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KHULNA UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
1/19/2017
1
DEPT. OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING
PRESENTATION ON
Thermal Manikin of ...
THERMAL MANIKIN
Thermal Manikin is a human model to measure clothing insulation and to evaluate the
relationship between t...
REASON FOR USING THERMAL MANIKINS
• The thermal manikin usually predicts values of some indicators of human heat strain li...
IMPORTANCE OF THERMAL MANIKIN
The Thermal Manikin offers the following significant performances:
 Relevant simulation of ...
ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES FOR THERMAL MANIKINS
Thermal manikins need to have the certain properties in order to simulate the
hu...
DESIGN OF THERMAL MANIKIN
Advanced Thermal Manikins are consisted of three basic elements with
optional additional feature...
SPECIFICATIONS OF THERMAL MANIKIN
The following qualities are must to have in a Good Thermal Manikin:
• Strong Body: Must ...
INPUTS REQUIRED FOR THERMAL MANIKINS
The manikins respond to a HEAT or COLD stress depending on an interaction of
variable...
APPLICATION FIELD OF THERMAL MANIKIN
The thermal manikin works on the following areas:
 Evaluation of clothing
 Thermal ...
Standard number ISO 15831:2004
Standard title Clothing - Physiological effects - Measurement
of thermal insulation by mean...
Standard number ASTM F1291 - 05
Standard title Standard Test Method for Measuring the Thermal Insulation of Clothing Using...
Standard number ASTM F2370 - 05
Standard title Standard Test Method for Measuring the Evaporative Resistance of Clothing U...
Standard number EN 13537:2002
Standard title Requirements for sleeping bags
Requirement 1. thermal manikin surface (skin) ...
Standard number ISO 9920:2007
Standard title Ergonomics of the thermal environment -- Estimation of thermal
insulation and...
Standard number ASTM E96/E96M - 05
Standard title Standard test methods for water vapor transmission of materials
Requirem...
Standard number ASTM F1868 - 02
Standard title Standard test method for thermal and evaporative resistance of clothing
mat...
small scale tests
large scale tests
There are two types of test
small scale tests
 also sometimes referred to as bench test scale
 Small scale testing is an inexpensive way to assess t...
Disadvantage of this test
 Materials are located in an apparatus and oriented in a manner that is not representative
of n...
NFPA 2112 Edition: 2001
 Exposed heat flux: 84 kW/m2
 Expose Time: 3 seconds
 Number of specimen: 3
Application:
Flame-...
ASTM F 1930
manikin configaration
 thermally stable
 flame resistant
 non-metallic material
 100 heat flux sensors whi...
Thermo-Man
The DuPont Thermo-Man test is very similar to ASTM F 1930
manikin configuration
 The manikin is six feet, one ...
University of Alberta Test
manikin configuration
 fiberglass manikin
 110 skin simulant sensors made of an inorganic mat...
RESEARCH ON ADAM MANIKIN
HERE ARE THE FOUR RESEARCH / TESTS ARE DESCRIBED..
1.0 NAVY CLOTHING AND TEXTILE RESEARCH FACILIT...
NAVY CLOTHING AND TEXTILE RESEARCH FACILITY
• The organization focuses their efforts on research and development of textil...
NAVY FIRE SCENARIOS:
• LeBlanc analyzed possible fire scenarios in the engine room, berthing or supply areas, and the deck...
TEST FACILITY:
This facility was built at Alden Research Labs in Holden, Massachusetts, and was designed/constructed by
WP...
REPRODUCING REAL FIRE CONDITIONS
These tests recorded baseline functions of the apparatus. It was determined that the orig...
NAVY ENSEMBLE
The Navy ensemble consisted of the United States Navy’s First Attack fire suit, a Navy helmet and gloves, as...
ADAM
A TYPE OF THERMAL MANIKIN
ADAM
• ADAM means ‘Advanced Automotive Manikin ‘.
• A forerunner of such a new generation of manikins –ADAM was developed ...
APPLICATION (ADAM)
• ADAM was designed to evaluate the highly non-uniform and transient environments in
vehicles and aircr...
APPLICATION OF SAM (SWEATING AGILE THERMAL
MANIKIN)
APPLICATION
• The Sweating Agile Thermal Manikin (SAM) was developed to test
complete clothing systems Under Normal and Ex...
CONTINUE…
• It offers the facility to test products from the clothing industry as
well as to develop prototypes into finis...
THANK YOU
Manikin sam and adam
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Manikin sam and adam

Thermal Manikin is a human model to measure clothing insulation and to evaluate the relationship between thermal environment and thermal comfort. Thermal manikins are complex, delicate and expensive instruments.

