Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Advance research methods


Published on

Advance Research Methods for Beginners

Published in: Education
  • Login to see the comments

Advance research methods

  2. 2. M.MICHELLE FINAL YEAR M.URP “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyse information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question. Q.NO-1 WHAT IS RESEARCH? Reference: Creswell, J. W. Educational Research, (2008). : Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson. Research comprises “creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” Reference: OECD ,Frascati Manual, (2002) : proposed standard practice for surveys on research and experimental development, (6th edition). Retrieved 29 July 2012 from “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.” Reference: Shuttleworth, Martyn “Definitions of Research”, (2008). Explorable . Retrieved 29 July 2012 from “Any honest attempt to study a problem systematically or to add to man’s knowledge of a problem” may be regarded as research. Reference: Theodorson and Theodorson 1969 cited in Reber 1995, p.663 Research is a systematic way of gathering data, a harnessing of curiosity, provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. Reference: J. Scott Armstrong and Tad Sperry “Business School Prestige: Research versus Teaching”, (1994). Energy & Environment 18 (2): 13–43. 1 2 3 4 5
  3. 3. M.MICHELLE FINAL YEAR M.URP Q.NO-2 DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESEARCH? • pre-experimental, • true experimental, and • quasi-experimental quantitative qualitative mixed methods descriptive experimental causal comparative case study ethnography study phenomenological study grounded theory study content analysis Reference: Carrie Williams , Journal of Business & Economic Research – March 2007 Volume 5, Number 3 ).: Research Methods , Grand Canyon University. TYPES OF RESEARCH From the viewpoint of Application Objectives Enquiry mode Quantitative research Exploratory research Pure research Applied research Correlational research Descriptive research Explanatory research Qualitative research Reference: Ranjit Kumar, Research methodology, a step-by-step guide for beginners – 3rd ,Sage publications Ltd.
  4. 4. M.MICHELLE FINAL YEAR M.URP Q.NO-3 WHAT IS RESEARCH PROCESS? 8 STEP MODELLING OF RESEARCH PROCESS PHASE I DECIDING WHAT TO RESEARCH PHASE II PLANNING A RESEARCH STUDY PHASE III CONDUCTING A RESEARCH STUDY Step I Formulating a research problem Step II Conceptualising a research design Step III Constructing an instrument for data collection Step IV Selecting a sample Step V Writing a research proposal Step VI Collecting data Step VII Processing and displaying data Step VIII Writing a research report Reference: Ranjit Kumar, Research methodology, a step-by-step guide for beginners – 3rd ,Sage publications Ltd. WHAT Research question to answer HOW To gather evidence to answer the research questions The required information COLLECTING
  5. 5. M.MICHELLE FINAL YEAR M.URP Reference: Ranjit Kumar, Research methodology, a step-by-step guide for beginners – 3rd ,Sage publications Ltd. Operational steps Required theoretical knowledge Required intermediary knowledge Consideration and steps in formulation of research problem Literature review Research design function Methods and tools of data collection Sampling theory and designs Methods of data processing. Use of computers and districts Principles of scientific writing Collecting data Processing data Writing a research proposal Selecting a sample Constructing an instrument for data collection Formulating a research problem Conceptualising a research design Study designs Field test of the research tool Variables and hypothesis definition and typology Validity and reliability of the research tool Contents of the research proposal Writing a research report Costing Developing a code book Editing of the data RESEARCH PROCESS LEGEND WHAT HOW CONDECTING OF STUDY
  6. 6. M.MICHELLE FINAL YEAR M.URP Q.NO-4WHATISPLANNINGPROCESS? Source: CYCLICRESEARCHCYCLE INITIATIONPROCESS PLANNINGPROCESS EXECUTINGPROCESS MONITORING& CONTROLLINGPROCESS CLOSINGPROCESS 5stagesinplanningresearchcycle Initiation Project charter Approval Adjustor cancel Project cancelled No Yes Planning Planning Collect requirements Beginscope development Projectlevel indicators Project scorecard Projectplan Resource& staffing Budget Purchases & acquisitions Communications SecurityInitial review Riskplan Testing Training Changecontrolplan Qualitymanagement Scope document Lessons learnt Approval Adjustor cancel Yes No Execution Projectclosing Source: Source:
  7. 7. M.MICHELLE FINAL YEAR M.URP Execution Develop project team Procure /secure resources security Manage project resources Quality assurance Communications information distribution Monitoring and control Adjust, cancel or continue Project closing Verify acceptance of project deliverables Final budget Final lessons learnt No Yes Adjust, cancel or continue Project closing Yes Source: Public participation an inevitable phase in planning process Source: Hanover Massachusetts master plan,