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Architecture and avant garde (new)

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Architecture and avant garde (new)

  1. 1. Architecture and Avant-Garde Revision
  2. 2. Introduction • During the 20th century some avant-garde movements had their expression in architecture. • In general, these styles are influenced by the Bauhaus, and they are contemporary of it. • These avant-garde architectonical experienced are linked to – De Stijl or Neoplasticism (Netherlands) – Russian Constructivism.
  3. 3. De Stijl • Associated with three important figures: – the painters Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg, and – the architect and furniture-maker Gerrit Rietveld • De Stijl (or “the style”) was perhaps first developed in Mondrian’s post-Cubist paintings, which consist largely of broken horizontal and vertical lines. • These works evolved into more spare geometric compositions of orthogonal elements, which are rendered in primary colors set against a white field.
  4. 4. De Stijl • In 1917, Rietveld created the canonical “Red/Blue Chair” and projected the Neo-Plastic aesthetic into three dimensions. • Van Doesburg taught, for a time, at the Bauhaus, enabling him to widen the De Stijl circle to artists as the Russian El Lissitzky under whose influence, Van Doesberg began “to project, as axonometric drawings, a series of hypothetical architectural constructs • These buildings comprise an asymmetrical cluster of articulated planar elements suspended in space about a volumetric center.”
  5. 5. De Stijl architecture: Characteristics • The characteristics of this architecture were established by van Doesburg: – the form does not imitate any other style; – especial attention is given to plastic elements, in addition to function, mass, surface, time, space, light, colour and material; – it is an economic and functional architecture; – it does not have any form following fixed styles and the building is not monumental, but a form open to the space through windows; – the ground-plan is essential but in this the walls are not closed even if they support punctually the building;
  6. 6. De Stijl architecture: Characteristics – it is an open architecture in which space and time are considered; – it is anti-cubic and surfaces follow a centrifugal trend at the same time that symmetry and repetition are eliminated; – there is not a clear front in the building and colour is included as a plastic value but, in general, it is a non decorate architecture that aims to be a synthesis of the Neo-Plasticism – It uses the same primary colours that appear in Mondrian’s paintings
  7. 7. De Stijl • The universalizing tendency of the De Stijl soon gave way to the broader, more objective concerns of the Modern movement. • The project of De Stijl became, through necessity and evolution, a broader trajectory dedicated to social concerns and conditions. • The desire to create architecture for the people through means of production, rather than an architecture simply guided by aesthetic concerns, became a rallying cry of a broader European Modernism.
  8. 8. Russian Constructivism • Russian Constructivism was a movement that was active from 1913 to the 1940s. • It was created by the Russian avant-garde, but quickly spread to the rest of the continent. • Constructivist art is committed to complete abstraction with a devotion to modernity, where themes are often geometric, experimental and rarely emotional. • Objective forms carrying universal meaning were far more suitable to the movement than subjective or individualistic forms.
  9. 9. Russian Constructivism • Constructivist themes are also quite minimal, where the artwork is broken down to its most basic elements. • New media was often used in the creation of works, which helped to create a style of art that was orderly. • An art of order was desirable at the time because it was just after WWI that the movement arose, which suggested a need for understanding, unity and peace.
  10. 10. Russian Constructivism • Famous artists of the Constructivist movement include Vladimir Tatlin, Kasimir Malevich, Alexandra Exter, Robert Adams, and El Lissitzky. • Tatlin's most famous piece remains his "Monument to the Third International" (1919-20, Moscow), a 22- ft-high (6.7-m) iron frame on which rested a revolving cylinder, cube, and cone, all made of glass which was originally designed for massive scale.
  11. 11. Russian Constructivism • After the 1917 Revolution, Tatlin (considered the father of Russian Constructivism) worked for the new Soviet Education Commissariate which used artists and art to educate the public. • During this period, he developed an officially authorized art form which utilized 'real materials in real space'. • His project for a Monument of the Third International marked his first foray into architecture and became a symbol for Russian avant-garde architecture and International Modernism.
  12. 12. Tatlin: Third International Monument
  13. 13. Melnikov: Russian pavillion fot the 1925 Paris Universal Exhibition Pravda, Mosku
  14. 14. El Lisstzisky Melnikov