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How to get
published?
Presenté par Geneviève Musasa
Customer Consultant Africa
g.musasa@elsevier.com
April 2015
Votre Acco...
TITLE OF PRESENTATION
| 2
2|
www.elsevierafrica.com
Registration to the training online to get your certificate
Click on t...
TITLE OF PRESENTATION
| 3
3|
Follow Elsevier Africa Latest News
on Facebook & on the blog
AGENDA
I. Introduction to scholarly
publishing
II. How to get published?
Practical Advices
III. Structuring your article
I...
Let’s start off with a film…
http://youtu.be/75xKK2eGQNk
I. Introduction to scholarly
publishing
7
Registration
The timestamp to officially note
who submitted scientific results
first
Certification
Perform peer-review t...
| 8
Academic publishing
The publishing cycle
Solicit &
manage
submissions
30-60%
rejected by
> 13,000
editors
Manage
Peer ...
| 9
 Peer review consists of the evaluation of articles
by experts in the field
 It was first used in 1665, by the Royal...
| 10
Source: Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory
Academic publishing
Peer-reviewed journal growth 1990-2013
| 11
What is open access?
Gold Open Access Green Open Access
Access  Free public access to the final published
article
 ...
| 12
What is the uptake of open access?
There were in 2013, estimated worldwide 2,041,106 published
subscription and 297,5...
II. How to get published?
Practical Advices
…your published papers, are a permanent record of your
research, are your passport to your community…
Always keep in mind ...
However, editors, reviewers, and the research
community don’t consider these reasons when
assessing your work.
Your person...
| 16
Planning your article
Are you ready to publish?
Not ready
Work has no scientific interest
Ready
Work advances the fie...
| 17
 Clear and useful message
 A logical manner
 Readers grasp the research
Planning Your Article
What makes a strong ...
| 18
Full articles
• Substantial, complete and comprehensive pieces of research
Is my message sufficient for a full articl...
| 19
Citations per Article Type
Your paper is worthless if no one reads, uses, or cites it
A research study is meaningful only if...
 It’s clearly descri...
Practical Advice
• Evaluate your research area
 http://top25.sciencedirect.com/
 Journals, authors, citations, publicati...
| 22
Choosing the right journal
Journal Finder Tool
Visit e.g. elsevier.com
to find:
• Aims & Scope
• Accepted types of
ar...
| 23
Choosing the right journal
Best practices
 Aim to reach the intended audience for your work
 Choose only one journa...
| 24
Preparing your manuscript
Read the Guide for Authors
 Find it on the journal homepage of the publisher, e.g. Elsevie...
Evaluate your research area – free tools
“Save as Alert”: Remind yourself about the new findings.
Evaluate your research area – in Scopus
Find out what is being cited and from where
View a citation overview of
the selected documents
View documents citing
the s...
Review the development of your research area
Choose the right journal
Do not just “descend the stairs”
Top journals
Nature, Science, Lancet, NEJM
Field-specific top jo...
Article Transfer Service
• Editors may transfer
sound submissions to
another Elsevier journal
30
• Provided the submission...
Choose a target journal
 Use your own references
 Check databases to find in what journals most articles
on your topic w...
Some bibliometric indicators
Key indicators of journal citation impact
| 33
Bibliometric indicators
Impact
Factor
Eigenfactor SJR SNIP H-Index
| 34
 It indicates how many times the more recent
papers in a journal are cited on average in a
given year
 It is influe...
TITLE OF PRESENTATION
| 35
35|
Journal Impact Factor 2012*
Pain 6.125
Nature Genetics 38.597
Annals of Mathematics 3.027
C...
TITLE OF PRESENTATION
| 36
36|
“There is no single ‘best’ indicator that could
accommodate all facets of the new reality o...
TITLE OF PRESENTATION
| 37
37|
SJR measures the prestige or
influence of a scientific journal
SJR considers not only the r...
TITLE OF PRESENTATION
| 38
38| | 38
It is based on
Scopus data
The SCimago Journal Rank
 Freely available at scimagojr.co...
