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Proscenium theatre


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literature study of auditorium

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Proscenium theatre

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances at venues such as theatres. For movie theatres, the number of auditoriums is expressed as the number of screens. It is a multi use performance space that is intended for various performing arts like dance, drama, music, opera, theatre, magic shows etc. It may include theatre, auditorium. THEATRES AND ITS TYPES PROSCENIUM THEATRE It is the most common form of theatre stages. In this particular stage, the audience is positioned in one area facing towards the main stage, there is a distinct division between the audience and the stage. This division is created through the form of an arch or some sort of frame- hence the name, Proscenium Arch. • Gives the audience a clear view and the one main focus points towards the performers. • Allows much more realism and special effects/ lighting- tricks and effects can easily be concealed. Source: Wikipedia
  3. 3. THRUST THEATRE • A stage surrounded by audience on three sides, the fourth side serves as the background. • Typical modern arrangement: the stage is often a square or rectangular playing area, usually raised, surrounded by raked seating. ARENA THEATRE • A central stage surrounded by audience on all sides. • The stage area is often raised to improve sightlines. FLEXIBLE THEATRE: • Sometimes called a "black box" theatre, these are often big empty boxes painted black inside. • Stage and seating not fixed. • Instead, each can be altered to suit the needs of the play or the whim of the director. Source: Wikipedia
  4. 4. TERMS USED IN AUDITORIUM  PROSCENIUM: A proscenium is the area of a theatre surrounding the stage opening. A proscenium arch is the arch over this area. A proscenium plane divides the performer and spectators.  HOUSE: It is the main seating area.  GANGWAYS: A passage between two rows of seats. The minimum gangway should be 1100 mm.  AISLE: The walkway between each area, row of seats to permit ease of passage. (>=45 mm)  DROP STAGE: A stage floor that moves vertically on an elevator usually so that one set can quickly replace another.  TORMENTOR: A curtain or framed structure used directly behind the proscenium at each side of the stage to screen the wings & sidelights from the audience.  APRON: The part of the stage floor in front of curtain line.  ORCHESTRA PIT: The space reserved for musicians usually in front.  BALCONY: A gallery that projects over the main floor of a theatre.  WING: The platform adjacent to the stage for keeping props.  BOX OFFICE: Where tickets are sold.  CYCLORAMA: It is the exterior of the backdrop. It is basically a distinction between backstage & main stage.  FIRE CURTAIN: A curtain or asbestos or other fire-proof material that can be lowered just inside the proscenium arch in case of fire.  GREEN ROOM: The green room is the space in a theatre, studio or similar venue which functions as a waiting room and lounge for performers before and after a performance, and during the show when they are not engaged on stage. Source: Wikipedia
  5. 5. SERVICES Stage lighting: Provision of orientation the light in requisite position and angle plus providing enough working space to bring any changes & repairs. This can be done by the means of catwalk , bridges. Light controls: Ideally should be in front of house, preferably under the balcony or at the back of the stalks in an intimate theatre. Acoustics: The acoustics of a theatre effect performances. The element which effect the sound are: ceiling, wall, panels, at rear of the seating space. The phenomenon of reverberation time & long delayed reflection together give good quality of sound. The reverberation time should be 0.8 to 2.4 sec. Wall should be non parallel so that reflection of sound is avoided. Exits & escape routes: 1 m wide exit door should be provided for every 150 people. Parking: The whole parking can be divided into 4 zones.  VIP parking  Performer’s parking  Staff parking  4-visitor’s parking  Parking space must be ample for all patrons.  Car turning radius for an entrance drive > 5- 6.5m  Car parking for handicapped should be near the building & clearly marked. Circulation: Public traffic flow should be designed so that the movement of patrons through out lobby is straight forward. Elevators should be provided to get patrons to the upper levels and persons with disability to all levels.
  6. 6. STAGE In theatre or performance arts, the stage is a designated space for the performance of productions. The stage serves as a space for actors or performers and a focal point (the screen in cinema theaters) for the members of the audience. Source: Neufert
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  9. 9. PROSCENIUM STAGE WITH FLY TOWER The dimensions and shape of the performance area are determined by the recommended proscenium opening as in Table III. A wider opening can be reduced by screens or curtains, so that an all purpose stage should be sized for opera. Ideally, the depth of the performance area front to rear should be equal to the proscenium opening. Source: Neufert
  10. 10. RAISED STAGE The height of the stage can be between 600 mm and 1100 mm with a straight, angled or curved front edge. The floor to the performance area, in part or total, may be a series of traps, that is modular sections usually 1200mm square which can be removed selectively. SIDE AND REAR STAGES Sizes should relate to the size of the performance area. These areas may need to hold sets as on the performance area, with circulation all round. The clear height required to be the highest scenery plus 1 m. SAFETY CURTAIN In the case of fire on the stage it must be separated from the auditorium, with the proscenium opening being closed off by a safety curtain. The normal form is a rigid curtain suspended immediately behind the proscenium opening and dropping on the stage from the fly tower. The fire seal must continue below stage level. Source: Neufert
