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Vilafonte viticulture technical

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A copy of the viticulture presentation by Dr Phil Freese at the Vilafonte 2007 vintage release in November 2010 at the Vilafonte winery

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Vilafonte viticulture technical

  1. 1. Winegrowing @ Vilafonté November 22, 2011 @ Vilafonté Phil Freese & Edward Pietersen
  2. 2. Today: “Today: “Beginning With The End In MindBeginning With The End In Mind”” • Defining ‘target’ wine characteristics and attributes – “Absolute” vs. “Relative” • Know the site: Soils, Climate, Plant materials • Know the ‘tools’ available to drive the outcome for the wines • Design vineyard and wine growing to meet the wine objectives using the best ‘tools’ • Seasonal wine growing = “The Game Plan” – Management is sensitive to • “The Game Plan” & overall wine objectives  above • The season  The “Plan” becomes Reality of season
  3. 3.  Training is VSP  Vine spacing (1.2 x 1.6 m) = (4.0 x 5.25 feet)  5,200 vines/ha = 2,112 vines/acre
  4. 4. Vilafonté Vineyard:Vilafonté Vineyard: Variety Ha Clone(s) Rootstock Plant - Year CF 0.68 623 & 214 101-14 1999 CS 6.08 163, 37, 341 101-14 1998 & 1999 ME 4.86 343 & 348 101-14 1998, 1999, 2007 MA 2.83 46, 71, 1 101-14 & R99 1998, 2006 14.45
  5. 5. Technology @ Vilafonté: “Appropriate for theTechnology @ Vilafonté: “Appropriate for the time”time” 500 Million years ago  Current way to assess soil variability – pre- plant 
  6. 6. Key Wine Growing Issues for VilafonteKey Wine Growing Issues for Vilafonte Soils “Old” soils – highly weathered Sub-surface drainage installed prior to planting row orientation to facilitate drainage “Vilafontes” is one of the soil types  Vilafonté
  7. 7. Managing for wine characters and style:Managing for wine characters and style: Training and pruning to set shoot number and position – fruit display Water management – time & amount-stress – Build ‘sufficient’ canopy Leaf Water Potential (LWP) pressure bomb Drainage Crop control & Managing for uniformity of fruit ripening  Low yields per vine and good yields per hectare 7 tons/Ha = 1.4 Kg/vine (3.1 pounds per vine)  Intensity of character  Severe thinning fruit to ‘capacity’ of the shoots  Severe veraison thinning – achieve uniformly ripe fruit
  8. 8. Key Wine Growing Issues for VilafonteKey Wine Growing Issues for Vilafonte Climate “Mediterranean” Winter rainfall area - about 25 - 30 inches (April – September) Low frost potential in the spring “Mild” summers Warm days and nights Higher relative humidity vs. California – less vine stress extremes Somewhat more regular ripening weather (more shallow diurnal temperature changes) Long post-harvest time for vine-ripeness Regular phenology Approximately 105 – 110 days, bloom to harvest
  9. 9. G. Jones (2006)
  10. 10. Grape Vine Phenology Dates And Data:Grape Vine Phenology Dates And Data: Some Practical Uses Within The Growing season:Some Practical Uses Within The Growing season: • Phenology is your ‘timeline’ for the growing season – Budburst to flowering is a ‘squishy’ number (heat limiting in spring) – Other stages are very reproducible (heat saturated – in most “New World” areas) • Timing between events is very regular season-to-season for a given site, variety and vineyard block • Timing within an event is a measure of variability – Number of elapsed days from 5% to 95% • Net – you can project timing of vine events from your phenology data: – Flowering dates and fungicide sprays – Cutoff date for last sulfur application to avoid residue on fruit – Water management – choose a stress level (severity) and (time) to hit this level – When you need to do veraison thinning – Harvest timing – French plan their summer vacations!
  11. 11. Vineyard Operations:Vineyard Operations: The Vineyard TeamThe Vineyard Team
  12. 12. Vineyard Operations:Vineyard Operations: Pruning
  13. 13. Vineyard Operations:Vineyard Operations: Pruning Suckering Canopy Side shoots Wire shifting & Shoot positioning
  14. 14. Dealing With The Natural Variability OfDealing With The Natural Variability Of VineyardsVineyards • Weak shoots • Veraison thinning • Selective harvest of sub-areas to achieve uniform lots • Berry sorting at the winery after de-stemming
  15. 15. Vineyard Operations:Vineyard Operations: Pruning Suckering Canopy Side shoots Wire lifting & Shoot positioning Water management
  16. 16. Vineyard Operations:Vineyard Operations: Pruning Suckering Canopy Side shoots Wire lifting & Shoot positioning Water management Veraison thinning
  17. 17. Vineyard Operations:Vineyard Operations: Pruning Suckering Canopy Side shoots Wire lifting & Shoot positioning Water management Veraison thinning Harvest
  18. 18. The Vine: Uneven Fruit RipeningThe Vine: Uneven Fruit Ripening • Non-uniform ripening of fruit is probably a large positive benefit for better evolutionary competition – More chances to have animals feed on some of the berries as they come ripe: • Better chance of ripening in the migration time of birds – Better chance of surviving different climate conditions • Non-uniform ripening is not positive for winemaking objectives! – Lack of ‘focus’ of aroma and flavor – mixed berry characters • Variations within: – Vineyard – area to area – Vine – bunch to bunch – Cluster – berry to berry
  19. 19. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index = NDVINormalized Difference Vegetation Index = NDVI (Spatial Variation of Vegetative Index)(Spatial Variation of Vegetative Index)

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