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Relaxation Training with Biofeedback in Virtual Reality discussion of wearability Fominykh iLRN 2017 slides

Paper presented at the 3rd Immersive Learning Research Network Conference on June 26-29 2017, Coimbra, Portugal.
Abstract. This paper describes a mobile learning app aimed to be used for relaxation training, primarily for adolescents suffering from tension-type headaches. Combining expertise from neuromedicine, psychology, and technology-enhanced learning, we have developed a concept and a working prototype for low-cost biofeedback training applications. The system uses virtual reality technology for delivering visual experience on both low-cost and advanced virtual reality glasses. A wirelessly connected wristband is used to measure user’s pulse and adjust the training scenario and the virtual environment based on the heart rate data. The app simulates an immersive environment of a tropical beach with several interactive visual and audio elements. The main goal of the simulation is to make the weather as calm as possible by reducing own heart rate. The progression through the scenario is guided by a therapist’s voice with some degree of self-exploration. Repeating the exercise would make the user able to go through the scenario without using the app, learn how to relax, and ultimately combat tension-type head-ache. The prototype is currently being evaluated in a feasibility study with a small group of participants that answer a questionnaire and interview questions after trying the app. The first evaluation results are presented in the pa-per. The results are discussed with a focus on wearability – suitable for wearing – of virtual reality glasses and of the wristband.

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Relaxation Training with Biofeedback in Virtual Reality discussion of wearability Fominykh iLRN 2017 slides

