Risk Factors and Preventive
Measures of Congestive Heart
Failure and Aortic Stenosis
Incidence of congestive heart failure in the UK in 2011. (1, p.67)
Numbers indicate incidence per 100,000 persons.
Note that data has been processed from separate male and female incidences given in
Remember that this is incidence and not prevalence.
Risk factors for congestive heart failure (2)
Risk Factor Relative Risk Risk For Aortic Stenosis
_______________ seems to reduce risk for ________ and makes no difference for ____ .
Risk also increases greatly with age.
Prevention of congestive heart failure and aortic stenosis (3, p.714)
1.! British Heart Foundation Health Promotion Research Group. Coronary Heart
Disease Statistics 2012: British Heart Foundation; 2012. Available from: http://
www.bhf.org.uk/publications/view-publication.aspx?ps=1002097 [Accessed 9 Feb
2.! He J OL, Bazzano LA, Vupputuri S, Loria C, Whelton PK. Risk factors for
congestive heart failure in us men and women: Nhanes i epidemiologic follow-up
study. Archives of Internal Medicine [Online] 2001; 161(7):996-. Available from: doi:
10.1001/archinte.161.7.996 [Accessed 9 Feb 2013].
3.! Bunce NH. Cardiovascular Disease. In: Kumar PJ, Clark ML, ed. Kumar and Clark's
Clinical Medicine. 8 ed. Edinburgh: Saunders; 2012.