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Vegetable Gardening Overview

Presentation used in general and advanced training.

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Vegetable Gardening Overview

  1. 1. Vegetable Gardening Overview<br />
  2. 2. Karen Delahaut, original author<br />Mike Maddox, updates<br />Vegetable Gardening Overview<br />
  3. 3. Portland, OR<br />Community Garden<br />
  4. 4. Portland, OR<br />Vertical Gardening / Community Garden<br />
  5. 5. Kansas City, MO<br />Urban Agriculture<br />
  6. 6. Madison, WI<br />West Madison Agriculture Research Station <br />
  7. 7. Janesville, WI<br />Rock County Farm / Community Garden<br />
  8. 8. Proximity to trees <br />Light<br />Soil<br />Site Selection<br />Access<br />Topography<br />
  9. 9. Proximity to Trees<br />Trees and shrubs may compete for the same resources as your garden: light, water, and nutrients.<br />Walnut trees may prove extra harmful due to juglone production.<br />
  10. 10. Light<br />Necessary for photosynthesis<br />6+ hours for most vegetable crops<br />Photoperiod<br />Flower initiation<br />Bulbing & tuber formation<br />
  11. 11. Light<br />Short day plants<br />Sweet potato forms tubers as days grow shorter<br />
  12. 12. Light<br />Long day plants- flower when light exceeds a certain number of hours.<br />Lettuce, spinach, radish<br />Some onions form bulbs with long days <br />Most N. varieties<br />
  13. 13. Light<br />Day neutral plants- flowers not related to light<br />Cucumber, peas, beans, peppers<br />
  14. 14. Light<br />Too much light<br />Sunscald<br />Defoliation exposing fruit to hot sun<br />
  15. 15. Soil<br />Well drained soils are necessary<br />Be able to work down to 6 or 7 inches<br />Best to till in the fall<br />Saves soil structure<br />Ground is ready to plant in spring<br />Remove large stones, clods, plant debris<br />Particularly important with root crops<br />
  16. 16. Soil<br />Remove grass/ weeds for new gardens<br />Amending soil<br />Add 2 to 4 inches compost or OM <br />Cover crops / green manures<br />Raised beds / containers<br />If soil isn’t conducive for garden<br />
  17. 17. Soil<br />Soil test<br />Best done in fall<br />Repeat every 3 years<br />Sample 6-7 inches deep in 5+ areas of garden<br />Soil pH (6.0 to 6.8)<br />Phosphorus<br />Potassium<br />Organic matter (OM)<br />
  18. 18. Soil<br />Benefits of adding organic matter<br />Improves water retention / soil structure<br />Increases soil fertility<br />Increases Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)<br />Ability to hold nutrients<br />Reduces fertilization requirements<br />Enhances microbial activity<br />Pathogen suppression<br />Accelerates breakdown of pesticides and other synthetic compounds<br />
  19. 19. Soil<br />Forking<br />Manure or debris in soil<br />
  20. 20. Adding Compost<br />Add 2-4 inches of compost<br />
  21. 21. Cover Crops & Green Manures<br />Rye is used as a green-manure and double-dug into the ground .<br />
  22. 22. Raised beds<br />Untreated lumber should be used for construction.<br />Beds should be at least 12 inches deep for adequate rooting.<br />Compost and soil were used as the medium.<br />
  23. 23. Mulch<br />Mulches can be used to conserve moisture, suppress weeds and diseases, and add organic matter to the garden.<br />Straw is used in this picture.<br />
  24. 24. To till or not to till?<br />
  25. 25. Topography<br />Local terrain affects choices on garden positioning.<br />
  26. 26. Access<br />
  27. 27. Season length<br />Season extension<br />Cool & warm season crops<br />Seasonal Considerations<br />
  28. 28. Season Length<br />Last killing frost of spring?<br />Northern Wisconsin:<br />Average May 24 to June 6<br />Mid state:<br />Average May 9 to May 23<br />Southern Wisconsin: <br />Average April 26 to May 9<br />
  29. 29. Season Length<br />First killing frost of autumn?<br />Northern Wisconsin:<br />Average September 13 to September 27<br />Mid state:<br />Average September 27 to October 10<br />Southern Wisconsin: <br />September 27 to October 24<br />