TITLE OF PRESENTATION
| 39
39|
Source Normalized Impact per Paper
SNIP measures the contextual citation impact of a
journa...
| 40
Devised at the
University of Leiden,
currently the most
sophisticated
journal performance
indicator
Source Normalized...
TITLE OF PRESENTATION
| 41
41|
Journal analyzer: SJR, SNIP and more
TITLE OF PRESENTATION
| 42
42|
SJR and SNIP: two journal metrics in Scopus
Compare up to 10 journals
SJR is a prestige met...
TITLE OF PRESENTATION
| 43
43|
SNIP normalized impact per paper between subject field.
SJR and SNIP: two journal metrics i...
TITLE OF PRESENTATION
| 44
44|
Journal Analyzer: More analysis using Scopus
TITLE OF PRESENTATION
| 45
45|
“Using the Impact Factor alone to judge a journal
is like using weight alone to judge
a per...
TITLE OF PRESENTATION
| 46
46|
The h-index: Hirsch index or Hirsch number
In other words: An author has an index of
18 if ...
Assessment often highly based on
publications and citations
47
“not everything that
can be counted
counts,
and not everyth...
| 48
Recap
Before writing your paper
Determine if you are ready to publish your work
Decide on the best type of manuscript...
III. Structuring your article
2015
| 50
General structure of a research article
 Title
 Abstract
 Keywords
 Introduction
 Methods
 Results and Discussi...
| 51
 Attract reader’s attention
 Contain fewest possible words
 Adequately describe content
 Are informative but conc...
| 52
Keywords
Article title Keywords
“An experimental study on
evacuated tube solar collector using
supercritical CO2”
Sol...
| 53
 Summarize the problem, methods, results, and conclusions in a
single paragraph
 Make it interesting and understand...
| 54
The process of writing –
building the article
Title, Abstract, and Keywords
Figures/Tables (your data)
Conclusion Int...
| 55
Provide a brief context to the readers
Address the problem
Identify the solutions and limitations
Identify what the w...
| 56
Describe how the problem was
studied
Include detailed information
Do not describe previously
published procedures
Ide...
| 57
Include only data of primary
importance
Use sub-headings to keep results
of the same type together
Be clear and easy ...
| 58
Interpretation of results
Most important section
Make the discussion correspond to
the results and complement them
Co...
| 59
Conclusion
 Be clear
 Provide justification for the work
 Explain how your work advances the present state of know...
| 60
Acknowledgments
 Advisors
 Financial supporters and funders
 Proof readers and typists
 Suppliers who may have do...
| 61
References
 Do not use too many references
 Always ensure you have fully absorbed the
material you are referencing
...
Using proper scientific
language
2015
| 63
Do publishers correct language?
No!
It is the author’s
responsibility...
...but resources
are available
64
Editing and Translation services
| 65
Manuscript language: Overview
 Clear
 Objective
 Accurate
 Concise
Always read the journal’s Guide for Authors to...
| 66
Manuscript language: Sentences
 Write direct, short, and factual
sentences
 Convey one piece of information per
sen...
| 67
Manuscript language: Tenses
Present tense:
Use for known facts and hypotheses
Past tense:
Use for experiments conduct...
| 68
 Use active voice to shorten sentences
 Avoid contractions and abbreviations
 Minimize use of adverbs
 Eliminate ...
| 69
 Proper English is important so editors
and reviewers can understand the work
 Use short, concise sentences, correc...
IV. The reviewing process
A well understood concept, based on
impartiality, transparency and confidentiality
Without it there is no control in scien...
Purpose of Peer Review
Ensures best quality papers are selected
Improves quality of the published paper
Ensures previous w...
So how does it work?
Michael Derntl. Basics of Research Paper Writing and Publishing.
http://www.pri.univie.ac.at/~derntl/...
Role of Reviewer and tasks
The peer review process is based on trust
The scientific publishing enterprise depends largely
...
Issues to review as Reviewers
Importance and Clarity of Research Hypothesis
Originality of work
Strengths & weaknesses of ...
Rejection without external review
The Editor-in-chief evaluates submissions and
determines whether they enter into the ext...
| 77
Articles are initially reviewed by at least two reviewers
When invited, the reviewer receives the abstract of the man...
| 78
Review process (II)
If report has not been received after 4 weeks, the editorial office
contacts the reviewer
If ther...
| 79
Review process (III)
Reviewers must not communicate directly with authors
All manuscripts and materials must be treat...
| 80
What can you get back from peer review?