Thermal manikins can react as a human being and some thermal manikins can also simulate human perspiration

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Manikin sam and adam

  1. 1. KHULNA UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY 1/19/2017 1 DEPT. OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING PRESENTATION ON Thermal Manikin of ADAM & SAM Mostafa khan 2k12 ID:1221016 fb: mostafa khan Email: pencil.k.te@gmail.com
  2. 2. THERMAL MANIKIN Thermal Manikin is a human model to measure clothing insulation and to evaluate the relationship between thermal environment and thermal comfort. Thermal manikins are complex, delicate and expensive instruments. Thermal manikins can react as a human being and some thermal manikins can also simulate human perspiration. The day is not so far when the Walking Position will be introduced on the thermal manikins.
  3. 3. REASON FOR USING THERMAL MANIKINS • The thermal manikin usually predicts values of some indicators of human heat strain like core & skin temperatures, sweat loss, heat storage and so on at a specific time intervals during a simulated exposure. These values are used to indicate the safe or practicable working situations. As example: • In the HEAT: The duration of safe work or rest periods and measures to prevent dehydration • In the COLD: The need for whole-body insulation
  4. 4. IMPORTANCE OF THERMAL MANIKIN The Thermal Manikin offers the following significant performances:  Relevant simulation of human body heat exchange  Whole body & local heat fluxes  Measurement of three-dimensional heat exchange  Integration of dry heat losses in a realistic manner  Objective method for measurement of clothing thermal insulation  Quick, accurate & repeatable  Cost effective instrument for comparative measurements & product development  Provides values for prediction models
  5. 5. ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES FOR THERMAL MANIKINS Thermal manikins need to have the certain properties in order to simulate the human body accurately.  Correct Body Shape and Size  Perfect Control of Heat Emission  Proper Control of Heat Distribution across the Skin Surface  Correct Emission rate of the skin  Accurate Control of the Distribution of Perspiration across the skin surface.
  6. 6. DESIGN OF THERMAL MANIKIN Advanced Thermal Manikins are consisted of three basic elements with optional additional features a. Temperature Sensors: The exterior skin of the manikin can be made of fiberglass, polyester, carbon fiber, or other heat conducting materials which works as a temperature sensors in each measurement zone. b. Heating Elements: There are Coiled Wire under the skin which is controlled by Software and heated through Electric Power. c. Human Simulation: Some supplemental devices with additional mass may be fitted that initiate general human actions like breathing, walking & sweating.
  7. 7. SPECIFICATIONS OF THERMAL MANIKIN The following qualities are must to have in a Good Thermal Manikin: • Strong Body: Must be stable & reliable • Joints: Must be able to move in all directions and sit, walk & stand naturally. Clothes should not stuck in the joints. • Perfect Human Body Shape • Uniform Wiring: To ensure accurate heating only 2.2mm distance should keep between two wires. • Intelligent Circuit: To calculate the entire surface temperature accurately. • Four Control Modes: To automatic Calibration & internal data logging • No heating • Heating to a fixed set point • Heating with fixed heat loss • Following a Human comfort equation
  8. 8. INPUTS REQUIRED FOR THERMAL MANIKINS The manikins respond to a HEAT or COLD stress depending on an interaction of variables which describe 4 factors. • Individual Expose: Size, Gender, Physical Fitness, State of Heat Acclimation • Thermal Environment: Air Temperature, Air Speed, Water Vapor Content & Radiant Temperature • Clothing Worn: Resistance to Sensible & Evaporative heat loss, Weight, Air permeability • Nature of Work: Duration, Metabolic heat produced, Mechanical work achieved.