  30. 30. Season Length<br />
  31. 31. Cool & Warm Season Crops<br /><ul><li>Warm-season seeds may rot in cold soils
  32. 32. Cool season seeds may have heat-induced dormancy</li></li></ul><li>Cool & Warm Season Crops<br />Plants with a long growing season can be started indoors and then transplanted outdoors when the weather is conducive for their growth.<br />Pumpkins, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant<br />Transplants of cool season plants can be planted early in the spring and are tolerant to the colder temperatures. <br />Cole crops<br />
  33. 33. Season Extension<br />Black landscape fabric is used to warm the soil in the spring. Tomatoes are planted through the fabric.<br />
  34. 34. Season Extension<br />Walls-o-Water can be used in the early spring to protect warm-season transplants.<br />
  35. 35. Season Extension<br />
  36. 36. Season Extension<br />Summer planting of radish seeds; screen provides shade to cool soil and avoid heat-induced dormancy.<br />
  37. 37. Season Extension<br />Floating row covers can protect crops from frost.<br />
  38. 38. Season Extension<br />Cold frame used to harden off plants in the spring.<br />
  39. 39. Size of mature plant<br />Days to harvest<br />Heirlooms and hybrids<br />Disease resistance<br />Seed saving<br />Variety Selection<br />
  40. 40. Variety Selection<br />Size of mature plant<br />Examples<br />Bush vs Pole bean<br />Bush vs Vine <br />Determinate vs Indeterminate<br />Dwarf?<br />Fruit size?<br />
  41. 41. Days to Harvest<br />Pay particular attention to long season plants<br />Corn<br />Pumpkins<br />
  42. 42. Heirloom<br />Old-fashioned varieties<br />Selected for flavor<br />Not selected for disease resistance, uniformity or storage<br />In-bred seeds, may be appropriate for seed saving<br />
  43. 43. Hybrids<br />Grown for:<br />Pest resistance<br />Uniformity<br />“Vigor”<br />Seeds may not be appropriate for saving<br />Progeny of F1 may not be true-to-type or uniform.<br />AA x aa = Aa (F1)<br />Aa x Aa = Aa, AA, aa (F2)<br />
  44. 44. Hybrids<br />
  45. 45. Disease Resistance<br />Select resistant varieties if practical<br />No one variety is resistant to all diseases of that vegetable<br />Seed catalogs will indicate varieties are resistant<br />
  46. 46. Seed Saving<br />Some diseases are carried on or in the seed<br />Don’t save seed from cross pollinated plants<br />Especially vine crops!<br />Self pollinated crops include<br />Beans, eggplant, peas, pepper, tomato<br />
  47. 47. Timing<br />Direct seeding & transplants<br />Spacing & thinning<br />Succession planting<br />Crop rotation<br />Planting<br />
  48. 48. Timing<br />Succession planting<br />Make the most of our short growing season!<br />Days to harvest important<br />Plant late season crops after early season crops are harvested<br />Multiple plantings of a single crop <br />Multiple cultivars with different days to maturity<br />
  49. 49. Timing<br />Early Season Crops<br />Long Season Crops<br />Late Season Crops<br />Early Beets<br />Early Cabbage<br />Lettuce<br />Onion Sets<br />Peas<br />Radishes<br />Early Spinach<br />Mustard<br />Turnips <br />Beans<br />Cabbage<br />Celery<br />Sweet Corn<br />Cucumbers<br />Eggplant<br />Muskmelons<br />Peppers<br />Potatoes<br />Pumpkin<br />Squash<br />Swiss Chard<br />Tomatoes<br />Watermelon<br />Bush Beans<br />Beets<br />Broccoli<br />Chinese Cabbage<br />Carrots<br />Cauliflower<br />Kale<br />Kohlrabi<br />Lettuce<br />Radishes<br />Spinach<br />Turnips<br />
  50. 50. Timing<br />… summer…<br />… fall<br />Plant in spring…<br />
  51. 51. Timing<br />Plant Week 1<br />Plant Week 6<br />Plant Week 4<br />
  52. 52. Timing<br />Plant all at same time<br />
  53. 53. Transplants vs Direct Seeding<br />Transplant<br />Direct Seed<br />
