Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Branchial Remnants
Raymond G Buick
Paediatric Surgeon
Birmingham UK
December 2008
Branchial Remnants
• First Branchial Cleft Cysts
• Type I
– Ectodermal Duplication anomaly of the EAC with
squamous epithe...
Branchial Remnants
• First Branchial Cleft Cysts
• Type II
– Ectoderm and mesoderm components
– Anterior neck, superior to...
Branchial Remnants
preauricular
sinus
Preauricular sinus
• The External Ear forms from a
number of tubercles.
• Failure of normal fusion may
result in a congeni...
Preauricular pits
• Infected preauricular pit
• Preauricular abscess
Branchial Remnants
• SKIN TAGS
• These are most often benign, isolated minor anomalies,
• mostly unilateral but occasional...
Branchial Remnants
• SKIN TAGS
Cartilaginous Remnants
Branchial Remnants
• Second Branchial Cleft Cysts
• Most Common (90%) branchial anomaly
• Classical Branchial cysts & sinu...
Branchial Cyst
• At the fourth week of embryonic life, the development of 4
branchial (or pharyngeal) clefts results in 5 ...
Branchial Cyst
Branchial cleft cysts are congenital
epithelial cysts
Present on the lateral part of the
neck
Branchial Cyst
Branchial cleft cysts are congenital
epithelial cysts
Present on the lateral part of the
neck
Painless, flu...
Branchial Cyst
Branchial cleft cysts are congenital
epithelial cysts
Present on the lateral part of the
neck
Painless, flu...
Branchial Cyst
• A branchial cyst commonly presents as a solitary, painless
mass in the neck of a child or a young adult. ...
Branchial Cyst
• Most branchial cysts are asymptomatic. They may
become tender, enlarged, or inflamed, or they may
develop...
Branchial Remnants
• Second Branchial Cleft Cysts
Branchial
fistula
Branchial Fistula
orifice in
Tonsillar fossa
Branchial Cyst
• Treatment
• Surgical Excision
Antibiotics for infected lesions- excision
I & D may be needed initially
La...
Branchial Remnants
• THANKS TO
• www.adhb.govt.nz
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Branchial Remnants and Branchial Cyst

  • Login to see the comments

Branchial Remnants and Branchial Cyst

  1. 1. Branchial Remnants Raymond G Buick Paediatric Surgeon Birmingham UK December 2008
  2. 2. Branchial Remnants • First Branchial Cleft Cysts • Type I – Ectodermal Duplication anomaly of the EAC with squamous epithelium only. – Parallel to the EAC – Pretragal, post auricular – Connection with TM or Malleus>Incus – Surgical Excision
  3. 3. Branchial Remnants • First Branchial Cleft Cysts • Type II – Ectoderm and mesoderm components – Anterior neck, superior to hyoid bone. – Courses over the mandible and through the parotid in variable position to the Facial Nerve. – Terminates near the EAC bony-cartilaginous junction. – Surgical excision- superficial parotidectomy REFER TO ENT
  4. 4. Branchial Remnants preauricular sinus
  5. 5. Preauricular sinus • The External Ear forms from a number of tubercles. • Failure of normal fusion may result in a congenital sinus • Pinpoint opening • Maybe short symptomless tract • May lead to a ‘rabbit warren’ of intercommunicating cysts in front of the tragus • ? ENT
  6. 6. Preauricular pits • Infected preauricular pit • Preauricular abscess
  7. 7. Branchial Remnants • SKIN TAGS • These are most often benign, isolated minor anomalies, • mostly unilateral but occasionally bilaterally. • It is important however to examine the anatomic landmarks carefully. If the tags are associated with distortion of the pinna then it should trigger suspicion of associated pathology such as the possibility of hemifacial microsomia. • Tags may also be seen as part of multiple dysmorphic features of infants with chromosomal anomalies. • if isolated, no investigations are required and audiology referral is not necessary unless there are other risk factors, particularly a family history of hearing loss.
  8. 8. Branchial Remnants • SKIN TAGS
  9. 9. Cartilaginous Remnants
  10. 10. Branchial Remnants • Second Branchial Cleft Cysts • Most Common (90%) branchial anomaly • Classical Branchial cysts & sinuses
  11. 11. Branchial Cyst • At the fourth week of embryonic life, the development of 4 branchial (or pharyngeal) clefts results in 5 ridges known as the branchial (or pharyngeal) arches, which contribute to the formation of various structures of the head, the neck, and the thorax. • The second arch grows caudally • Branchial cysts arise from failure of obliteration of the second branchial cleft in embryonic development.
  12. 12. Branchial Cyst Branchial cleft cysts are congenital epithelial cysts Present on the lateral part of the neck
  13. 13. Branchial Cyst Branchial cleft cysts are congenital epithelial cysts Present on the lateral part of the neck Painless, fluctuant mass in anterior triangle often behind SCM muscle
  14. 14. Branchial Cyst Branchial cleft cysts are congenital epithelial cysts Present on the lateral part of the neck Painless, fluctuant mass in anterior triangle often behind SCM muscle Sinus / fistula on anterior border of SCM at junction of middle and lower 1/3 Often VERY tiny Sinus or fistula Sinus or fistula
  15. 15. Branchial Cyst • A branchial cyst commonly presents as a solitary, painless mass in the neck of a child or a young adult. A history of intermittent swelling and tenderness of the lesion during upper respiratory tract infection may exist. Discharge may be reported if the lesion is associated with a sinus / fistulus tract. • In some instances, patients may present with locally compressive symptoms. • A family history may be present.
  16. 16. Branchial Cyst • Most branchial cysts are asymptomatic. They may become tender, enlarged, or inflamed, or they may develop abscesses, especially during periods of upper respiratory tract infection, due to the lymphoid tissue located beneath the epithelium. • Spontaneous rupture of an abscessed branchial cleft cyst may result in a purulent draining sinus to the skin or the pharynx.
  17. 17. Branchial Remnants • Second Branchial Cleft Cysts Branchial fistula Branchial Fistula orifice in Tonsillar fossa
  18. 18. Branchial Cyst • Treatment • Surgical Excision Antibiotics for infected lesions- excision I & D may be needed initially Ladder incision may be needed deep to platysma, lateral to IX, X, XII, between the internal and external carotid terminate in the tonsillar fossa
  19. 19. Branchial Remnants • THANKS TO • www.adhb.govt.nz

×