  9. 9. APPLICATION FIELD OF THERMAL MANIKIN The thermal manikin works on the following areas:  Evaluation of clothing  Thermal Properties (Insulation, Evaporation, Resistance)  Protection (Fire, Radiation, Rain)  Evaluation of HVAC-systems (Buildings, Vehicles, Incubators)  Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality  Simulation of Human Occupancy  Physiological Simulation
  10. 10. Standard number ISO 15831:2004 Standard title Clothing - Physiological effects - Measurement of thermal insulation by means of a thermal manikin Requirement 1. Group of garments worn together on the body at the same time 2. Manikin made from metal or plastic 3. Constructed same as the adult body human 4. Consist of head ,chest , abdomen, back, buttock, arms, hands, legs and feet 5. Consist of 15 segments. Each segments controlled independently regards to surface temperature 6. Body hight:70 m REQUIREMENTS ACCORDING TO VARIOUS TEST STANDARD
  11. 11. Standard number ASTM F1291 - 05 Standard title Standard Test Method for Measuring the Thermal Insulation of Clothing Using a Heated Manikin Requirement 1. Manikin : standing sweating manikin having the form, shape, and size of an adult male or female 2. manikin shall be heated to a uniform, constant, skin temperature 3. consist of a head, chest/back, abdomen, buttocks, arms, hands, legs, and feet. 4. Total surface area shall be 1.8 ±0.3 m2, and height shall be 170 ±10 cm. 5. The manikin must have the ability to evaporate water from its surface 6. The skin temperature of the manikin shall be 35°C. 7. Measure the mean skin temperature with point sensors or distributed temperature sensors. 8. Controlled Environmental Chamber
  12. 12. Standard number ASTM F2370 - 05 Standard title Standard Test Method for Measuring the Evaporative Resistance of Clothing Using a Sweating Manikin Requirement 1. The manikin was equipped with extra humidity and temperature sensors (EK-H3 equipped with SHT75 sensors, Sensirion AG, Switzerland) on to its surface 2. Dressed in wet underwear (water content 810±15 g) 3. The whole system was placed on a weighing scale for continuous mass loss recording 4. Air temperature (PT 100 connected to PT-104, Pico Technology Ltd., UK) were recorded. 5. Relative humidity (EKH3 equipped with SHT75 sensors, Sensirion AG, Switzerland) were also recorded.
  13. 13. Standard number EN 13537:2002 Standard title Requirements for sleeping bags Requirement 1. thermal manikin surface (skin) temperature 34 °C 2. The tests according to the standard were carried out on six sleeping bags Figure . Sleeping bag .
  14. 14. Standard number ISO 9920:2007 Standard title Ergonomics of the thermal environment -- Estimation of thermal insulation and water vapour resistance of a clothing ensemble Requirement 1. It considered as the equivalent uniform thermal resistance, or thermal insulation, on a human body 2. thermal (wetted or sweating) manikins
  15. 15. Standard number ASTM E96/E96M - 05 Standard title Standard test methods for water vapor transmission of materials Requirement 1. Four specimens of the Dal-Seal TS membrane 2. The membranes are made from Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) with non-woven fiber laminated on both sides which is called Dal-Seal TS membranes 3. 33.54 mm (5.26 in.) in diameter 4. average thickness of 1.02 mm (0.04 in.) 5. to testing the specimens were conditioned at 23 ± 2°C 6. 50 ± 5% relative humidity
  16. 16. Standard number ASTM F1868 - 02 Standard title Standard test method for thermal and evaporative resistance of clothing materials using a sweating hot plate Requirement 1. Hot Plate—The guarded flat plate shall be composed of a test plate, guard section, and bottom plate 2. temperature (33 to 36°C) 3. distilled water shall be used to wet the test plate surface. 4. Liquid Barrie 5. Calibration Fabrics
  17. 17. small scale tests large scale tests There are two types of test
  18. 18. small scale tests  also sometimes referred to as bench test scale  Small scale testing is an inexpensive way to assess the fabric’s level of protection This test include some standards  NFPA 1971 Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Fire Fighting 2000 Edition  NFPA 1977 Standard on Protective Clothing and Equipment for Wildl and Fire Fighting 2005 Edition.
  19. 19. Disadvantage of this test  Materials are located in an apparatus and oriented in a manner that is not representative of normal application of the equipment.  In each small scale test, materials are tested statically and dry, which are not accurate representations of garments in real fire scenarios. Large scale test  Large scale tests involve dressing a manikin with fire fighter clothing  exposing the manikin to a fire environment  the focus is placed on full ensemble testing  This tests are discussed include NFPA 2112, ASTM F 1930, Thermo-Man, Pyroman, University of Alberta Test, Manikin Pit Test, RALPH, and the Robotic Manikin.