• Accepted without change (very rare!)
• Accepted after minor revision (means...
| 81
What leads to acceptance ?
• Attention to details
• Check and double check your work
• Consider the reviewers’ commen...
V. How to not publish
| 83
What is plagiarism?
“Plagiarism is the appropriation
of another person’s ideas, processes,
results, or words without ...
| 84
What may be plagiarised?
Work that can be plagiarised includes…
 Words (language)
 Ideas
 Findings
 Writings
 Gr...
| 85
Correct citation is key
 To place your own work in
context
 To acknowledge the findings of
others on which you have...
| 86
Plagiarism high amongst ethics issues
Sample of cases reported to Elsevier Journals publishing staff in 2012
| 87
How big is the problem of plagiarism?
 Huge database of 30+ million articles, from 50,000+ journals, from
400+ publi...
| 88
Plagiarism is serious but easily avoidable
 Plagiarism is easily avoided
 You can use ideas, phrases and
arguments ...
| 89
Paraphrasing
It is unacceptable:
 Using exact phrases from the
original source without enclosing
them in quotation m...
| 90
Recap
When in doubt, cite!
Never cut & paste
(even to save time in
drafts)
If you suspect:
REPORT
Responsibility
VI. Get noticed
Promoting your researcher for maximum
impact
| 92
You want to make sure your research gets the attention
it deserves
7 hrs/week
average time
spent on literature
1970 2...
| 93
1. Preparing your
article
2. Promoting your
published article
3. Monitoring your
article
Getting your paper noticed
94
• Usage Alerts
Quarterly e-mail to authors, with
a link towards a customized
web page per ar...
Make your paper stand out from the crowd…
Share your knowledge
Create your professional research profilePromoting your article
| 97
Monitoring your article
My Research Dashboard:
 Early feedback on downloads,
shares and citations
 Data about the g...
| 98
Monitoring your article
Altmetrics:
| 99
Getting noticed
 Sharing research,
accomplishments and
ambitions makes you more
visible
 With greater visibility, y...
| 100
Further reading at
publishingcampus.com
elsevier.com/authors
elsevier.com/reviewers
elsevier.com/editors
Get Publish...
| 101
Visit Elsevier Publishing Campus
www.publishingcampus.com
For more information on publishing ethics:
www.elsevier.com/ethi...
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How to get publish - Workshop CNUDST

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Comment publier votre article? des sessions de formation organisés par le CNUDSt en collaboration avec Elsevier en faveur des chercheurs tunisien.
27 - 29 Avril 2015

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How to get publish - Workshop CNUDST

  1. 1. How to get published? Presenté par Geneviève Musasa Customer Consultant Africa g.musasa@elsevier.com April 2015 Votre Account Manager Ahmed Shams A.Shams@elsevier.com
  2. 2. TITLE OF PRESENTATION | 2 2| www.elsevierafrica.com Registration to the training online to get your certificate Click on the above menu or scroll down the homepage and select Training or Event registration
  3. 3. TITLE OF PRESENTATION | 3 3| Follow Elsevier Africa Latest News on Facebook & on the blog
  4. 4. AGENDA I. Introduction to scholarly publishing II. How to get published? Practical Advices III. Structuring your article IV. The reviewing process V. How not to Publish VI. Get noticed
  5. 5. Let’s start off with a film… http://youtu.be/75xKK2eGQNk
  6. 6. I. Introduction to scholarly publishing
  7. 7. 7 Registration The timestamp to officially note who submitted scientific results first Certification Perform peer-review to ensure the validity and integrity of submissions Dissemination Provide a medium for discoveries and findings to be shared Preservation Preserving the minutes and record of science for posterity Role of Scientific Publications Publishers are investing in innovation and technology to fulfil these roles Use Promoting and facilitating the “Use” of scholarly information
  8. 8. | 8 Academic publishing The publishing cycle Solicit & manage submissions 30-60% rejected by > 13,000 editors Manage Peer Review 557,000+ reviewers Edit & prepare 365,000 articles accepted Production 12.6 million articles available Publish & Disseminate >700 million downloads by >11 million researchers in >120 countries!
