Ideology is a set of
assumption/beliefs/system that justifies
Examples for ideology:
patriarchy, matriarchy, white supremacy,
culture of poverty, heteronormativity
What is hegemony?
Masses can give their consent (see Nazism)
or resist (see civil rights movement).
Hegemony stabilizes when most members
give consent to the dominant ideology, said
illness and sexuality field of oppression
According to Foucault, illness and
sexuality can become fields of
By using the labels “abnormal” and
“immoral” that make people outcasts.
the Powerful secure their system
by constructing knowledge
Spreading systems of thought through
They determine what is “modern,” what is
awarded and what is punishable,
and label ability/disability, talent and
What kind of theory do we use for
analyzing how power operates?
Critical theory provides
with frame of concepts
to analyze how power operates
Foucault: History of Madness in the
Foucault questioned that the mad were merely sick
(“mentally” ill) and in need of medical treatment.
He reasoned that the alleged scientific neutrality of
modern medical treatments of insanity are in fact
“covers” for controlling,
and they oppress in the name of a conventional
The same is true for sexuality, and the concepts of
“man” (is it an object or subject?)
Foucault new idea about power
Foucault says, power has not only
negative but also positive impact
Power is also productive, helps
prevent chaos, and brings
discipline in social life