  20. 20. NFPA 2112 Edition: 2001  Exposed heat flux: 84 kW/m2  Expose Time: 3 seconds  Number of specimen: 3 Application: Flame-Resistant Garments for Protection of Industrial Personnel against Flash Fire Source: Chapter 8.5 of this standard compliance with ASTM F 1930 (see Section 2.8.2)
  21. 21. ASTM F 1930 manikin configaration  thermally stable  flame resistant  non-metallic material  100 heat flux sensors which withstand a heat flux from zero to 167 kW/m2 Figure : Instrumented Manikin in ASTM F 1930 Test Room Application: Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Flash Fire Simulations using an Instrumental Manikin Test room equipped  The chamber is 7.0 feet by 7.0 feet by 8.0 feet  8 propane burner  provide a uniform heat flux of at least 84 kW/m2  exposure time: five seconds
  22. 22. Thermo-Man The DuPont Thermo-Man test is very similar to ASTM F 1930 manikin configuration  The manikin is six feet, one inch tall  122 heat sensor Pyroman  similar to that of the DuPont Thermo-Man test  The total heat flux is obtained from transducers
  23. 23. University of Alberta Test manikin configuration  fiberglass manikin  110 skin simulant sensors made of an inorganic material known as Colorceran  Colorceran is made from calcium, aluminum, silicate, asbestos fibers, and a binder  manikin is painted with black, high temperature paint
  24. 24. RESEARCH ON ADAM MANIKIN HERE ARE THE FOUR RESEARCH / TESTS ARE DESCRIBED.. 1.0 NAVY CLOTHING AND TEXTILE RESEARCH FACILITY 2.0 NAVY FIRE SCENARIOS 3.0 NAVY ENSEMBLE 4.0 TEST FACILITY
  25. 25. NAVY CLOTHING AND TEXTILE RESEARCH FACILITY • The organization focuses their efforts on research and development of textiles and materials • Those were worn by our nation’s military for a variety of scenarios from moisture protection • Sailors’ dry-suits to materials protecting soldiers from biomedical hazards. • This facility’s objectives also include the protection of military (and civilian) fire fighters from thermal injuries in fire conditions. • Currently the Navy is restricted to testing fire fighter turnout gear on bench-scale • testing apparatus in their facility, leaving all full scale testing to the DuPont Thermo-Man manikin
  26. 26. NAVY FIRE SCENARIOS: • LeBlanc analyzed possible fire scenarios in the engine room, berthing or supply areas, and the deck using computer models and hand calculations • After investigation of these scenarios he determined that the majority of fires on board naval vessels would be so severe that no protective clothing would survive (LeBlanc, 62). • He focused his research on fires that were controllable; where fire fighters might find themselves working. • His final conclusions determined that the clothing test methods in 1998 did not accurately reflect fire scenarios. • That might be experienced by fire fighters, and therefore testing methods should be revised
  27. 27. TEST FACILITY: This facility was built at Alden Research Labs in Holden, Massachusetts, and was designed/constructed by WPI students .The design was focused on producing a test facility that can accurately portray naval shipboard fires.
  28. 28. REPRODUCING REAL FIRE CONDITIONS These tests recorded baseline functions of the apparatus. It was determined that the original design and configuration (as of 2002) was capable of creating fires in excess of 2 MW (Fay, 79). Data was gathered on 1 MW fires to determine what fluxes aninstrumented manikin would be exposed to in the facility at this burn rate.
  29. 29. NAVY ENSEMBLE The Navy ensemble consisted of the United States Navy’s First Attack fire suit, a Navy helmet and gloves, as well as a Scott SCBA and regular rubber boots. The suit is constructed of a Kevlar/PBI Outer Shell, Nomex Moisture Barrier, and a Kevlar Batt Thermal Liner. The ensemble can be seen as tested in Figure 4-36, without the navy helmet and gloves, and rubber boots.
  30. 30. ADAM A TYPE OF THERMAL MANIKIN
  31. 31. ADAM • ADAM means ‘Advanced Automotive Manikin ‘. • A forerunner of such a new generation of manikins –ADAM was developed for the American National Renewable Energy Laboratory for comfort testing. • It remains the world's most advanced thermal comfort manikin and represents a true leap in technology for thermal manikin research. • Subdivided into 120 individual porous metal sweating zones, ADAM was designed to evaluate the highly non-uniform and transient environments in vehicles and aircraft. • The manikin mimics human responses such as sweating and breathing with incredible accuracy and responds rapidly to environmental changes. Fig: ADAM
  32. 32. APPLICATION (ADAM) • ADAM was designed to evaluate the highly non-uniform and transient environments in vehicles and aircraft. • ADAM also used for thermal comfort research. • Used in Ventilated Seat Application. • Used in Liquid Cooling Garment Application. Fig: Liquid Cooling Garment Fig: Ventilated Seat
  33. 33. APPLICATION OF SAM (SWEATING AGILE THERMAL MANIKIN)
  34. 34. APPLICATION • The Sweating Agile Thermal Manikin (SAM) was developed to test complete clothing systems Under Normal and Extreme Conditions. • It’s main purpose to test moisture transport, thermal insulation, and their interaction influence both the comfort and protective properties of clothing systems. • It simulates the human body in terms of heat production, sweat production, and movement as closely as possible. Thus inherent costs of human tests and the possible risk to life.
  35. 35. CONTINUE… • It offers the facility to test products from the clothing industry as well as to develop prototypes into finished products more efficiently with lower expenditure. • Thus helps in the field of protective clothing (fire-fighter clothing etc.), where in most cases a conflict exists between the demands for protection and for the comfort of the wearer. By balancing these two factors accidents caused by heat stress can be avoided.
  36. 36. THANK YOU

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