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The New Science of Emotion: From Neurotransmitters to Social Networks Michael E. Lara, MD Diplomate, American Board of Psy...
We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts we make the world. Speak or act with an ...
What is An Emotion? The Feeling of What Happens
Emotions Defined <ul><li>Root of the word emotion is  motere , to move, plus the prefix  e-  to connote &quot;move away&qu...
Emotions, Moods, and Temperament  Feelings Emotions Moods   Temperament
Domains of Emotional Life Anger Fear Worry Stress Creativity Ambition Forgiveness Joy Boredom Discouragement Failure Depre...
Universal Emotions <ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fury, outrage, resentment, wrath, exasperation, indignation, vexati...
Universal Emotions <ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety, apprehension, nervousness, concern, consternation, misgivin...
Universal Emotions <ul><li>Surprise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shock, astonishment, amazement, wonder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Di...
Two Dimensions of Emotion Aroused Not   Aroused Pleasant Unpleasant Anger Sadness Fear Enjoyment Love Surprise Disgust Shame
Four Domains of Temperament <ul><li>Harm avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high harm avoidance is observed as fear of uncert...
Four Domains of Temperament <ul><li>Reward dependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed as sentimentality, social sensitivity...
Temperament Configurations Explosive Adventurous Passionate Sensitive Methodical Cautious Reliable Independent Harm-Avoida...
Emotional Intelligence <ul><li>Self-awareness: recognizing one's feelings as they occur </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Emotion...
The Physiology of Emotion How We Feel What We Feel
Neurotransmitters: The Molecules of Emotion Anxiety Irritability Motivation Sex Appetite Aggression Emotion Impulsivity Se...
Temperament and Neurotransmitters Explosive Adventurous Passionate Sensitive Methodical Cautious Reliable Independent Harm...
Serotonin <ul><li>High levels may be associated with serenity,  optimism and possibly spiritual experiences </li></ul><ul>...
Norepinephrine <ul><li>Excitatory neurotransmitter that induces physical and mental arousal and heightens mood </li></ul><...
Dopamine <ul><li>Controls arousal levels in many parts of the brain and is vital for motivation, pleasure and reward </li>...
The Yin and the Yang of Neurotransmitters GABA Glutamate Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS GAB...
Neurosteroids <ul><li>Cortisol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plays a major role in the stress response; alters blood glucose level...
Males: Age of Onset and Relation to Testosterone Production The incidence of depression rises in puberty and remains const...
Females: Age of Onset and Relation to Estrogen Production Incidence of Depression Mirrors Changes in Estrogen Across Life ...
Opiates <ul><li>Endogenous opiates modulate pain, reduce stress and promote a sensation of bliss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opi...
Other Molecules of Emotion <ul><li>Phenylethylamine (PEA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemically related to amphetamine and is f...
Pathways of Emotion The Feeling Mind and the Thinking Body
The Case of Phineas Cage <ul><li>Construction foreman who, in 1848, sustained damage to frontal cortex </li></ul><ul><li>D...
Basic Anatomy of The Human Brain
The Limbic System <ul><li>Amygdala mediates fear, anger and the startle reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus regulates ho...
The Neural Circuitry of Fear and Anxiety LeDoux J. The Emotional Brain, 1996. Emotional Stimulus Sensory Thalamus Amygdala...
The Amygdala, The Caudate, and Obsessive Compulsive Thinking The caudate nucleus is closely connected to the amygdala. The...
Urbach-Wiethe and The Amygdala Damasio, Antonio, The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousn...
Hemispheric Lateralization of Positive and Negative Emotions <ul><li>Numerous studies have confirmed that negative emotion...
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation <ul><li>Application of magnetic current to cortex shown to reduce depressive symptoms in...
The Lama in the Lab <ul><li>Mental training induces various changes in brain function that are diametrically opposed to ch...
The Lama in The Lab: The Physiological Effects of Meditation N=175 G.D. at .41 Distribution of Ratio of Left-to-Right Pref...
Exercise: Soundscape
Self-Destructive Emotions
The Spectrum of Self-Destructive Emotions Aroused Not   Aroused Pleasant Unpleasant Anger Sadness Fear Disgust Shame Annoy...