  1. 1. Mikhail Fominykh Independent researcher, Norway Ekaterina Prasolova-Førland Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway 28/06/2017 13RD IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK CONFERENCE – ILRN 2017 Relaxation Training with Biofeedback in Virtual Reality Discussion of Wearability
  2. 2. 28/06/2017 2RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY Team Mikhail Fominykh Independent developer / Molde University College, Norway mihail.fominyh@gmail.com / mikhail.fominykh@himolde.no Ekaterina Prasolova-Førland Department of Education and Lifelong Learning, NTNU, Norway ekaterip@ntnu.no Tore C. Stiles Department of Psychology, NTNU, Norway tore.stiles@ntnu.no Petter Chr. Borchgrevink Department of circulation and medical imaging, NTNU, Norway petter.borchgrevink@ntnu.no Anne Berit Krogh Department of Public Health and Nursing, NTNU, Norway anne-berit.krogh@ntnu.no Mattias Linde Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, NTNU, Norway mattias.linde@ntnu.no
  3. 3. About Mikhail 328/06/2017 Researcher and project coordinator in workplace experience capturing for job seekers in welfare Project manager in workplace training with Augmented Reality and Wearables Associate professor and researcher in Emergency Management training Software developer in psychological treatment training Adjunct Professor and teacher in Virtual Reality RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  4. 4. More results
  5. 5. Pre-conference
  6. 6. About Ekaterina 628/06/2017 RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  7. 7. Relaxation Training
  8. 8. Virtual Reality and Biofeedback
  9. 9. Background
  10. 10. Background: Learning to Control Body Reactions – Psychological Treatment with Biofeedback 28/06/2017 10 Psychological treatments are designed to alter processes underlying or contributing to pain, distress, and/or disability (Eccleston et al. 2014). Biofeedback improves psychological treatments, allowing patients to learn how to voluntarily modify their bodily reactions through the feedback from their own physiological processes (Schwartz and Andrasik 2017). RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  11. 11. Background: Perception and Sensing – Virtual Reality and Wearable Technologies 28/06/2017 11 VR simulates spaces, objects, humans, and activities that can reproduce a precise image of the reality and simulate required settings (Steuer 1992). VR glasses is a type of WT devices that is worn on the head and has a display in front of the user’s eyes (Cakmakci and Rolland 2006; van Krevelen and Poelman 2010). Wireless body sensors perceive the user’s physical state. Capturing human’s psycho-physiological states using bio- signals and physiological phenomena is at the core of perceptual technologies (Stiefelhagen 2009). RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  12. 12. Building a Conceptual Framework
  13. 13. Pain coping mechanisms and therapeutic procedures for VR 28/06/2017 13 Distraction: drawing attention from the patient’s mental pain processing with immersive and interactive VR experiences, for example, SnowWorld for burn victims (Hoffman et al. 2011). RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY See photos and screenshots at https://www.hitl.washington.edu/projects/vrpain/
  14. 14. Pain coping mechanisms and therapeutic procedures for VR 28/06/2017 14 Relaxation: immersing users in relaxing simulated virtual situations and places, suitable for meditation and mindfulness, for example, Guided Meditation VR (https://guidedmeditationvr.com/). RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  15. 15. Pain coping mechanisms and therapeutic procedures for VR 28/06/2017 15 Illusion: manipulating sensory brain input (visual, haptic etc.) in order to manipulate experience of pain, for example, providing false visual feedback of head movements to people with neck pain alters onset of movement-evoked pain (Harvie et al. 2015). RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  16. 16. Pain coping mechanisms and therapeutic procedures for VR 28/06/2017 16 Visualization: controlling pain by manipulating a visual representation of pain experience (in 3D/VR), often with bio- or neurofeedback, for example: manipulating stereoscopic geometric shapes (with mouse), each of them corresponding to a certain type and intensity of pain. RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  17. 17. Pain coping mechanisms and therapeutic procedures for VR 28/06/2017 17 Physiotherapy: enhancing traditional training in a variety of physiotherapeutic situations with VR, for example, VR training for patients with neck injuries (Sarig Bahat et al.). RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  18. 18. VR features for pain coping and relief therapy 28/06/2017 18 User / Patient Embodiment Sense of presence and immersion Identity Virtual place Visual appearance Place structure and navigation Multisensory: sound, touch, movement Therapy artefacts Objects and interactions with objects Bio- and neurofeedback associated with objects RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  19. 19. Scenario features for pain coping and relief therapy 28/06/2017 19 Linear narrative Branching and levels Role playing Progression through tasks Inter-platform transitions RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  20. 20. Therapy goal/sub- goal (CBT) Pain coping mechanisms/ therapy procedures in VR VR elements Scenario elements Software/ hardware elements Guided imagery with biofeedback Relaxation Virtual place: visual appearance (such as beach, sunset, visual borders), multisensory (voice, music, sound of waves), interactive artifacts with biofeedback (waves), simple embodiment of the user (optional) Following simple narrative (the therapist’s voice), exploring environment (within one scene only in the pilot), progression depending on biofeedback values, transiting between platforms (PC-smartphone) PC, Android smartphone, VR glasses (Oculus Rift, Google Cardboard), biofeedback sensors (MioLink) 2028/06/2017 RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  21. 21. Design
  22. 22. User interfaces and technology platforms for pain coping and relief therapy 28/06/2017 22 Output Visualization devices (HMD, PC, smart phone) Sound devices (stereo, 3d sound) Input Biosensors (heart rate, EEG, skin conductivity) Body tracking (head movement, gestures, motion capture) Controls, haptic, treadmill RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  23. 23. 28/06/2017
  24. 24. 28/06/2017
  25. 25. Low heart rate
  26. 26. Increased heart rate
  27. 27. Evaluation results
  28. 28. Results: design and functionality 28/06/2017 28 Suggestion focus: VR features Visual appearance Bio- and neurofeedback associated with objects Suggestion focus: Scenario features Linear narrative Branching and levels Progression through tasks RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  29. 29. RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  30. 30. Results: relaxation and biofeedback 28/06/2017 30 Achieved Provides relaxation experience Suggestion focus VR feature Bio- and neurofeedback associated with objects is functioning, but not effective enough (e.g., it was difficult to spot the changes of the waves). Voice instructions functioned well if the changes in the heart rate were significant. Scenario features Linear narrative and Branching need to be better connected to the Progression through tasks. RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  31. 31. Results: Wearability 28/06/2017 32 Highlights Wearability or comfort of use are important (for some – most important) Issues in VR Wearing 3D glasses (esp. cardboard) is uncomfortable Adjusting 3D glasses takes time Wearing 3D glasses for a long time (10 min) is uncomfortable Peripheral vision cut off affects relaxation negatively Bending head lightly down during relaxation led to missing elements Issues in Real Reality Comfortable physical environment is as important for relaxation as VR RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  32. 32. Results: Wearability codes 28/06/2017 33RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  33. 33. Results: suggestion for future work 28/06/2017 34 Achieved Positive attitude towards the concept of therapeutic training with VR and biofeedback Suggestion focus Systematization of therapeutic training mechanisms Modular approach Other areas of therapeutic training (in addition to pain coping and relief) RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  34. 34. 28/06/2017 35RELAXATION TRAINING WITH BIOFEEDBACK IN VIRTUAL REALITY
  35. 35. 36 Q & A 28/06/2017 3RD IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK CONFERENCE – ILRN 2017
  36. 36. 3728/06/2017 3RD IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK CONFERENCE – ILRN 2017

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Paper presented at the 3rd Immersive Learning Research Network Conference on June 26-29 2017, Coimbra, Portugal. Abstract. This paper describes a mobile learning app aimed to be used for relaxation training, primarily for adolescents suffering from tension-type headaches. Combining expertise from neuromedicine, psychology, and technology-enhanced learning, we have developed a concept and a working prototype for low-cost biofeedback training applications. The system uses virtual reality technology for delivering visual experience on both low-cost and advanced virtual reality glasses. A wirelessly connected wristband is used to measure user’s pulse and adjust the training scenario and the virtual environment based on the heart rate data. The app simulates an immersive environment of a tropical beach with several interactive visual and audio elements. The main goal of the simulation is to make the weather as calm as possible by reducing own heart rate. The progression through the scenario is guided by a therapist’s voice with some degree of self-exploration. Repeating the exercise would make the user able to go through the scenario without using the app, learn how to relax, and ultimately combat tension-type head-ache. The prototype is currently being evaluated in a feasibility study with a small group of participants that answer a questionnaire and interview questions after trying the app. The first evaluation results are presented in the pa-per. The results are discussed with a focus on wearability – suitable for wearing – of virtual reality glasses and of the wristband.

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