  11. 11. SEATING Seating capacity: In general, the maximum capacity of an auditorium depends on the format selected, and on aural and visual limitations set by the type of production. Other factors include levels, sightlines, acoustics, circulation and seating density, as well as size and shape of platform/stage. Size of auditorium: An area of at least 0.5 sq. m. per spectator is to be used for sitting spectators. This number is derived from a seat width x row spacing of at least 0.45 sq. m per seat, plus an additional minimum of 0.5m - 0.9m i.e. approximately 0.05 sq. m per seat. Length of rows: A maximum of 16 seats per aisle. 25 seats per aisle is permissible if one side exit door of 1m width is provided per 3-4 rows. Exits, escape routes: 1m wide per 150 people (minimum width 0.8m). Source: Neufert
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  13. 13. ELEVATION OF SEATS LINE OF SIGHT METHOD A sightline, sight line or visual axis, is a normally unobstructed line of sight between an intended observer (or spectator) and a stage, arena, or monument, for example. Sightlines are a particularly important consideration in theatres and auditoriums. The vertical distance from a spectator's eyes to sightline of the spectator directly behind is called a C-value. Higher the seats lower the C-value. D = the horizontal distance from the eye to the point of focus N = the riser height R = the vertical height to the point of focus T = the seating row depth REGULAR RISE METHOD In regular rise method each tier of the hall has equal rise. Seats are elevated at equal risers. Source: Wikipedia
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  15. 15. CINEMAS FILM PROJECTION • 1m of space behind the projector & at the operating side, 2.80 m high, ventilation, noise insulation to the auditorium side. • Film widths of 16mm, 35mm, & 70mm. • The centre of the projected beam should not deviate more than 5° horizontally. • Picture sizes depend on the distance of the projector from the screen, height/side ratio is 1:2:34 (cinemascope) or 1:1:66 (wide screen). PROJECTION SCREEN • Min. Distance of projection screen from wall is 120 cm. • It is perforated (sound permeable). • Large projection screens are curved. • The auditorium should have no outside light other than emergency lighting. • Walls and ceilings are made from non-reflective material. Source: Neufert
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  17. 17. PROPORTIONS OF AUDITORIUM These are obtained from the spectator’s psychological perception and viewing angle, as well as the requirement for a good view from all seats. Head movement should be according to following: • 30° → no movement • 60° → slight movement • 110° → slight eye & slight shoulder movement • 360° → full movement At a depth of 24m of house → proscenium width – 13m At a depth of 32m of house → proscenium width – 17m Source: Neufert
  19. 19. WORK SHOP CHANGING ROOMS Source: Neufert
  21. 21. N.B.C. OF INDIA SOUND INSULATION  Trees with heavy foliage planted on both sides of carriageway help slightly to muffle the noise, provided the foliage extends for a considerable distance (30 m or above).  Noisy rooms should be separated from quiet ones, if possible. FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY  All buildings depending upon the occupancy use and height shall be protected by fire extinguishers, wet riser, down-comer, automatic sprinkler installation in accordance with the provisions of NBC.  Automatic fire detection and alarm facilities shall be provided, where necessity, to warn occupants early of the existence of fire, so that they may escape, and to facilitate the orderly conduct of fire exit drills.  Fire doors with 2 h fire resistance shall be provided at appropriate places along the escape route and particularly at the entrance to lift lobby and stair well.  Internal stairs shall be constructed of non combustible materials throughout.
  22. 22. Area required: The floor area of the hall including, gangways (excluding the stage ) should be calculated on the basis of 0.6 to 0.9 sq. m per person. Height and volume: The average height may vary from 6 m for small halls to 7.5 m for large halls. The volume per person required to be provided should normally range between 3.5 to 5.5 m. Suitable volumes for different types of auditoriums are given below. Cubic metres per person A) PUBLIC LECTURE HALLS. 3.5 to 4.5 B) CINEMAS OR THEATRES 4.0 to 5.0 C) MUSICAL HALLS OR CONCERT HALLS 4.0 to 5.5 Max. Distance from the curtain wall: In the case of theatres a person with normal vision should be able to discern facial expressions of the performers. In order to satisfy these condition, the distance of the ‘farthest seat from the curtain line should not normally exceed 23 m. Stage: The size of the stage depends upon the type of performance the hall is to cater for. It would be large for theatres, while it would be comparatively small for cinema halls which again depends on the size of the screen. Balcony: Where a balcony is provided, its projection into the hall should not be more than twice the free height of the opening of the balcony recess. Doors and windows: The external noise level is high, properly fitted doors and windows should be provided. Their rebates should preferably be lined with draught strip rubber or felt. Line of sight: The elevation of the balcony seats should be such that line of sight is not inclined more than 30 degrees to the horizontal. Angle of floor: As an empirical rule the angle of elevation of the inclined floor in an auditorium should not be less than 8 degrees.
  23. 23. Foyers, crush halls, attached rooms: All the enclosed spaces, such as foyers, lounges, flanking verandas, etc., adjacent to the auditorium showable be isolated from the main hall by suitable ( well fitting ) doors so that the acoustics of the hall are not influenced by these rooms; • The foyer area, depend on the size and seating capacity of the auditorium. At least 20% of the seating area of the hall 1s recommended for foyer. • For lobby and lounge, areas at least corresponding to 10 % of the seating area in the hall are recommended. Seating: • The distance of the front row works to about 3.6 m for drama and it should be 4.5 m or more for cinema purposes. • The width of a seat should be between 45 cm and 56 cm. • The back to back distance of chairs in successive rows of seats shall be at least 85 cm. If extra comfort is required, higher spacing may be provided which shall vary between 85 cm and 106 cm. • Seats should be staggered sideways in relation to those in front so that a listener in any row is not looking directly over the head of the person in front of him. Sound amplification system: a loudness of speech level of about 60 to 70 db. is required for comfortable listening. For this level can be obtained, the volume does not exceed 1400 cubic m and the max. distance from the speaker to listener is of the order of 23 m.