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Business Management - People and Decisions

How do people behave in organizations?
How to motivate them?
How to lead them?

How about decision making?
What do you know about wisdom of the crowds?
Have you heard about GroupThink?

Learn more ...

http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org

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Business Management - People and Decisions

  1. 1. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Business ManagementBusiness Management for Engineersfor Engineers People and DecisionsPeople and Decisions Mohammad Tawfik
  2. 2. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Motivating People
  3. 3. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Laws of Motivation Richard Denny
  4. 4. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom 1- To Motivate you have to be Motivated
  5. 5. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Motivating Yourself
  6. 6. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom You must manage yourself before you can lead others Zig Ziglar 1926-2012
  7. 7. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Set Goals
  8. 8. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Seize the moment to act
  9. 9. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Have persistence
  10. 10. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Build your Willpower
  11. 11. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom 2- Motivation Requires a Goal “I will only settle for world domination”
  12. 12. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom 3- Motivation Never Lasts
  13. 13. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom 4- Recognition Motivates
  14. 14. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Motivation by AppreciationMotivation by Appreciation (MbA)(MbA)
  15. 15. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom
  16. 16. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom 5- To Motivate, Recognize Needs
  17. 17. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Basic human needs LiveLive Love andLove and Be lovedBe lovedLearnLearn Leave aLeave a LegacyLegacy
  18. 18. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom How to De-Motivate?
  19. 19. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Focus on rewards!
  20. 20. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Do not give enough trust!
  21. 21. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Reward the wrong attitude!
  22. 22. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcomDo not communicate!
  23. 23. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Focus on Cost!
  24. 24. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom How to Motivate?
  25. 25. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Motvate by: Motvate by: StatusStatus CertaintyCertainty AutonomyAutonomyRelatednessRelatedness FairnessFairness David Rock “Your Brain at Work”
  26. 26. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom MotvatonMotvaton AutonomyAutonomy MasteryMasteryPurposePurpose
  27. 27. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Participation Motivates LiveLive LoveLoveLearnLearnLeave a legacyLeave a legacy
  28. 28. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Progress Motivates LiveLive LoveLoveLearnLearnLeave a legacyLeave a legacy
  29. 29. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Challenge Motivates LiveLive LoveLoveLearnLearnLeave a legacyLeave a legacy
  30. 30. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Belonging Motivates LiveLive LoveLoveLearnLearnLeave a legacyLeave a legacy
  31. 31. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Power Motivates LiveLive LoveLoveLearnLearnLeave a legacyLeave a legacy
  32. 32. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Learning Motivates LiveLive LoveLoveLearnLearnLeave a legacyLeave a legacy
  33. 33. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Self Esteem Motivates LiveLive LoveLoveLearnLearnLeave a legacyLeave a legacy
  34. 34. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Autonomy Motivates LiveLive LoveLoveLearnLearnLeave a legacyLeave a legacy
  35. 35. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Competence Motivates LiveLive LoveLoveLearnLearnLeave a legacyLeave a legacy
  36. 36. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Fairness Motivates LiveLive LoveLoveLearnLearnLeave a legacyLeave a legacy
  37. 37. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Certainty Motivates LiveLive LoveLoveLearnLearnLeave a legacyLeave a legacy
  38. 38. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Status Motivates LiveLive LoveLoveLearnLearnLeave a legacyLeave a legacy
  39. 39. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Purpose Motivates LiveLive LoveLoveLearnLearnLeave a legacyLeave a legacy
  40. 40. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Leadership Styles Situational Leadership Hersey-Blanchard model
  41. 41. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Hersey-Blanchard Leadership Model DelegatngDelegatng SellingSelling TellingTelling PartiipatngPartiipatng Task Focus R e l a t i o n s h i p F o c u s
  42. 42. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Hersey-Blanchard Leadership Model Can you solve this? Can you solve this? This is my proposal! This is my proposal! This is my soluton! This is my soluton! What is your proposal? What is your proposal? Task Focus R e l a t i o n s h i p F o c u s
  43. 43. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Follower Model PerformerPerformer LearnerLearner BeginnerBeginner ContributorContributor Willingness A b i l i t y
  44. 44. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Follower Model PerformerPerformer LearnerLearner BeginnerBeginnerContributorContributor Level of maturity
  45. 45. Leadership and Motvaton Skills Mohammad Tawfk #WikiCourses http:////WikiCoursesWWikiSpacesWcom Situational Leadership DelegatngDelegatng SellingSelling TellingTelling PartiipatngPartiipatng Task Focus R e l a t i o n s h i p F o c u s PerformerPerformer LearnerLearner BeginnerBeginnerContributorContributor