Inside the Mind of a Sociopath The brain of this murderer shows significant lack of activity compared to a normal brain Ra...
Does Chronic Stress Cause Brain Injury? Andreasen, Brave New Brain: Conquering Mental Illness in the Era of the Genome, 2001
Psychopathology and The DSM-IV <ul><li>Mood Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia a...
The Major Disorders of Mood <ul><li>Major Depressive Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Dysthymic Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Bipol...
Prevalence of Major Depression Murray CJL, Lopez AD, eds.  Summary: The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessme...
Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Panic Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Social Phobia </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder <...
Prevalence of Common Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>12 Months (%)  Lifetime (%) </li></ul><ul><li>Social phobia (social anxiety...
Personality Disorders Borderline Antisocial Histrionic Narcissistic Obsessional Avoidant Staid Schizoid Harm-Avoidance Rew...
The Mind/Body Connection in Mood and Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>The physical consequences of mood and anxiety disorders </l...
Why Depression Hurts <ul><li>Serotonin and norepinephrine are found throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems ...
How Negative Emotions Impact the Body
Physical Symptoms  Simon GE, et al.  N Engl J Med . 1999;341:1329-1335.   Primary Care Patients With Major Depression (N =...
HPA Axis: Cortisol <ul><li>“ Stress hormone”  (steroid) secreted by the adrenal glands </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates BP, CV ...
Psychoneuroimmunology <ul><li>Acute stress temporarily improves general “frontline” immunity but suppresses slower specifi...
Stress Cardiomyopathy:  “Broken Heart Syndrome” <ul><li>Rapid and severe heart muscle weakness (cardiomyopathy) caused by ...
Effects of Negative Emotions on The Heart
Exercise: Noting Positive and Negative Affects
Scrambled Sentence Test <ul><li>Him was worried she always </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds rain indicate firehouse dark </li></ul...
Exercise: Noting Positive Affect
Biologic and Cognitive Therapies for Negative Emotions
Major Classes of Antidepressants <ul><li>Serotonin Specific Reuptake Inhibitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoloft, Paxil, Proza...
Nature’s Antidepressant: The Role of Dietary Practices on Mood Tryptophan Tyrosine Serotonin Dopamine Norepinephrine
Serotonin Pathway Tryptophan 5-HTP Serotonin Melatonin Tryptophan Hydroxylase (rate-limiting enzyme)
5-HTP <ul><li>Elevate mood in cases of depression, anxiety, and panic attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Treat insomnia </li></ul><...
Dopamine and Norepinephrine Pathway Tyrosine L-Dopa Dopamine Norepinephrine Tyrosine Hydroxylase (rate-limiting enzyme) Do...
L-Tyrosine <ul><li>Essential amino acid; precursor for dopamine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reported to also increase PEA, a mil...
DLPA <ul><li>D,L-phenylalanine is an essential amino acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L-form: naturally occuring isomer; boosts ...
S-Adenosyl Methionine Tryptophan Tyrosine Serotonin Dopamine Norepinephrine SAMe
S-Adenosyl Methionine <ul><li>SAMe is a naturally occuring amino-acid deriviative found in body; synthesized from amino ac...
Omega-3 Fatty Acids <ul><li>Nature’s anti-inflammatory agent </li></ul><ul><li>Omega-3 and Omega-6s are essential fatty ac...
Major Depression and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Consumption J.R. Hibbeln, “Fish consumption and major depression,” The Lancet 1998...
Key Elements of Cognitive Behavioral Therapies <ul><li>Goal: Identify and correct cognitive distortions and dysfunctional ...
Cognition and Psychopathology Beliefs and Assumptions External Events Automatic Thoughts Emotional Responses Interpersonal...
Exercise: The Art of Therapeutic Listening
Therapeutic Attention: The Wisdom of Listening  Speeth, Kathleen, “On Therapeutic Attention”, from The Wisdom of Listening...
Relapse Rates With Cognitive Therapy Following Incomplete Remission Paykel ES, et al.  Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1999;56:829-8...