  54. 54. Transplants vs Direct Seeding<br />Transplant<br />Direct Seed<br />Necessary for long season and some cool season crops<br />Basil, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, celery, chard, chives, collards, eggplant, endive, escarole, kale, kohlrabi, leeks, mustard, okra, onions, parsley, peppers, tomatoes <br />Useful for crops that do not transplant well and crops that will mature within the growing season<br />Beans, beets, carrots, corn, cucumbers, garlic, lettuce, micro greens, muskmelons, okra, parsnips, peas, pumpkins, radishes, rutabaga, salsify, squash, turnips, watermelon <br />
  55. 55. Transplanting<br />Transplant on cloudy days to minimize sun scald.<br />Water well after transplanting.<br />Plant at the same depth as in the pot. (exception: tomatoes)<br />
  56. 56. Direct Seeding<br />Space seeds as recommended on the packet.<br />Dense planting will promote disease.<br />Small-seeded crops will need thinning:CarrotsRadishesBeetsLettuce <br />
  57. 57. Spacing & Thinning<br />
  58. 58. Maintenance<br />Crop rotation<br />Watering<br />Mulching<br />Weeding<br />Pest Control<br />
  59. 59. Crop Rotation<br />
  60. 60. Crop Rotation<br />Potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, and eggplant are all members of the solanaceous family.<br />Beans and peas are legumes.<br />Cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, and squash are all cucurbits.<br />Radishes, rutabagas, and turnips are all cole crops just like cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts.<br />Onions, garlic, leeks, shallots, chives are alliums.<br />Crop rotations of at least 4 years are recommended.<br />
  61. 61. Crop Rotation<br />Insect & disease management <br />Weed management<br />Nutrient demands<br />Increased soil nitrogen<br />Benefits of the preceding crops <br />Improved physical condition of the soil<br />Increased microbial activity<br />Increased release of CO2<br />Excretion of beneficial substances<br />
  62. 62. Crop Rotation<br />Group crops according to which diseases they are susceptible to <br />Alternate root vegetables and vegetables with shallow roots: this will improve the soil structure <br />If you use interplanting (planting different vegetables together in the same bed), use the main crop in your rotation plan <br />Remember tomatoes and potatoes are both members of the nightshade family: don’t plant one to follow the other <br />Plant brassicas and leafy greens to follow legumes: they like the added nitrogen <br />Beware of planting carrots or beetroot in direct succession to a legume <br />
  63. 63. Interplanting<br />Potatoes and cabbage rows<br />
  64. 64. Watering<br />Mulching<br />Harvesting<br />Maintenance<br />Weeding<br />Insects<br />Diseases<br />
  65. 65. Watering<br />Matching water application to plant needs.<br />Based on <br />Soil type<br />Rainfall<br />Crop requirements<br />Growth stage<br />Experience and soil examination are best measures.<br />Rain gauge<br />Don’t base watering on crop appearance.<br />
  66. 66. Watering<br />Vegetables may need 1 to 2 inches per week, depending on the weather. Overhead watering may promote diseases.<br />
  67. 67. Mulching<br />Mulching with an organic material can suppress weeds and conserve moisture in the garden.<br />
  68. 68. Insects<br />Colorado Potato Beetle<br />
  69. 69. Insects<br />
  70. 70. Diseases<br />Early Blight (left)<br />Late Blight(right)<br />
  71. 71. Diseases<br />
  72. 72. Weeds<br />
  73. 73. Harvesting<br />Timing<br />Harvest early in the day<br />Prevent wounds<br />Discard culls<br />Cool the vegetables quickly & thoroughly<br />
  74. 74. Harvesting<br />Submerging vegetables for 15 to 20 minutes in water can remove unwanted field heat.<br />
  75. 75. Preserving<br />UWEX Publications (http://learningstore.uwex.edu)<br />Harvesting Vegetables from the Home Garden<br />Freezing fruits and vegetables<br />Canning vegetables safely<br />More…<br />

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