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Avant garde art after 1945 (Selectivity)

Revision materials with images including the authors suggested for Selectivity exam.

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Avant garde art after 1945 (Selectivity)

  1. 1. Avant-garde after 1945
  2. 2. Abstract expressionism • It developed between 1940 and 1960. • It was a movement after WWII. • After seeing the images and photographs of the war, artists decided to explore colour and forms. • American artists wanted to compete with the European ones and now the World Art Centre passed from Europe to the United States. • In the avant-gardes developing in the US there were many European refugees.
  3. 3. Abstract expressionism • Artists combined emotional intensity with the individualism of expressionists and created an art full of anti-figurative images. • They can be divided into two groups: – Action Painting and – Colour Field and Hard-Edge. • These movements found parallelism with other European movements.
  4. 4. Abstract expressionism • Action Painting term was used for the first time to refer to Jackson Pollock’s work. • This artist, the same as Franz Kline or Willem de Kooning, used his psyke as the dynamic energy of his works. • The canvas was considered as a field and painting was something irrational, instinctive, impulsive.
  5. 5. Abstract expressionism Pollock De Kooning Kline
  6. 6. Jackson Pollock • He made works of great format using the “dripping” technique. • In doing that kind of works, he was influenced by the surrealists.
  7. 7. Jackson Pollock • He used to put the canvas on the floor and with a brush he started dripping painting or, sometimes, he could throw the paint directly from the container. • The canvas was not in tension. • Huge formats required a great control of the work. Number 1
  8. 8. Jackson Pollock • These paintings required certain gestures and this is why it is considered that through dripping the artist represented his sensations and due to this the name given to this movement: abstract expressionism.
  9. 9. Jackson Pollock • After 1950 he changed his style to begin doing figuration in black and white in a virtuous way. • When he knew Peggy Guggenheim this was essential for his career. • He died in a car crash. Deepness Ocean Grayness
  10. 10. Colour Field and Hard Edge • At the beginning of the 60s there were two different trends in American abstraction. • Colour Field used big colourful surfaces, without any other element that could be distinguished by the eye. • Colour was used without perspective, giving the impression of enormity. • The shades of the colours dissolved on the canvas.
  11. 11. Colour Field and Hard Edge • Hard-Edge is the term coined to describe some works in which atmospheres of colour are reinforced. • The works have lines and limits well defined, to clarify the compositions. • The most representative artists of this movement are: – Rothko, – Barnet Newman, – Ellsworth Kelly, – Morris Louis, – Kenneth Nolan.
  12. 12. Colour Field and Hard Edge Rothko Barnet Newman
  13. 13. Colour Field and Hard Edge Ellsword Kelly Morris Louis Kenneth Nolan
  14. 14. Mark Rothko • American painter of Russian origins • Autodidact • At the beginning he did works connected with social realism • He received the influence of surrealism.
  15. 15. Mark Rothko • He based his inspiration in primitive religions. • His most representative works are abstract: big rectangles, without a clear definition, with a dark colour combined with a light or vivid one. The combination was made to provoke feelings. Number 10
  16. 16. Mark Rothko • The colour areas always have non defined contours and they are not cut on the canvas. • The main composition is horizontal as long as lines are concerned, and vertical in the orientation of the canvas.
  17. 17. Mark Rothko • In his works the horizon line does not appear and any reference to a landscape is completely eliminated. • The colour areas represent an atmosphere that is not in contact with reality and does not depict any space.
  18. 18. Mark Rothko • Lan ilunenetan ere argiaren kezka duela dirudi, bai era fisikoan zein sinbolikoan. • Irudia mundu traszendente batetara irekitzen den leiho bat da. • Argia goraipatzen du era kontenplatibo eta erreligioso batean.
  19. 19. Pop Art • It is a passive conception of social reality. • It does not represent the creation of the popular classes but their lack of creativity. • The beginnings of this movement can be found in the work of these authors: – Rauschenberg and – Jasper Johns, who are considered as neo-Dadaist. • Painting becomes again something that remains something else.
  20. 20. Pop Art Rauschenberg Jasper Johns Christo Oldenburg
  21. 21. Pop Art • The fact of taking a real thing and put it into a painting is a way of manipulating reality. • Being a urban art, images appear in the canvas as in jail, acquiring a phantasmagoria image. • These artists, the same as the Dadaist before, take elements from reality and they incorporate them into their works. • In their work we can find glued things and photos combined with painting.
  22. 22. Pop Art • The language is that of publicity: easy to be understood. • The most representative artist is Warhol and in addition to him the following artists: – Rosenquists, with elements of daily life; – Tom Wesselman, he incorporates other elements, creating installations; – Roy Lichtenstein, he represents the world as a comic; – Claes Oldenburg, huge sculptures of daily objects; – Christo, he wraps up buildings and natural elements.
  23. 23. Pop Art Lichtenstein Rosenquist Wesselman
  24. 24. Andy Warhol • He made of art a product of social mass consumption • He is not famous just because he portrayed myths but because his work became a myth for people.
  25. 25. Andy Warhol • He used techniques of industrial production. • He created “The Factory” in which actions, films and other ways of expression were organised. • Consumption things became the target of his work.
  26. 26. Andy Warhol • He understood people from the stardom at the same level as objects. • He created series of politicians and artists and he treated them in the same way.
  27. 27. Andy Warhol • He used serigraphy techniques. • He resourced to brilliant and fluorescent colours even when he was depicting dark scenes. • Many times repeated series with characters using them as things.
  28. 28. Minimalism • Minimalism appeared in art in the 1950s and it developed in the following two decades. • It is a term to describe painting and sculpture when there are characterised by their simplicity in both content and form, and they lack of any sign of personal expression. • Minimalism aims at the spectator feeling their work in an intense way, without distracters such as composition, theme or other similar elements.
  29. 29. Minimalism • Some of the works of Malevich and Duchamp of the 1920 are considered as minimalist. • The most famous artists of this movement are American: – Dan Flavin, – Carl Andre, – Ellsworth Kelly and – Donald Judd appeared against abstract expressionism with their canvases of particular shape, sculptures and installations.
  30. 30. Minimalism • Minimalism is also linked to other movements: – Conceptual art because when the work is finished is to create a theory, – Pop Art with its fascination for the impersonal – and Land Art which produces simple forms. • Minimalism was successful and influential in the 20th century. • Representative authors are: – Frank Stella eta – Ellsword Kelly .
  31. 31. Minimalism Judd Frank Stella Ellsworth Kelly
  32. 32. Donald Judd • He started as a painter to begin with low relieves in the 1960s and later to other kind of relieves. • Later he started doing elements to be put in the wall or on the floor being always geometrical elements, without any basis. • The first works were made of wood but them he started using metal and sometimes in colours.
  33. 33. Dan Flavin • He made sculptures of neon light. • His aim was to create atmospheres. • He provoked changes of visual perception.