Treatment of Chronic Depression: Antidepressant v. CBT Study Week CBASP = cognitive behavioral-analysis system of psychoth...
The Real Reason Why People Recover in Therapy  Norcross JC, Goldfried MR, Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration, 1992.
Aerobic Exercise v. Zoloft for Major Depression Babyak, M (2000). Exercise Treatment for Major Depression: Maintenance of ...
Qigong and Tai Chi <ul><li>Combine movement, meditation, and breath to enhance flow of vital energy, improve blood circula...
Health Conditions Benefited by Yoga Goldberg B. Alternative Medicine, The Definitive Guide, 2 nd  Edition,  469.  Ailment ...
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) <ul><li>Program of stress-reduction based on insight (vipassana) meditation tech...
Research on Mindfulness <ul><li>Participants in mindfulness meditation program experienced less pain, anxiety, and depress...
Impact of Meditative Practices Schwartz, J The Mind and The Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force, 2002
Exercise: Mindfulness of the Body
Positive Emotions
The Spectrum of Positive Emotions Aroused Not   Aroused Pleasant Unpleasant Enjoyment Love Surprise Euphoria Satisfaction ...
Acceptance  <ul><li>“ God grant me the courage to change the things I can, the serenity to accept the things I cannot, and...
Forgiveness <ul><li>Forgiveness is NOT forgetting. </li></ul><ul><li>Forgiveness is not surrender, resignation, or reconci...
Stanford Forgiveness Project (Carl Thoresen, Fred Luskin) <ul><li>Six 90min group sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Start with st...
How To Want What You Have <ul><li>Core Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compassion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention </l...
Exercise: Journaling with CAG
Cardiac Coherence During Positive Emotion <ul><li>Heartmath research demonstrate that positive emotions (love, appreciatio...
Effects of Negative Emotions on The Heart
Resilience and Cognition <ul><li>Psychological resilience is flexibility in response to changing situational demands, and ...
The Resilience Gene Probability of Major  Depressive Episode 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0 Short/short Short/long Long/l...
Positive Psychology What Happy People Know
Positive Psychology <ul><li>Mental health is more than the absence of mental illness </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of posit...
Five Happiness Traps <ul><li>Trying to buy happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to find happiness through pleasure </li></ul...
Five Factors Affecting Happiness <ul><li>Family relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Financial situation </li></ul><ul><li>Work...
Happiness in Different Activities Layard, Richard. Happiness: Lessons from a New Science, 2005. Activity Average Happiness...
Happiness and Income in Economically Advanced Nations Deiner, E. Factors Predicting Subjective Wellbeing in Nations. Journ...
High-Status v. Low-Status Workers Ronald Inglehart, “Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society,” copyright 1990, Prince...
Essential Spirituality: Lessons From the World’s Major Religions <ul><li>Reduce Craving </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivate Emotio...
Research in Spirituality and Health   Medical Compliance: Study of Heart Transplant Patients at University of Pittsburgh <...
Research in Spirituality and Health  Immune System Functioning: Study of 1,700 older adults <ul><li>•  Increased levels of...
Intercessory Prayer <ul><li>RCT of 393 cardiac patients at UCSF; patients randomized into two groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
The Search for God in the Brain <ul><li>Higher probability of experiencing religious feelings in individuals with temporal...
Exercise: The Experience of Gratitude
The Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) <ul><li>I have so much in life to be thankful for </li></ul><ul><li>If I had to list ev...
The Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) Based on a sample of 1, 224  adults Seligman M. Authentic Happiness: Using the New Posi...
Summary and Conclusions
Summary and Conclusions <ul><li>Emotion Defined </li></ul><ul><li>The Physiology of Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Destruc...
www.MichaelLaraMD.com
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Universal Emotions <ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fury, outrage, Science Of Emotion: From Neurotransmitters to Social Networks

Universal Emotions Anger fury, outrage, resentment, wrath, exasperation, indignation, vexation, acrimony, animosity, annoyance, irritability, hostility, pathological hatred and violence. Sadness grief, sorrow, cheerlessness, gloom, melancholy, self-pity, loneliness, dejection, despair, and when pathological, severe depression.

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