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Google Earth Engine: Health Applications of Google’s Cloud Platform for Big Earth Data

Presented by Allison Lieber, Program Manager for Google Earth Outreach with Google, at the the 2017 GIS Working Group Annual Meeting.

Google Earth Engine: Health Applications of Google’s Cloud Platform for Big Earth Data

  1. 1. Confidential + Proprietary Google Earth Engine: Cloud- based Geospatial Data Analysis for Everyone Allie Lieber, Google allieber@google.com
  2. 2. EARTH OUTREACH We work with nonprofits, indigenous groups, educators, scientists, and journalists to foster the use of Geo tools to address the world’s most pressing problems. Build Geo knowledge in the international community A Trainer Network An annual Geo For Good User Summit Create lighthouse examples Tackle a huge issue at Google scale Premium Geo products (Maps API) to qualified orgs Scale presence to the globe Training & Knowledge High-profile partner projects Software Grants Online Resources
  3. 3. Google Earth Earth Engine My Maps Tour Builder Street View Fusion Tables Open Data Kit Google Maps API THE TOOLS
  4. 4. HEALTH Collecting georeferenced data on-the-ground through surveillance activities and resource deployment Communicating health information and summary statistics to policy and funding decision makers Analyze climate and environmental information along with disease data. Teaching, planning, ... Mobile Data Collection Visualizations Analysis Others?
  5. 5. SOLUTIONS DEPEND ON Epidemiology Entymology Infectious, noncommunicable Vaccines IRS Sources HTC Burden of disease Healthcare system Capacity Funding Disease Intervention Context
  6. 6. Where are the highest priority location for interventions?
  7. 7. Disease Risk Mapping Framework Ostfeld et al 2005, TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution Vol.20 No.6
  8. 8. * Environment Climate Population Infrastructure Disease Data Analysis & Modeling Decisions
  9. 9. Swaziland National Malaria Control Program/ UCSF Global Health Group Automated Malaria Risk Mapping
  10. 10. 5/3/16
  11. 11. 6/7/15 DiSARM malaria
  12. 12. DiSARM malaria
  13. 13. 5/3/16DiSARM malaria
  14. 14. www.disarm.io
  15. 15. Google Earth Visualizations
  16. 16. 2013: Global Landsat Forest Extent and Change, 2000–2012
  17. 17. Source: NASA
  18. 18. “Often it turns out to be more efficient to move the questions than to move the data.” - Jim Gray The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery
  19. 19. > 200 public datasets MODIS Daily, LST, NDVI ... Terrain SRTM, GTOPO, NED, ... Atmospheric CHIRPS, NOAA, ... Land Cover GlobCover, NLCD, ... The Earth Engine Public Data Catalog > 4000 new images every day > 5 million images > 5 petabytes of data Landsat 4, 5, 7, 8 Raw, TOA, SR, ... … and population (world pop & GPWv4?) ... and many more, updating daily!
  20. 20. CENSUS, ~20 million road segments
  21. 21. Import your own raster & vector datasets
  22. 22. Request datasets
  23. 23. The Economist
  24. 24. Malaria Collaborations with: World Health Organization, Ministries of Health in Africa, PMI USAID
  25. 25. Schistosomiasis Collaboration with: World Health Organization, Ministries of Health in Africa,
  26. 26. Schistosomiasis(a) (d)(c) (b) Predicted snail habitat suitability for two snail species in Ndumo area of uMkhanyakude district, South Africa (a) Bulinus globosus in winter (b) Biomphalaria pfeifferi in winter (c) Bulinus globosus in spring (d) Bulinus globosus in autumn (Manyangadze et al., 2016)
  27. 27. Leishmaniasis Collaborations with: Médecins Sans Frontières, South Sudan
  28. 28. Leishmaniasis Collaborations with: Médecins Sans Frontières, South Sudan
  29. 29. Trypanosomiasis Collaborations with: World Health Organization, Nelson Mandela University Masai village in Tanzania affected by trypanosomiasis John Hargrove providing expertise on tsetse fly
  30. 30. Monitoring Tsetse Habitats for Targeting Controls
  31. 31. Dengue
  32. 32. Explore Earth Engine
  33. 33. The Earth Engine Data Catalog code.earthengine.google.com/datasets
  34. 34. Data Catalog | CHIRPS