  46. 46. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Understanding DecisionUnderstanding Decision Making:Making: Group IssuesGroup Issues Mohammad TawfikMohammad Tawfik
  47. 47. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Based on: The Art of Critical Decision Making Professor Michael A. Roberto The Teaching Company
  48. 48. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik The WisdomThe Wisdom of Crowds?of Crowds?
  49. 49. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik
  50. 50. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Are groups better decision makers than individuals? Unfortunately, many groups do not realize those potential synergies; they experience process losses.
  51. 51. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik In his bestselling book The Wisdom of Crowds James Surowiecki argues that a large “crowd” of individuals can actually be more intelligent than any individual expert
  52. 52. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik You need to have diversity within the crowd: Many different disciplines, perspectives, and areas of expertise must be represented.
  53. 53. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik You have to have decentralization, meaning that the crowd is dispersed, and people with local and specific knowledge can contribute.
  54. 54. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik You have to have some effective way of aggregating all the individual judgments.
  55. 55. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Finally, and most importantly, you must have independence. This is the key condition that usually doesn’t hold in actual teams within organizations. They are interacting closely, and they are interdependent.
  56. 56. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Certainly, pressures for conformity arise within groups.
  57. 57. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik
  58. 58. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Scholars have described how negative outcomes result when “fault lines” emerge within teams. Fault lines are schisms that often emerge based around natural demographic subgroups within a team. We can see in-group/out-group dynamics emerge in these situations, which leads to dysfunctional conflict.
  59. 59. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik In some groups, they exhibit an inability to manage air time, such that a few individuals dominate the discussion. Others are not able to get their ideas on the table.
  60. 60. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Free riding is another process loss. Some members may not feel personal accountability, and they may loaf, expecting others to carry the load.
  61. 61. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik The lack of adequate information sharing is one of the most perplexing challenges that teams face, and that hinders their decision-making effectiveness
  62. 62. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik
  63. 63. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Groupthink—ThinkingGroupthink—Thinking or Conforming?or Conforming?
  64. 64. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik
  65. 65. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik What is groupthink?
  66. 66. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik According to social psychologist Irving Janis, groupthink is when a cohesive team experiences tremendous pressures for conformity, such that people strive for unanimity at the expense of critical thinking.
  67. 67. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Janis has argued that groupthink is more likely to arise when groups are highly cohesive and when they face a great deal of stress or pressure.
  68. 68. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik What are some of the signals that your group is not having a sufficiently candid dialogue?
  69. 69. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Do management meetings seem more like hushed, polite games of golf or fast-paced, physical games of ice hockey?
  70. 70. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Do subordinates wait to take their verbal and visual cues from you before commenting on controversial issues?
  71. 71. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Are planning and strategy sessions largely about the preparation of hefty binders and fancy presentations, or are they primarily about a lively, open dialogue?
  72. 72. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Do the same people tend to dominate management team meetings?
  73. 73. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Is it rare for you to hear concerns or feedback directly from those several levels below you in the organization?
  74. 74. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Have senior management meetings become “rubber stamp” sessions in which executives simply ratify decisions that have already been made through other channels?
  75. 75. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Are people highly concerned about following rules of protocol when communicating with people across horizontal levels or vertical units of the organization?
  76. 76. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik How teams canHow teams can preventprevent groupthinkgroupthink andand improve theirimprove their decision making?decision making?
  77. 77. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Stimulating Conflict and Debate
  78. 78. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik You can ask your management team to role-play the competition
  79. 79. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik You can employ mental simulation methods to stimulate conflict and debate
  80. 80. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik Creativity and Brainstorming
  81. 81. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik The Curious InabilityThe Curious Inability to Decideto Decide
  82. 82. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik The culture of NONO
  83. 83. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik The culture of YESYES
  84. 84. http://WikiCourses.WikiSpaces.com http://AcademyOfKnowledge.org OB - Business for Engineers Mohammad Tawfik The culture of MAYBEMAYBE

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