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Digital Media Sectors & Audiences


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Digital Media Sectors & Audiences

  1. 1. Kmccabe2014  @mediaradarguru   BTEC  Level  2:  DIGITAL  MEDIA  SECTORS  &  AUDIENCES   Glossary  of  Terms         Term   Meaning   Example  or  Explanation   Sectors     Different  industries  of  the  Media  which  produce   different  forms  of  Media  texts   Film  Sector,  Television,  Print  Publishing  etc.   Synergy     The  co-­‐promotion  of  a  media  text  by  two  or  more   texts/companies   Despicable  Me  &  Pharrell  Williams  ‘Happy’   co  promoting  each  other     Cross-­‐media     A  text  which  has  a  presence  across  media  sectors     Hobbit  Film,  PC  Game,  Fan  Magazine,   Original  Soundtrack,  Mobile  app.   Analogue     Media  products  which  are  usually  in  a  physical   form   Print  newspaper,  Old  Video  cassettes,  Vinyl   records,  old  television  broadcasts   Digital     Media  products  which  are  in  a  digital/virtual  form   Digital  photographs,  Websites,   Online/streamed  television,  downloads   etc.   Platform     The  means  by  which  a  media  product  distributed   to  audiences     Text     A  media  product   Heat  magazine,  Eastenders,  CoD,  Trailer  for   Hobbit,  Ed  Sheeran  Music  Video  etc.   Multi-­‐media  product   A  product  which  includes  several  media   technologies   Youtube  video  containing  sound,  moving   image,  text  etc.   Process:   Pre-­‐production   Production   Post-­‐Production   Distribution  &   Exhibition       The  planning  stage   Creating  and  producing  the  text     Editing  and  finishing  the  product   Giving  the  product  to  others  to  sell   Showing  audiences  the  product     Scripting,  Sketching,  brainstorming   Filming,  recording,  coding,  photographing   Adding  sound,  CGI,  Titles,  Anchorage   Making  available  for  download   Screening  in  cinema,  Broadcast  on  TV   Devices     Tools/technology  used  to  access  media   Smartphone,  Laptop,  PC,  Tablet,  Game   Console,  Digital  Radio  etc.     Technological   Convergence   The  coming  together  of  different  media   technology  in  a  single  device/media  text     Laptop  to  access  messages,  internet,  DVD   etc.  Youtube  to  access  Moving  Image/   Music  on  Internet   Impact  of  Digital   Technology:   Immediacy   Convenience   Portability   Connectivity   Personalisation   Interactivity       Speed,  instant  messaging,  local  &  global   Free  content  on  internet,  on-­‐demand   Hand  held  devices,  flexible,  always  connected   Globally  connected,  digital  groups,  social  network   Avatars,  backgrounds,  fonts,  playlists  etc.   Game-­‐play,  user-­‐generated  content,  red  button   tv,  following  links  etc.       Twitter  for  breaking  news   Web  content  of  magazine,  Netflix  for  Film     IPhone,  iPad,     Fans  Forums  and  Blogs,  Internet  groups   Facebook  profile  pic,  cover  photo  etc,   Youtube,  Minecraft,  BBC1  red  button   Individual  Audiences   Solo  Enjoyment   Engages  with  the  digital  media  alone   Privacy,  control,  convenience   Gamer,  web  browsing,  On  Demand     Group  Audiences  –   Collective  Enjoyment   Shares  the  media  experience  with  others   Interaction,  competition,  belonging   Cinema,  instant  messenger,  gamer    
  2. 2. Kmccabe2014  @mediaradarguru       Primary  Audience     The  target  audience  the  media  text  was  created   for       Males  aged  18yrs  +  playing  Call  of  Duty   Secondary  Audience     The  unexpected  or  additional  audience   Teenagers    watching  children’s  movies   Despicable  Me,  Frozen        Passive  Audience     Audience  who  do  not  interact  with  the  media  in   any  way  –  producing  content,  commenting  etc.   Television  viewing,  Print  magazines,   Film    etc   Active  Audience     Audience  who  do  interact  with  the  media   through  contribution,  viewing  control,  comment   Youtube  comment,  Web  browsing,     Active  audience   Theory     Uses  &  Gratifications  Theory  -­‐  A  theory  that   argues  that  audiences  actively  use  media  for  4   main  different  purposes  –  information,   interaction,  identity,  entertainment   Disadvantage     We  do  not  always  know  why  we  consume  media   We  may  not  always  have  choice  over  the  media   we  consume   News  programmes  –  information   I’m  a  Celebrity  –  Entertainment   Who  wants…  millionaire  –  interaction   Facebook  -­‐  identity   Passive  Audience   Theory     Hypodermic  Needle  Theory  -­‐  A  theory  that  argues   that  audiences  passively  absorb  media  and   accept  the  content.   Disadvantage   Theory  suggests  audience  have  no  power  or   control   Only  some  people  respond  to  what  they  see/hear     Playing  violent  games  makes  you  become   more  violent   Learn  the  difference  between  Active  Audience/Passive  Audience  &  Active/   Passive  Audience  Theory:  eg.  A  Passive  audience  (watching    Eastenders)  can  be   analysed  using  Active  Audience  Theory  (Uses  and  Gratifications  –  people  use  the   text  to  be  entertained)   onsumer  generated   Content     Content  which  the  audience  produce  by  themselves   Advantage:  cheap,  original,  instant,  access  to  events   Disadvantage:  Lower  quality,  truthful?,  opinion  led   Blogs,  Facebook,  youtube  etc.   