Analysis of Business
Dr. L. Mothilal,
Department of Management Studies
Pondicherry Central University, India
Fad is short lived
opportunity which is
difficult to predict and
forecast. Business profit
from fad is pure matter of
luck and chance.
Trend is something which
takes time to build up
compared to fad and has a
Trend is sometimes co-
related with changes in
social culture and economic
Megatrend is much slower in
development and is associated with
technology and regulatory changes.
Megatrends are estimated to last
around half decade or more.
For companies trend and megatrend
are of great importance because they
present business opportunities to
This trend-spotting (scanning) activity can
be undertaken by company itself or
through market research. This activity can
also be outsourced to companies, which
specialize in analyzing current social and
Fitness and diet are trend, which witness
growth across the globe.
Factors influencing the Business
Globalization is affecting the way
companies are conducting their
Communication and connectivity are
reaching at a new level every day.
New economic powers like India,
China, Brazil and Russia are exerting
The Business Environment consists of a complex set of
interacting forces and influences outside the Organization.
The Business Environment affects the organization's ability
to build and maintain mutually beneficial relationships with
its target customers.
Through continuous monitoring its Business Environment a
company must be able to anticipate change and act in a
proactive way rather than leaving it to a reactive reaction.
It must also keep up to date by realizing.
Black Revolution – Petroleum Production
Blue Revolution – Fish Production
Brown Revolution – Leather/non-conventional(India)/Cocoa
Golden Fibre Revolution – Jute Production
Golden Revolution – Fruits/Overall Horticulture development/Honey
Green Revolution – Food grains
Grey Revolution – Fertilizer
Pink Revolution – Onion production/Pharmaceutical (India) /Prawn
Red Revolution – Meat & Tomato Production
Round Revolution – Potato
Silver Fiber Revolution – Cotton
Silver Revolution – Egg/Poultry Production
White Revolution (In India: Operation Flood) – Milk/Dairy
Yellow Revolution – Oil Seeds production
Evergreen Revolution – Overall development of Agriculture
Since Prometheus stole the fire
of knowledge from right under
the noses of the gods on Mount
Olympus and bestowed it upon
mankind, humans have not
stopped fiddling with it
and creating striking innovations
all throughout their evolution
THE FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION –
The first revolution spans from the end of the 18th century
to the beginning of the 19th century
Replaced agriculture with industry as the foundations of the
economic structure of society
Mass extraction of coal along with the invention of the
steam engine created a new type of energy that thrusted
forward all processes - Development of railroads and the
acceleration of economic, human and material exchanges.
THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION – 1870
New technological advancements initiated the emergence of a new source of
energy: electricity, gas & oil
The development of the combustion engine set out to use these new resources to
their full potential. Furthermore, the steel industry began to develop and grow
alongside the exponential demands for steel
Chemical synthesis also developed to bring us synthetic fabric, dyes and fertilizer.
Methods of communication were also revolutionized with the invention of the
telegraph and the telephone and so were transportation methods with the
emergence of the automobile and the plane at the beginning of the 20th century
Industrial model based on new “large factories” and the organizational models of
production as envisioned by Taylor and Ford
THE THIRD INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION – 1969
A third industrial revolution appeared with the emergence of a
new type of energy whose potential surpassed its
predecessors: nuclear energy.
This revolution witnessed the rise of electronics—with the
transistor and microprocessor—but also the rise of
telecommunications and computers.
This new technology led to the production of miniaturized
material which would open doors, most notably to space
research and biotechnology.
For industry, this revolution gave rise to the era of high-level
automation in production thanks to two major inventions:
automatons—programmable logic controllers (PLCs) - & Robots.
The first industrial revolution
used water and steam to
The second used electric energy
to create mass production
The third used electronics and
information technology to
Today a fourth industrial revolution is underway which
builds upon the third revolution and the digital revolution
that has been taking place since the middle of the last
This fourth revolution with exponential expansion is
characterized by merging technology that blurs the lines
between the physical, digital and biological spheres to
completely uproot industries all over the world.
The extent and depth of these changes are a sign of
transformations to entire production, management and
Fourth Industrial Revolution
Its genesis is situated at the dawn of the third millennium with the
emergence of the Internet.
This is the first industrial revolution rooted in a new technological
phenomenon—digitalization—rather than in the emergence of a new type
This digitalization enables us to build a new virtual world from which we
can steer the physical world.
The industry of today and tomorrow aim to connect all production means
to enable their interaction in real time. Factories 4.0 make
communication among the different players and connected objects in a
production line possible thanks to technology such as Cloud, Big Data
Analytics and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
Fourth Industrial Revolution contd…
However, this fourth industrial revolution could be the first to
deviate from the energy-greed trend—in terms of non-renewable
resources—because we have been integrating more and more
possibilities to power our production processes with alternative
Tomorrow, factories 4.0 will be embedded in smart cities and
powered by wind, sun and geothermal energy.
Within this context of profound technological and societal
changes—because the two always go hand in hand during
industrial revolutions—which is taking us towards global
digitalization, industrial cybersecurity will become a leading
Fourth Industrial Revolution contd…