Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Arterial Blood Gas Analysis

ABG Analysis

  • Be the first to comment

Arterial Blood Gas Analysis

  1. 1. ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS B.Sc Nursing IV year Group V
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Arterial blood gases are an important routine investigation to monitor the acid-base imbalance of the patient. They may help to make diagnosis ,indicate the severity of condition and help to assess treatment. Blood for ABG analysis can be obtained by arterial puncture usually from radial and femoral artery. Bicarbonate helps in maintaining blood pH value. Kidney and lungs work in our body as compensatory mechanism.
  3. 3. PURPOSE To determine the presence and type of acid – base balance. To check for severe breathing problem and lungs diseases. Assessment of the response to the therapeutic intervention such as mechanical ventilator.
  4. 4. INDICATION Respiratory failure Ventilated patient Cardiac failure Renal failure Sepsis and Burn Poisoning
  5. 5. Types of Acid-Base Imbalance Respiratory Acidosis Respiratory Alkalosis Metabolic Acidosis Metabolic Alkalosis
  6. 6. Causes of Respiratory Acidosis Hypoventilation Neuromuscular Weakness (Gullian Barre Syndrome) Obesity Asthma
  7. 7. Clinical Manifestation Muscular Weakness Tachypnea Blurred Vision Confusion Memory loss Restlessness
  8. 8. Management  Pharmacological:- • Opoid Antagonist:- Nalaxone • β2 Antagonist:- Formoterol, Albuterol • Anticholinergic:- Ipratropium bromide • Corticosteroids:Prednisone,Prednisolone
  9. 9. Non pharmacological:- • Dialysis:- To clear the toxin from blood. • Oxygen Therapy:- To minimize the chance of hypoxemia. • Ventilator Support:- To subside the respiratory problem.
  10. 10. Causes Hyperventilation Fluid loss Liver disease Alteration in gas exchange Pneumonia Stress
  11. 11. Clinical Manifestation Palpitation Tetany (muscle spasm) Convulsion Paralysis Chest pain
  12. 12. Management Pharmacological:- • Antibiotic: Levofloxin •Antipyretic: Acetaminophen •Anxiolytic: Benzodiazapam  Non-pharmacological:- • Breath into a paper bag. •Restrict oxygen intake into the lungs.
  13. 13. •To reassure the patient who is anxious. • Treat the underlying causes. •If intubated, reduce minute ventilation by adjusting rate ,tidal volume.
  14. 14. Causes • Alcohol • Cancer • Diarrhea • Liver failure • Poisoning by aspirin and methanol • Sever dehydration • Seizure
  15. 15. Clinical Manifestation  Diarrhea  Chest pain  Rapid breathing  Hypotension  Arrhythmia  Joint pain
  16. 16. Management  Pharmacological:- • Ringer lactate • Diuretics • Administer bicarbonates  Non-pharmacological:- • To provide IV fluid. • Stop drinking alcohol. • To provide plenty of fluid.
  17. 17. Causes • Alcohol abuse • Hyperaldesteron • Diarrhea and vomiting • High fever • Diuretic therapy • Cystic fibrosis
  18. 18. Clinical Manifestation Bradypnea( initial symptom)  Apnea go on 15 sec and longer  Decrease blood pressure  Rapid heart rate  Irritability  Cyanosis  Coma
  19. 19. Management  Pharmacological:- • Potassium sparing diuretics: Amiloride • Antipyretic:- Acetazolamide • Infuse HCL  Non-pharmacological:- • Dialysis • To check vital sign of the patient. • To provide antacid and laxative.
  20. 20. Nursing Management • Impaired gas exchange • Ineffective Breathing pattern • Ineffective tissue perfusion • Risk of infection at puncture site • Risk of injury
  21. 21. Procedure of Arterial Blood Gas analysis
  22. 22. Equipment Required  A clean tray containing: • Gloves • Antiseptic solution • Local anesthesia • 0.5 ml sodium heparin( 1:1000) • 2 – 3 ml syringe with 20, 23 and 25 gauze needle. • Paper bag
  23. 23. Preparation of client  To record the temperature of the client.  Record inspired oxygen concentration of the client.  Heparnised the syringe to prevent blood clotting.  To reduce anxiety of the client.  Allen’s test
  24. 24. Sample Collection  Wash hands and wear gloves.  Place pillow under the patient’s wrist.  Palpate the artery i.e radial, brachial or femoral to be punctured.  Obliterate both radial and ulnar arteries at wrist by pressing them with both thumbs.  Ask the patient to clench and unclench the fist until blanching of skin occurs.
  25. 25.  Release the pressure on the ulnar artery by removing the thumb on it.  Watch for return of circulation to skin with in 15 sec.  Palpate the radial artery for pulsation.  Puncture the artery at 45-60° angle.  The arterial blood rushes into the syringe with a great force.  We should withdraw 2-3 ml of blood for sample.
  26. 26.  Once the sample has been taken, withdraw the needle and apply firm pressure over the site of puncture with dry sponge.  Remove the air bubble from syringe and needle.  Capping the needle.  Place the capped syringe into an ice container.  Maintain firm pressure on puncture site for 5 min.  If patient is on anticoagulants use the high pressure dressing.
  27. 27. Follow-up  Send the collected sample to the laboratory immediately.  Assess for cold hands or numbness.  Change the ventilator settings.
  28. 28. Complication of ABG  Bleeding  Infection at puncture site  Blood accumulating under skin  Local pain  Thrombus in artery  Feeling faint Numbness of hand
  29. 29. Contraindication of ABG  Coagulopathy  Artherosclerosis  Infection at insertion site  Abnormal modified Allen’s test  Use of thrombolytic agent

    Be the first to comment

    Login to see the comments

  • AmithRaj27

    May. 8, 2021
  • ElakiyaElango2

    May. 19, 2021
  • AminahMA

    May. 24, 2021
  • BhanitaDas2

    May. 24, 2021
  • Bhumalavaidya

    May. 28, 2021
  • asherymatembele

    Jun. 1, 2021
  • SunkaraManohar

    Jun. 4, 2021
  • FarunKhan

    Jun. 10, 2021
  • RaghuReddy134

    Jun. 10, 2021
  • NarendhiraArjun1

    Jun. 11, 2021
  • AradhanaC1

    Jun. 22, 2021
  • JaiDaniel1

    Jun. 23, 2021
  • KavyaBV3

    Jun. 24, 2021
  • DhritirajTalukdar1

    Jun. 29, 2021
  • syedRuqaya

    Jun. 29, 2021
  • HashimWitto1

    Jul. 7, 2021
  • vincypretty

    Jul. 8, 2021
  • VijithaVijitha4

    Jul. 12, 2021
  • HerinaPatel

    Jul. 17, 2021
  • JitubhaiLadumor

    Jul. 24, 2021

ABG Analysis

Views

Total views

40,619

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

20

Actions

Downloads

665

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

85

×