ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS
B.Sc Nursing IV year
Arterial blood gases are an important routine
investigation to monitor the acid-base
imbalance of the patient. They may help to
make diagnosis ,indicate the severity of
condition and help to assess treatment. Blood
for ABG analysis can be obtained by arterial
puncture usually from radial and femoral
artery. Bicarbonate helps in maintaining blood
pH value. Kidney and lungs work in our body
as compensatory mechanism.
To determine the presence and
type of acid – base balance.
To check for severe breathing
problem and lungs diseases.
Assessment of the response to
the therapeutic intervention such
as mechanical ventilator.
• Antibiotic: Levofloxin
• Breath into a paper bag.
•Restrict oxygen intake into the lungs.
•To reassure the patient who is anxious.
• Treat the underlying causes.
•If intubated, reduce minute ventilation
by adjusting rate ,tidal volume.
• Liver failure
• Poisoning by aspirin and methanol
• Sever dehydration
A clean tray containing:
• Antiseptic solution
• Local anesthesia
• 0.5 ml sodium heparin( 1:1000)
• 2 – 3 ml syringe with 20, 23 and 25
• Paper bag
Preparation of client
To record the temperature of the client.
Record inspired oxygen concentration
of the client.
Heparnised the syringe to prevent
To reduce anxiety of the client.
Wash hands and wear gloves.
Place pillow under the patient’s wrist.
Palpate the artery i.e radial, brachial or
femoral to be punctured.
Obliterate both radial and ulnar arteries at
wrist by pressing them with both thumbs.
Ask the patient to clench and unclench the
fist until blanching of skin occurs.
Release the pressure on the ulnar artery by
removing the thumb on it.
Watch for return of circulation to skin with
in 15 sec.
Palpate the radial artery for pulsation.
Puncture the artery at 45-60° angle.
The arterial blood rushes into the syringe
with a great force.
We should withdraw 2-3 ml of blood for
Once the sample has been taken, withdraw
the needle and apply firm pressure over the
site of puncture with dry sponge.
Remove the air bubble from syringe and
Capping the needle.
Place the capped syringe into an ice
Maintain firm pressure on puncture site for
If patient is on anticoagulants use the high pressure
Send the collected sample to the
Assess for cold hands or
Change the ventilator settings.
Complication of ABG
Infection at puncture site
Blood accumulating under skin
Thrombus in artery
Numbness of hand
Contraindication of ABG
Infection at insertion site
Abnormal modified Allen’s test
Use of thrombolytic agent