  9. 9. | 9  Peer review consists of the evaluation of articles by experts in the field  It was first used in 1665, by the Royal Society in London  Peer review places the reviewer, with the author, at the heart of scientific publishing  Reviewers make the editorial process work by examining and commenting on manuscripts  Without peer review there is no control in scientific communication  Reviewers are the backbone of the whole process Academic publishing What is peer review?
  10. 10. | 10 Source: Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory Academic publishing Peer-reviewed journal growth 1990-2013
  11. 11. | 11 What is open access? Gold Open Access Green Open Access Access  Free public access to the final published article  Access is immediate and permanent  Free public access to a version of your article  Time delay may apply (embargo period) Fee  Open access fee is paid by the author, or on their behalf (for example by a funding body)  No fee is payable by the author, as costs are covered by library subscriptions Options  Publish in an open access journal  Publish in a journal that supports open access (also known as a hybrid journal)  Link to your article.  Selected journals feature open archives  Self-archive a version of your article Free and permanent access to scholarly research combined with clear guidelines (user licenses) for users to re-use the content. For more Open Access information: http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-access/open-access-options
  12. 12. | 12 What is the uptake of open access? There were in 2013, estimated worldwide 2,041,106 published subscription and 297,596 published open access articles 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 (est.) No.ofarticles(Thousands) Year Open access Hybrid Subscription Subscription content:  Continues to grow year on year at approx. 3-4%  Amounts to a total article share of approx. 87.3% in 2013  In 2013, Elsevier published over 330,000 articles which included an increase of 20,000 extra subscription articles Open access content:  Currently growing at approx. 20% in 2013  Amounts to a total article share (hybrid + ‘’pure’’ Gold) of approx.8.2% in 2013  The total article share of all immediately accessible OA articles is 12.7% including subsidized open access  In 2013, Elsevier published over 6,000 gold open access articles
  13. 13. II. How to get published? Practical Advices
  14. 14. …your published papers, are a permanent record of your research, are your passport to your community… Always keep in mind that…
  15. 15. However, editors, reviewers, and the research community don’t consider these reasons when assessing your work. Your personal reasons for publishing?
  16. 16. | 16 Planning your article Are you ready to publish? Not ready Work has no scientific interest Ready Work advances the field
  17. 17. | 17  Clear and useful message  A logical manner  Readers grasp the research Planning Your Article What makes a strong manuscript? Editors, reviewers and readers all want to receive well presented manuscripts that fit within the aims and scope of their journal.
  18. 18. | 18 Full articles • Substantial, complete and comprehensive pieces of research Is my message sufficient for a full article? Letters or short communications • Quick and early communications Are my results so thrilling that they should be shown as soon as possible? Review papers • Summaries of recent developments on a specific top • Often submitted by invitation Planning your article Types of manuscripts Your supervisor or colleagues are also good sources for advice on manuscript types.
  19. 19. | 19 Citations per Article Type
  20. 20. Your paper is worthless if no one reads, uses, or cites it A research study is meaningful only if...  It’s clearly described, so  Someone else can use it in his/her studies  It arouses other scientists’ interest, and  Allows others to reproduce the results By submitting a manuscript you are basically trying to sell your work to your community
  21. 21. Practical Advice • Evaluate your research area  http://top25.sciencedirect.com/  Journals, authors, citations, publications per year (Scopus) • Evaluate which journal is right for your article  Impact Factor  Alternative metrics (H-index, SNIP, SCImago)  Journal Analyzer (Scopus) • Find out more about the journals  Who are the editors?  Guide for authors • Getting your paper noticed  Cite Alert  Article Usage Alert IF
  22. 22. | 22 Choosing the right journal Journal Finder Tool Visit e.g. elsevier.com to find: • Aims & Scope • Accepted types of articles • Readership • Current hot topics • Ask for help from your supervisor or colleagues • DO NOT submit manuscripts to more than one journal at a time
  23. 23. | 23 Choosing the right journal Best practices  Aim to reach the intended audience for your work  Choose only one journal, as simultaneous submissions are prohibited  Supervisor and colleagues can provide good suggestions  Shortlist a handful of candidate journals, and investigate them: • Aims • Scope • Accepted types of articles • Readership • Current hot topics Articles in your reference list will usually lead you directly to the right journals.
