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History Of Globalization

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Senior Seminar Presentation on the History of Globalization

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History Of Globalization

  1. 2. <ul><li>“ The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe” </li></ul><ul><li>- Karl Marx </li></ul>
  2. 3. Globalization <ul><li>Term coined in 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>International Economic Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of late capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Political development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nation-state seen as the prime actor losing vital functions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homogenization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some could say globalization started during the birth of the Ottoman Empire </li></ul>
  3. 4. Segmented Trading World of Eurasia <ul><li>Trading empires built by Spain, Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Britain, and Holland </li></ul><ul><li>Silk Road and Spice Route </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of Slave Trade in 1650 </li></ul><ul><li>Colonialism of Ottoman lands by the French and British </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Resources brought to Western Europe from Ottoman Lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French and Brits integrating European culture into North Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http:// Caveman commercial </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Others say 1571… </li></ul>
  5. 6. 1571 <ul><li>Founding of Manila </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish in the Philippines conquered the Muslim settlement at Manila </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transpacific mindsets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanges of peoples, information, finances, and prayers parallel the modern phenomenon globalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of regular transpacific trade marks the creation of steady Asian-American ties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible regular transpacific trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forged the missing link in the global trade network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next two centuries this attraction fuelled other globalizing exchanges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel to the commercial ties—across the Pacific. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>But I believe it began after WWI… </li></ul>
  7. 8. Wartime <ul><li>US only country whose economy wasn’t damaged militarily </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culprit in interwar economics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reparations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not able to recover economically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great Depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1950 De-colonization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European empires in Asia and Africa produce nation states for first time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal-representative-economic institutions in the UN system and Bretton Woods created </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Bretton Woods <ul><li>Conference that took place in Bretton Wood New Hampshire </li></ul><ul><li>44 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Believed economic protectionism led to war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protectionism had to be attacked to reach economic stability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exchange rate system created after WWII </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International exchange rate stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasting peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Currency stabilization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance of payment difficulties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loans for war-torn and lesser developed countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// youtube.com/watch?v =GVytOtfPZe8 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. WTO <ul><li>Created in 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Revived from the failure of the ITO </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1948, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) had provided the rules for the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Forum for governments to negotiate trade agreements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberalizing trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains trade barriers </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Lets not forget about oil…. </li></ul>
  11. 12. OPEC <ul><li>The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries </li></ul><ul><li>created at the Baghdad Conference on September 10–14, 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Major say in the pricing of crude oil on world markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations </li></ul><ul><li>Founding members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kuwait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venezuela </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1973 Oil Embargo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yom Kippur War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows interdependence amongst nations for oil </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. New Global History Innovations <ul><li>New Global History lies in some of the following innovations: </li></ul><ul><li>Space Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of inhabiting a concrete global entity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Spaceship Earth“ which can be viewed from outside the earth's atmosphere; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satellites in outer space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link the peoples of the earth in an unparalleled fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Threats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either weapons or utility plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates territorial states cannot adequately protect its citizens from military or ecologically related &quot;invasions&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Chernobyl </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone holes & global warming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refuse to conform to lines drawn on a map </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Multinational Corporations & Big Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominate our economic and cultural lives. </li></ul></ul>

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