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Jornalismo e Tecnologia

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Jornalismo e Tecnologia

  1. 1. Jornalismo e tecnologia (ou o factor tecnológico na configuração do jornalismo)
  2. 2. Johannes Gutenberg (1397-1468) <ul><li>1451 </li></ul>
  3. 3. McLuhan sobre a Imprensa <ul><li>A prensa de imprimir teve um impacto comparável a uma bomba de 100 megatoneladas... O novo meio de tipo linear, uniforme e repetível reproduzia informação em quantidades ilimitadas e a velocidades até então impossíveis , assegurando desse modo à visão um lugar de total predominância entre os sentidos do Homem. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1702: The Daily Courant, Londres
  5. 5. http://eink.com/index.html Papel e Tinta digitais
  6. 6. Telégrafo eléctrico de Samuel Morse (1791-1872) 24 .5. 1844: transmissão entre Baltimore e Washington: “ What hath God wrought”
  7. 7. “ Uma nova da Austrália Que venha pelo correio Gasta em chegar a Lisboa Talvez mais que mês e meio. Se porém pelo telégrafo A mesma for enviada Em menos que um segundo Será ela cá chegada” Mário de Sá Carneiro, 1907 Poemas Completos . Lisboa: Assírio e Alvim, 1999:218
  8. 8. 1925-1926: O escocês John Baird desenvolve transmissão de imagens a distância <ul><li>1948: Televisão por cabo (Pensilvania, EUA) </li></ul><ul><li>1950: 1º sistema de TV a cores (EUA) </li></ul><ul><li>1956: controlo remoto </li></ul><ul><li>1962: emissões por satélite </li></ul><ul><li>1969: emissão a partir da Lua </li></ul><ul><li>1996: webTV </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1925-1926: O escocês John Baird desenvolve transmissão de imagens a distância <ul><li>1948: Televisão por cabo (Pensilvania, EUA) </li></ul><ul><li>1950: 1º sistema de TV a cores (EUA) </li></ul><ul><li>1962: emissões por satélite </li></ul><ul><li>1996: webTV </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ciberespaço <ul><li>1969: ARPANET /Internet </li></ul><ul><li>1991: WWW </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Velocidade </li></ul><ul><li>Instantaneidade (síncrono, directo) </li></ul><ul><li>Fluxo constante (crise da noção de periodismo) </li></ul><ul><li>Redes globais e “globalização” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pergunta de base <ul><li>Qual a importância de integrar o factor tecnológico na compreensão do jornalismo e das mudanças que o afectam? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Razões sócio-culturais <ul><li>A técnica surge no quadro das relações sociais (de poder…) </li></ul><ul><li>Multifactorialidade na vida social </li></ul><ul><li>Modos socialmente construídos de olhar a técnica </li></ul><ul><li>Os mitos na tecnologia (ex.: tecnologia = progresso) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Razões técnicas <ul><li>Do analógico ao digital </li></ul><ul><li>Da comunicação em linha à com. em rede </li></ul><ul><li>Da lógica da edição à lógica do fluxo </li></ul><ul><li>Da coexistência à convergência dos media </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tendências <ul><li>Convergência de suportes, incentivada pela digitalização </li></ul><ul><li>Carácter multimédia: combinação de formatos de informação num mesmo suporte </li></ul><ul><li>Da comunicação ponto-multiponto à comunicação em rede </li></ul><ul><li>Da audiência às comunidades virtuais de interesses, partilha, conhecimento </li></ul><ul><li>Desintermediação e acesso directo às fontes: crise do gatekeeping e agenda-setting? </li></ul><ul><li>Serviços multi-plataforma e acesso por múltiplos terminais. </li></ul>
  16. 16. mudança tecnológica ( Neil Postman <ul><li>As vantagens de uma nova tecnologia têm sempre um reverso de desvantagens e de perdas; (cf. Fedro, de Platão) </li></ul><ul><li>Desvantagens e vantagens nunca são distribuídas social e culturalmente de forma equilibrada; </li></ul><ul><li>Em cada tecnologia vem sempre incorporada uma ideia forte, uma ideologia, uma mundividência ; </li></ul><ul><li>Uma mudança tecnológica não se faz por acumulação, mas por recomposição do meio ambiente; </li></ul><ul><li>Cada novo meio tecnológico tende a ser mitificado e, por essa via, tomado como natural, não construído. </li></ul><ul><li>Postman, Neil (1998) Five Things We Need to Know About Technological Change </li></ul>
  17. 17. Neil Postman: the computer, a machine or a messiah? <ul><li>The computer is , in a sense, a magnificent toy that distracts us from facing what we most needed to confront -- spiritual emptiness, knowledge of ourselves, usable conceptions of the past and future. Does one blame the computer for this? Of course not. It is, after all, only a machine . But it is presented to us (…) as a technological messiah . </li></ul>
  18. 18. Aspectos positivos <ul><li>quantidade e diversidade de informação disponível </li></ul><ul><li>a multiplicidade de formas e de serviços </li></ul><ul><li>as diversas modalidades de utilização e de relacionamento </li></ul><ul><li>as inúmeras possibilidades de definir menus individualizados de informação </li></ul><ul><li>Acesso directo às fontes </li></ul>
  19. 19. Interrogações <ul><li>Determinismo tecnológico </li></ul><ul><li>Causalidade linear das práticas sociais </li></ul><ul><li>Modelos de alocução e modelos de conversação </li></ul>
  20. 20. Reducionismo a evitar: o determinismo tecnológico <ul><li>Crença de que ó factor técnico constitui uma força autónoma capaz de, por si só, mudar a sociedade </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Estaremos perante simples desenvolvimentos do passado em cenários novos ou, pelo contrário, diante de uma ruptura ou mesmo de uma revolução relativamente àquilo que tem sido característico do jornalismo? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sugestões de leitura <ul><li>Jose Luis Orihuela, Los 10 Paradigmas de la e-Comunicación </li></ul><ul><li>http://mccd.udc.es/orihuela/paradigmas/ </li></ul><ul><li>Lasica, J.D. (2003) We Media – How audiences are shaping news and information </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.hypergene.net/wemedia/ </li></ul><ul><li>Gillmor, D. (2004) We the Media – Grassroots journalism by the people, for the people </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.authorama.com/we-the-media-1.html </li></ul><ul><li>Neil Postman: Informing Ourselves to Death </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mat.upm.es/~jcm/postman-informing.html </li></ul><ul><li>M. Pinto: Jornalismo, Tecnologia e Mercado (texto fotocopiado) </li></ul><ul><li>Diaz Noci; R. Salaverría (coords.) (2003) Manual de Redacción Ciberperiodística . Madrid: Ariel </li></ul>
  23. 23. Sítios recomendados

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