  24. 24. | 24 Preparing your manuscript Read the Guide for Authors  Find it on the journal homepage of the publisher, e.g. Elsevier.com  Keep to the Guide for Authors in your manuscript  It will save your time
  25. 25. Evaluate your research area – free tools
  26. 26. “Save as Alert”: Remind yourself about the new findings. Evaluate your research area – in Scopus
  27. 27. Find out what is being cited and from where View a citation overview of the selected documents View documents citing the selected documents
  28. 28. Review the development of your research area
  29. 29. Choose the right journal Do not just “descend the stairs” Top journals Nature, Science, Lancet, NEJM Field-specific top journals Other field-specific journals National journals DO NOT gamble by submitting your manuscript to more than one journal at a time. International ethics standards prohibit multiple/simultaneous submissions, and editors DO find out!
  30. 30. Article Transfer Service • Editors may transfer sound submissions to another Elsevier journal 30 • Provided the submission is of high-quality and rejected because it doesn’t fit the Aims & Scope of the journal
  31. 31. Choose a target journal  Use your own references  Check databases to find in what journals most articles on your topic were published
  32. 32. Some bibliometric indicators Key indicators of journal citation impact
  33. 33. | 33 Bibliometric indicators Impact Factor Eigenfactor SJR SNIP H-Index
  34. 34. | 34  It indicates how many times the more recent papers in a journal are cited on average in a given year  It is influenced by editorial policies of journals and turnover of research Choosing the right journal The Impact Factor The impact factor can give you a general guidance, but it should NOT be the sole reason to choose a journal.
  35. 35. TITLE OF PRESENTATION | 35 35| Journal Impact Factor 2012* Pain 6.125 Nature Genetics 38.597 Annals of Mathematics 3.027 Computers & Operations Research 2.374 Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 17.778 Addiction Biology 5.914 Remote Sensing of Environment 6.144 *Journal Citation Reports 2013 Answer: All of them are the best journals in their subject areas. With IF journals from different subject fields CANNOT be compared. Which Journal is the Best Journal?
  36. 36. TITLE OF PRESENTATION | 36 36| “There is no single ‘best’ indicator that could accommodate all facets of the new reality of bibliometrics.” - Wolfgang Glänzel, Head of bibliometrics group Professor at KU Leuven, Belgium Bibliometrics – A discipline that uses statistical methods to analyze content and measure research performance
  37. 37. TITLE OF PRESENTATION | 37 37| SJR measures the prestige or influence of a scientific journal SJR considers not only the raw number of citations received by a journal… but also the importance or influence of the source of those citations SJR is a combination of the quantity & quality of the citations received SCImago Journal Rank
  38. 38. TITLE OF PRESENTATION | 38 38| | 38 It is based on Scopus data The SCimago Journal Rank  Freely available at scimagojr.com; on Scopus  Similar to Impact Factor, but considers 3 years  Self-citations limited  Citations weighted by the SJR of the citing journal Year 3 Year 2 Year 1 Citing Year
  39. 39. TITLE OF PRESENTATION | 39 39| Source Normalized Impact per Paper SNIP measures the contextual citation impact of a journal by normalizing citation values SNIP takes a research field’s citation frequency and the database field’s coverage into account It avoids delimitation and counters subject differences to balance the scales SNIP shows differences due to journal quality and not citation behavior
  40. 40. | 40 Devised at the University of Leiden, currently the most sophisticated journal performance indicator Source Normalized Impact per Paper  Freely available online via Scopus  Similar to Impact Factor, but considers 3 years  Measures contextual citation impact  Citations weighted by the likelihood of citation in the subject field of source Year 3 Year 2 Year 1 Citing Year
  41. 41. TITLE OF PRESENTATION | 41 41| Journal analyzer: SJR, SNIP and more
  42. 42. TITLE OF PRESENTATION | 42 42| SJR and SNIP: two journal metrics in Scopus Compare up to 10 journals SJR is a prestige metric and weights citations according to the status the citing journal
  43. 43. TITLE OF PRESENTATION | 43 43| SNIP normalized impact per paper between subject field. SJR and SNIP: two journal metrics in Scopus
  44. 44. TITLE OF PRESENTATION | 44 44| Journal Analyzer: More analysis using Scopus
  45. 45. TITLE OF PRESENTATION | 45 45| “Using the Impact Factor alone to judge a journal is like using weight alone to judge a person’s health.” Source: The Joint Committee on Quantitative Assessment of Research: “Citation Statistics”, a report from the International Mathematical Union