Regulatory  Bodies   BBFC   ASA   PEGI   OFCOM   Organisations  who  control  &  censor  media  content   British  Board  of  Film  Classification   Advertising  Standards  Authority   Pan  European  Games  Information   Office  for  Communications     Age  ratings  eg.  15,  18   Advert  complaints     Age  Ratings  eg.  3+   Television  &  Radio  Complaints   Primary  Research   Primary  Research   methods   Research  which  you  carry  out  yourself   The  tools  you  use  to  carry  out  primary  research     Questionnaire,  Interview,  Focus   Group   Secondary  Research   Secondary  Research   methods   Research  which  has  been  collected  &  carried  out  by   someone  else.   The  tools  used  to  carry  out  this  research   Web  searches,  library  research   Qualitative  research     Research  and  data  which  gives  information  about   people’s  feelings  and  emotions   What  kind  of  films  do  you  like   watching?  Horror   Quantitative    research   Research  and  data  which  gives  information  about   number,  facts  and  statistics     How  many  times  do  you  go  to  the   cinema  per  month?  2  
  3. 3. Kmccabe2014  @mediaradarguru   Objective     Questions  or  research  which  has  no  bias  and  is  open   to  any  conclusions   Rate  this  advert  out  of  5   Subjective     Questions  or  research  which  has  a  bias  and  tries  to   promote  a  particular  opinion   What  do  you  like  about  my  advert?   Valid  &  reliable     Research  which  is  a  ‘Fair’  test  –  which  has  asked  a   good  number  of  people,  using  the  right  tools  etc   Asking  people  who  are  not  just  your   friends,  asking  questions  which  are   not  subjective  etc.   Audience  profiling   Purpose  of  Audience   Profiling   Gathering  information  about  the  age,  gender,   occupation  of  the  audience   To  successfully  aim  your  product  at  the  audience   Females  aged  14-­‐16     Consumer  behaviour     The  habits  of  the  audience  in  terms  of  genre   preference,  platform  preference  etc.   ‘I  like  to  watch  action  film’   ‘I  usually  watch  on  my  laptop’      Codes/Signs     Elements  that  are  used  to  create  meaning  for   audiences   Dark  lighting,  scary  music,  sound   effects  etc.  create  suspense  &  horror   Denotation     The  literal  meaning  of  a  code/sign   An  apple  is  a  piece  of  fruit   Connotation     The  suggested  or  symbolic  meaning  of  a   code/sign   An  apple  symbolises  health  and  well   being   Colour   Perhaps  the  most  symbolic  code  used  to  target   audiences  &  create  (stereotypical)  meaning   Pastels  –  girls,  nature   Neons  -­‐  fun,  older  teenage,  energy  etc.   Mise-­‐en-­‐scene     Everything  in  the  frame  of  a  shot:  The  location,   the  organisation  of  elements  within  the  shot,  the   lighting,  props,  clothing,  weather  etc.   Romantic  comedy  scene:  bright   lighting,  professional  clothes,  city   background,  medium  shits  etc.   Framing/Shot  Size     The  organisation  of  the  shot  and  how  close  or  far   away  the  camera  is   Extreme  close-­‐up,  close-­‐up  for   emotion,  wide  shot  for  establishing  the   scene  etc.   Angle     The  position  of  the  camera  in  terms  of  height,   balance   High  angle,  low,  birds  eye,  titled  etc   Lighting     Use  of  lighting  and  lighting  effects  to   communicate  meaning   Low  –  mysterious/  tense,  Natural  –   warm/bright,     Editing     The  way  the  production  material  has  been  put   together  to  create  meaning  for  the  audience   Long  slow  editing  to  build  tension  in   horror  films,  quick  cut  edits  (shots   lasting  1-­‐2  seconds)  to  show  energy,   chaos,  frantic  events  at  moments  when   bad  things  are  happening   Sound     Diegetic  sound  –within  the  action   Non-­‐diegetic  sound  –  added  on  to  the  action   The  radio  in  the  background,  a  cough   Soundtrack,  voiceover,  sound  effects   Representation     The  way  a  person  or  group  is  presented  to  the   audience    –  includes  stereotypes  &  exaggerations   of  characters:  how  media  shows  a  group  rather   than  how  they  actually  are.  People  are   represented  through  their  clothes,  body   language,  colours  used,  facial  expression  etc   Girls  –  like  pink,  like  make-­‐up,  feminine   Teenagers  –  hoodies,  asbo,  gangs   Rock  –  black,  grungy,  scruffy,  anarchy     Businessman  –  smart,  competitive,     Women  –  beautiful,  slim,       Genre     A  ‘group’  of  media  texts  which  are  of  a  similar   type  or  category   Horror,  rom  com,  action,  pop,  indie,   reality  tv,  soap,  news  etc   Narrative     Narrative  structure   The  organisation  of  the  story  presented  to  the   audience     Equilibrium,  Disequilibrium,  New  Equilibrium   Happy  beginning,  problem  occurs,  problem   solved  for  a  happy  ending.  Images  can  show  a   stage  of  the  narrative  structure  –  Advert  can   show  happy  ‘girl’  after  buying  product  –  new   equilibrium:  problem  solved  by  buying  product.