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Treemonisha

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Opéra de Scott Joplin

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Treemonisha

  1. 1. Treemonisha<br />Théâtre du Châtelet<br />
  2. 2. Présentation<br />1er opéra noir américain composé par Scott Joplin en 1911, Treemonisha mêle le ragtime, black folk music et opérette européenne et aborde le thème, 40 ans avant Gandhi et 60 ans avant Martin Luther King, de l'importance de l'éducation pour les minorités, avec, en filigrane, l'extrémisme religieux, la non-violence et le pouvoir confié aux femmes.<br />
  3. 3. L’histoire<br />1884 - Arkansas. Treemonisha est une jeune fille noire trouvée abandonnée sous un arbre (tree) et recueillie par Monisha et Ted. Éduquée à la fois par ses parents adoptifs et par une enseignante de race blanche jusqu’à l’âge adulte, elle refuse les superstitions locales et se heurte aux charlatans Zodzetrick et Luddud, qui la kidnappent et essayent de la jeter dans un nid de guêpes. Elle sera sauvée par Remus, son prétendant, reviendra dans sa communauté, sera respectée et finira par éduquer les autres. <br />Treemonisha est une allégorie sur l'importance de l'éducation pour la minorité noire, et l’on est frappé par sa conclusion sur la place de la femme dans la société, qui semble très en avance sur son époque.<br />
  4. 4. Interview de Kazem Abdullah<br />
  5. 5. Après une longue période d’oubli, la musique de Scott Joplin (le «Roi du Ragtime») connut une renommée planétaire en 1973 grâce au film L’Arnaque (avec Paul Newman et Robert Redford). L’exhumation de cette partition devait beaucoup au travail de Vera Brodsky Lawrence, pianiste reconvertie dans l’édition musicale, qui publia en 1971 deux volumes d’œuvres de Joplin à la New York Public Library.La partition de Treemonisha avait, elle, refait surface dans les années 1960: le pianiste et compositeur William Bolcom, ayant eu une copie de la partition entre les mains, proposa à T. J. Anderson, professeur et compositeur afro-américain, de l’orchestrer (l’orchestration originale ayant disparu). Vera Brodsky Lawrence se joignit au projet et Treemonisha fut créé en version de concert à Atlanta en 1972.Trois ans plus tard, la création scénique de l’ouvrage était enfin donnée, soixante ans exactement après sa première et unique représentation privée en 1915 dans une petite salle de Harlem avec Joplin au piano. À cette occasion, le compositeur Gunther Schuller écrivit une nouvelle orchestration, qui est celle que l’on entendra ici. Présentée au Grand Opera de Houston en mai 1975, cette production fit sensation et donna lieu au premier enregistrement discographique de l’œuvre (notons que Willard White, le Ned du Châtelet, y interprétait déjà ce rôle). Quelques mois plus tard, le rêve de Joplin se réalisait: Treemonisha était monté à Broadway devant un public enthousiaste, et le prix Pulitzer fut décerné à titre posthume au compositeur pour cet ouvrage en 1976.Dans cet opéra, Treemonisha, la fille adoptive de Ned (gérant d’une plantation en Arkansas) et de Monisha, a bénéficié d’une instruction et lutte pour arracher son peuple à l’ignorance et auxsuperstitions entretenues par les sorciers Simon, Luddud et Zodzetrick. L’action se déroule en 1884 alors que Treemonisha est âgée de dix-huit ans, sa naissance se situant donc un an après la fin de la guerre de Sécession (1861-1865) qui aboutit à l’abolition de l’esclavage.L’histoire de cette jeune fille comporte de nombreuses similitudes avec le propre parcours de Joplin, né vers 1868 et qui reçut une éducation musicale classique grâce à la famille blanche, impressionnée par ses dons prodigieux, chez laquelle sa mère travaillait. Contrairement à son premier opéra, A Guest of Honor (1903), dont la partition a disparu, Treemonisha fut publié en 1911, et c’est ce qui permet d’entendre aujourd’hui cette œuvre attachante et étonnamment moderne que son auteur, mort en 1917, aurait tant voulu voir représentée.<br />
  6. 6. Scène finale<br />

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