  46. 46. TITLE OF PRESENTATION | 46 46| The h-index: Hirsch index or Hirsch number In other words: An author has an index of 18 if he has published at least 18 papers; each of which has been cited at least 18 times (Published by Jorge E. Hirsch in August 2005) 1. h-index : Measures the productivity and impact of a scientist’s published work
  47. 47. Assessment often highly based on publications and citations 47 “not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted” Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
  48. 48. | 48 Recap Before writing your paper Determine if you are ready to publish your work Decide on the best type of manuscript Choose the target journal Check the Guide for Authors
  49. 49. III. Structuring your article 2015
  50. 50. | 50 General structure of a research article  Title  Abstract  Keywords  Introduction  Methods  Results and Discussion  Conclusion  Acknowledgements  References  Supporting Materials Read the Guide for Authors for the specific criteria of your target journal.
  51. 51. | 51  Attract reader’s attention  Contain fewest possible words  Adequately describe content  Are informative but concise  Identify main issue  Do not use technical jargon and rarely-used abbreviations Effective manuscript titles Editors and reviewers do not like titles that make no sense or fail to represent the subject matter adequately. Additionally, if the title is not accurate, the appropriate audience may not read your paper.
  52. 52. | 52 Keywords Article title Keywords “An experimental study on evacuated tube solar collector using supercritical CO2” Solar collector; supercritical CO2; solar energy; solar thermal utilization  Are the labels of the manuscript  Are used by indexing and abstracting services  Should be specific  Should use only established abbreviations (e.g. DNA) Check the Guide for Authors for specifics on which keywords should be used.
  53. 53. | 53  Summarize the problem, methods, results, and conclusions in a single paragraph  Make it interesting and understandable  Make it accurate and specific  A clear abstract will strongly influence whether or not your work is considered  Keep it as brief as possible Abstract Take the time to write the abstract very carefully. Many authors write the abstract last so that it accurately reflects the content of the paper.
  54. 54. | 54 The process of writing – building the article Title, Abstract, and Keywords Figures/Tables (your data) Conclusion Introduction Methods Results Discussion
  55. 55. | 55 Provide a brief context to the readers Address the problem Identify the solutions and limitations Identify what the work is trying to achieve Provide a perspective consistent with the nature of the journal Introduction Write a unique introduction for every article. DO NOT reuse introductions.
  56. 56. | 56 Describe how the problem was studied Include detailed information Do not describe previously published procedures Identify the equipment and materials used Methods
  57. 57. | 57 Include only data of primary importance Use sub-headings to keep results of the same type together Be clear and easy to understand Highlight the main findings Feature unexpected findings Provide statistical analysis Include illustrations and figures Results
  58. 58. | 58 Interpretation of results Most important section Make the discussion correspond to the results and complement them Compare published results with your own Discussion Be careful not to use the following: - Statements that go beyond what the results can support - Non-specific expressions - New terms not already defined or mentioned in your paper - Speculations on possible interpretations based on imagination
  59. 59. | 59 Conclusion  Be clear  Provide justification for the work  Explain how your work advances the present state of knowledge  Suggest future experiments
  60. 60. | 60 Acknowledgments  Advisors  Financial supporters and funders  Proof readers and typists  Suppliers who may have donated materials
  61. 61. | 61 References  Do not use too many references  Always ensure you have fully absorbed the material you are referencing  Avoid excessive self citations  Avoid excessive citations of publications from the same region or institute  Conform strictly to the style given in the Guide for Authors
  62. 62. Using proper scientific language 2015
  63. 63. | 63 Do publishers correct language? No! It is the author’s responsibility... ...but resources are available
  64. 64. 64 Editing and Translation services
  65. 65. | 65 Manuscript language: Overview  Clear  Objective  Accurate  Concise Always read the journal’s Guide for Authors to check for any additional language specifications.
