transporting the burned exhaust gases from the engine and the exhaust manifold and funneling them towards the car's tailpipe. • It can be metal or aluminum. • The pipes are used to create an effectively sealed pathway.
  7. 7. TYPES OF PIPES There are basically two types: ■ Regular pipe ■ Flexible pipe Regular exhaust pipe is solid, typically available in straight lengths, bent configurations and elbows. Flexible exhaust pipe is flexible enough to bend with road conditions and accommodate thermal expansion of the system. The exhaust system may be sealed by welding joints or using exhaust clamps as a simple, effective way to seal overlapping pipes.
  8. 8. Catalytic Converter  A catalytic converter is a device that uses a catalyst to convert three harmful compounds in car exhaust into harmless compounds. • Hydrocarbons - in the form of unburned gasoline. • Carbon monoxide -formed by the combustion of gasoline. • Nitrogen oxides - created when the heat in the engine forces nitrogen in the air to combine with oxygen .
  9. 9. Different Catalysts  There are two different types of catalyst at work • Reduction Catalyst - first stage It uses platinum and rhodium to help reduce the NOx emissions. Example 2NO => N2 + O2 or 2NO2 => N2 + 2O2 • Oxidation Catalyst -second stage It uses platinum and palladium to help reduce the unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide by burning (oxidizing) them. Example 2CO + O2 => 2CO2
  10. 10. Pollutants from Car Exhaust • CO — carbon monoxide. The main source of CO in cities is the internal combustion engine, where it is produced by incomplete combustion. • CO2 — carbon dioxide. The internal combustion engine contributes to the increased concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere. • NOx — nitrogen oxide forms when fuels are burned at high temperatures. • HC — hydrocarbons. Much of the hydrocarbon fuel passes through the process unconsumed and is expelled into the atmosphere along with other exhaust fumes. • Other pollutants such as C6H6 — Benzene and its derivatives and • SO2 — sulphur dioxide are also present
  11. 11. Muffler • A muffler or silencer is a device for reducing  the amount of noise emitted by  the exhaust of an internal combustion  engine. • The main muffler absorbs the noise of the  exhaust gas and is composed of an outer  shell, inner plates, inner pipes, end plates  and other components. • It contains a deceptively simple set of tubes  that are finely tuned to reflect the sound  waves produced by an engine so that they  cancel each other out.
  12. 12. Designs of muffler • Vector Muffler - for larger diesel trucks, uses many concentric  cones. • Spiral Baffle Muffler - for regular cars, uses a spiral-shaped  baffle system.
  13. 13. TAIL PIPE • The tail pipe is end of  the final length of  exhaust pipe which  ends with just a straight  or angled cut where it  vents to open air.
  14. 14. Importance of exhaust system The exhaust system has three major functions: • To channel out the waste products of combustion out of the engine. • To reduce the noise generated by the engine. • To clean up the emissions that are harmful to the environment. • To reduce the pollution and to increase the efficiency of the engine. 
  15. 15. REFERENCES 1) “Multi objective Design Optimization of merging configuration of an exhaust manifold of a car engine” by Masahiro kanazaki et al. 2) “Market Delivery of ultra-low carbon vehicles in UK” by Ben Lane. 3) “Low carbon cars by reducing dissipation in hydrogen hybrids” by Kevin Kendall et al. 4)“Present and Future Trends of Stainless Steel for AutomotiveExhaust System” by Yoshiharu INOUE and Masao KIKUCHI submitted in July 2003 5) Automobile engineering by Robert Siegel 2. John R. Howell
  16. 16. Thank You

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