  35. 35. CHIRPS | What is it? ● U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in order to deliver reliable, up to date, and more complete datasets for a number of early warning objectives. ● Spans 50°S-50°N (and all longitudes) ● Started in 1981 to Feb 2016 ● Incorporates 0.05° resolution satellite imagery with in-situ station data to create gridded rainfall time series for trend analysis and seasonal drought monitoring. ● Learn more: chg.geog.ucsb.edu/data/chirps/
  36. 36. Precipitation for Africa CHIRPS (FEWS Net) daily data set from 1981 to present at 5km spatial resolution
  37. 37. CHIRPS | Background Developed for ● Assessing precipitation at national, regional and local scale ● Evaluating the seasonality of precipitation ● Identifying regions where precipitation have increased or decreased (precipitation anomalies) Not for ● Predicting precipitation in the coming season/year ● Investigating disasters caused by factors other than the distribution of precipitation.
  38. 38. Let’s view it in the code editor code.earthengine.google.com
  39. 39. The Earth Engine Code Editor Your Scripts & Example Scripts API Docs Your Assets Search Your Code Data Inspector Batch Tasks Output Console Drawing Tools Output Map code.earthengine.google.com
  40. 40. Load and Filter CHIRPS Data ● Search “chirps” and hover over the result “CHIRPS: Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (version 2.0 final)” ● Click “import >>”
  41. 41. Name your variable ● Rename the variable chirps
  42. 42. Inspect it
  43. 43. CHIRPS | Inspecting ● What is the spatial scale? ● What is the temporal cadence / sampling period? ● How many bands? ● Where can you find out more?
  44. 44. Filter and Map CHIRPS Data Filter chirps ImageCollection to only the 2016 calendar year //Load and filter chirps data var chirpsYear = chirps.filterDate(‘2016-01-01’, ‘2016-12-31’); //Add it to the map, labeled chirpsYear Map.addLayer(chirpsYear, {}, ‘chirpsYear’); This is called camelCase
  45. 45. Use “Inspector” tab to Inspect Image Data
  46. 46. CHIRPS | Visualizations
  47. 47. Temperature ● Air Temperature ● Land Temperature ● Daytime ● Nighttime
  48. 48. MODIS Land Surface Temperature | Background ● The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is an instrument carried by NASA’s Aqua and Terra satellites. ● It captures images of Earth’s surface in 1-2 day intervals in 36 spectral bands. ● The spatial resolution is 1000m, and the data extends from March 5, 2000 to the present. ● MODIS images can be used to analyze land surface changes over time, including land surface temperature. Limitations: The Terra and Aqua satellites were launched in 1999 and 2002, respectively. Therefore, the tool can only be used for analyzing temperature data from March 5, 2000 to the present, with about a month delay between satellite imaging and availability of data. It cannot be used for future temperature
  49. 49. Time of overpass for Aqua 0 to 2 am 2.30 to 6 am
  50. 50. Time of overpass for Terra 2 to 4 am 4 to 6 am 1 to 6 am
  51. 51. Temperature | Inspecting ● Select “000 Inspecting Temperature” ● Hit “Run” ● Use the inspector ● Change visualizations parameters on the two layers
  52. 52. Vegetation | NDVI NDVI = Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ● NIR channel: Cell walls reflect NIR → high reflectance values = high quantity of biomass ● Red channel: Chlorophyll absorbs Red (photosynthesis) → lower Red reflectance and greener vegetation Normalize the difference (NIR - Red) between them to determine NDVI
  53. 53. Confidential + Proprietary NDVI = 0.1 NDVI = 0.1
  54. 54. Confidential + Proprietary NDVI = (Near Infrared - Red) (Near Infrared + Red)
  55. 55. NDVI | Isoline
  56. 56. NDVI | Tropical Forest High NIR reflectance Low Red reflectance
  57. 57. Less chlorophyll Higher Biomass NDVI | .1 could be sparse veg or bright soil
  58. 58. Other examples
  59. 59. Population
  60. 60. Global Accessibility Map (under review)
  61. 61. Image credit: New York Times
  62. 62. Image of JRC water map Find locations of Iran and Himalayans
  63. 63. Image of JRC water map Find locations of Iran and Himalayans
  64. 64. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425715001637
  65. 65. Confidential + Proprietary earthengine.google.com/signup Thank you! allieber@google.com

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