  66. 66. | 66 Manuscript language: Sentences  Write direct, short, and factual sentences  Convey one piece of information per sentence  Avoid multiple statements in one sentence The average length of sentences in scientific writing is only about 12-17 words.
  67. 67. | 67 Manuscript language: Tenses Present tense: Use for known facts and hypotheses Past tense: Use for experiments conducted and results
  68. 68. | 68  Use active voice to shorten sentences  Avoid contractions and abbreviations  Minimize use of adverbs  Eliminate redundant phrases  Double-check unfamiliar words or phrases Manuscript language: Grammar
  69. 69. | 69  Proper English is important so editors and reviewers can understand the work  Use short, concise sentences, correct tenses, and correct grammar  Refer to the journal’s Guide for Authors for specifications  Have a native English speaker check your manuscript or use a language editing service Recap Are you using proper manuscript language?
  70. 70. IV. The reviewing process
  71. 71. A well understood concept, based on impartiality, transparency and confidentiality Without it there is no control in scientific communication Improving, validating, registering, and preserving research in a fair and unbiased way Principles of Peer Review 71
  72. 72. Purpose of Peer Review Ensures best quality papers are selected Improves quality of the published paper Ensures previous work is acknowledged Detects plagiarism and fraud Plays a central role in academic career development 72
  73. 73. So how does it work? Michael Derntl. Basics of Research Paper Writing and Publishing. http://www.pri.univie.ac.at/~derntl/papers/meth-se.pdf
  74. 74. Role of Reviewer and tasks The peer review process is based on trust The scientific publishing enterprise depends largely on the quality and integrity of the reviewers Reviewer should write reports in a collegial and constructive manner Treat manuscripts in the same manner as if they were your own 74
  75. 75. Issues to review as Reviewers Importance and Clarity of Research Hypothesis Originality of work Strengths & weaknesses of methodology, approach & interpretation Writing style and figure/table presentation Ethics concerns (animal/human) 75
  76. 76. Rejection without external review The Editor-in-chief evaluates submissions and determines whether they enter into the external review process or are rejected English language is inadequate Prior publication of the data Multiple simultaneous submissions of same data 76
  77. 77. | 77 Articles are initially reviewed by at least two reviewers When invited, the reviewer receives the abstract of the manuscript The Editor generally requests that the article be reviewed within 2-4 weeks Articles are revised until the reviewers agree, or until the Editor decides that the reviewer concerns have been adequately addressed The reviewers’ reports help the Editors to reach a decision on a submitted paper Review process (I)
  78. 78. | 78 Review process (II) If report has not been received after 4 weeks, the editorial office contacts the reviewer If there is a notable disagreement between the reports of the reviewers, a third reviewer may be consulted The anonymity of the reviewers is maintained, unless a reviewer asks the Editor to have their identity made known
  79. 79. | 79 Review process (III) Reviewers must not communicate directly with authors All manuscripts and materials must be treated confidentially by Editors and reviewers The aim is to have a first decision to the authors by 4-6 weeks (depending on the field) after submission Meeting the schedule objectives requires a significant effort by all involved Reviewers should treat authors as they themselves would like to be treated
  80. 80. | 80 What can you get back from peer review? • Accepted without change (very rare!) • Accepted after minor revision (means you will have to change a few things) • Accepted after consideration (means you will have to rewrite a few things, possibly sections, figures, provide more data, etc) • Reconsider after major revision (means you will have to address some fundamental shortcomings – possibly doing additional research and certainly rewriting big sections) • Rejection (means the manuscript is not deemed suitable for publication in that journal)
  81. 81. | 81 What leads to acceptance ? • Attention to details • Check and double check your work • Consider the reviewers’ comments • English must be as good as possible • Presentation is important • Take your time with revision • Acknowledge those who have helped you • New, original and previously unpublished • Critically evaluate your own manuscript • Ethical rules must be obeyed – Nigel John Cook Editor-in-Chief, Ore Geology Reviews
  82. 82. V. How to not publish
  83. 83. | 83 What is plagiarism? “Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit, including those obtained through confidential review of others’ research proposals and manuscripts.” Federal Office of Science and Technology Policy, 1999 “Presenting the data or interpretations of others without crediting them, and thereby gaining for yourself the rewards earned by others, is theft, and it eliminates the motivation of working scientists to generate new data and interpretations.” Professor Bruce Railsback, Department of Geology, University of Georgia
  84. 84. | 84 What may be plagiarised? Work that can be plagiarised includes…  Words (language)  Ideas  Findings  Writings  Graphic representations  Computer programs  Diagrams  Graphs  Illustrations  Information  Lectures  Printed material  Electronic material  Any other original work Higher Education Academy, UK
  85. 85. | 85 Correct citation is key  To place your own work in context  To acknowledge the findings of others on which you have built your research  To maintain the credibility and accuracy of the scientific literature Crediting the work of others (including your advisor’s or your own previous work) by citation is important for at least three reasons:
  86. 86. | 86 Plagiarism high amongst ethics issues Sample of cases reported to Elsevier Journals publishing staff in 2012
  87. 87. | 87 How big is the problem of plagiarism?  Huge database of 30+ million articles, from 50,000+ journals, from 400+ publishers  Software alerts Editors to any similarities between the article and this huge database of published articles  Many Elsevier journals now check every submitted article using CrossCheck
  88. 88. | 88 Plagiarism is serious but easily avoidable  Plagiarism is easily avoided  You can use ideas, phrases and arguments from sources already published, just acknowledge the source and the original author
  89. 89. | 89 Paraphrasing It is unacceptable:  Using exact phrases from the original source without enclosing them in quotation marks  Emulating sentence structure even when using different words  Emulating paragraph organization even when using different wording or sentence structure Paraphrasing is restating someone else's ideas while not copying their actual words verbatim. – Statement on Plagiarism Department of Biology, Davidson College. www.bio.davidson.edu/dept/plagiarism.html
  90. 90. | 90 Recap When in doubt, cite! Never cut & paste (even to save time in drafts) If you suspect: REPORT Responsibility
  91. 91. VI. Get noticed Promoting your researcher for maximum impact
  92. 92. | 92 You want to make sure your research gets the attention it deserves 7 hrs/week average time spent on literature 1970 2013 0 40M  The volume of research articles is growing at an accelerated pace  For most researchers, it’s a real challenge to keep up with the literature  Your job: make sure your research doesn’t fall through the cracks!
  93. 93. | 93 1. Preparing your article 2. Promoting your published article 3. Monitoring your article
  94. 94. Getting your paper noticed 94 • Usage Alerts Quarterly e-mail to authors, with a link towards a customized web page per article • Cite Alerts Weekly notification to authors once their article is referenced in a newly published article.
  95. 95. Make your paper stand out from the crowd… Share your knowledge
  96. 96. Create your professional research profilePromoting your article
  97. 97. | 97 Monitoring your article My Research Dashboard:  Early feedback on downloads, shares and citations  Data about the geographic locations and research disciplines of your readers  Search terms used in ScienceDirect to find your publications  A comparison of the performance of your article with other people’s articles
  98. 98. | 98 Monitoring your article Altmetrics:
  99. 99. | 99 Getting noticed  Sharing research, accomplishments and ambitions makes you more visible  With greater visibility, you get cited more, promote your research, and career
  100. 100. | 100 Further reading at publishingcampus.com elsevier.com/authors elsevier.com/reviewers elsevier.com/editors Get Published – top tips on writing, reviewing and grant writing etc. Publishing Ethics brochure – top reasons to publish ethically Get Noticed – new ways to promote your article and research Understanding the Publishing Process with Elsevier – complete guide Open access – definitions and options Career Planning Guide – download in 12 languages
  101. 101. | 101
  102. 102. Visit Elsevier Publishing Campus www.publishingcampus.com For more information on publishing ethics: www.elsevier.com/ethics For writing/submission tips and author services: : www.elsevier.com/authors Thank you

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