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Perancangan Strategik Untuk Agensi Sektor Awam (Public Organization)

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teknik untuk membangun pelan strategik untuk organisasi awam.
Techniques to develop strategic plan for public and non profits organisation

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Perancangan Strategik Untuk Agensi Sektor Awam (Public Organization)

  1. 1. Welcome Strategy Leader! To help you drive results by achieving sustainable strategic focus, I have created the Complete Guide to Strategic Planning, which provides an end-to-end overview of the strategic planning process.
  2. 2. MEMBANGUN DAN MELAKSANA PERANCANGAN STRATEGIK DENGAN BERKESAN TRAINER: Muhamad Bustaman Abdul Manaf Pensyarah Pakar (MP: Pengurusan ) Gred DG 54 Institut Aminuddin Baki (cgh) Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia mbustaman@iab.edu.my/0199890524
  3. 3. Introducing Your Workshop Facilitator MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 3 *Image mbam Specialist Trainer & Coach (MTIAB-011 (ST)/MTIAB-002 (SC) MUHAMAD BUSTAMAN BIN ABDUL MANAF PENSYARAH PAKAR GRED DG 54 BIDANG: Pengurusan
  4. 4. BIODATA PENCERAMAH MUHAMAD BUSTAMAN BIN HAJI ABDUL MANAF Jawatan Hakiki: Pensyarah Cemerlang DG54 (pengurusan pendidikan) Master Trainer: Tahap - Specialist Trainer & Specialist Coach Instutut Aminuddin Baki, KPM 1. 25 tahun berpengalaman memberi kursus Pengurusan Strategik di Institut Aminuddin Baki, KPM. 2. Menulis buku: i. Perancangan Strategik (IAB). ii. Pengurusan Kualiti dalam pendidikan (Utusan Pub) iii. Buku ketiga: Pengurusan Strategik untuk sekolah -di terbit oleh PTS. 3. Pernah mengikuti Latihan Profesionalisme dalam bidang Pengurusan Strategik dan Pengurusan Kualiti Latihan Luar Negara (selain dalam negara): • i. Strategic Management & Leadership: World Trade Institute, New York, USA (1996) • ii. TQM in Education: SEAMEO Innotech, Manila. Philippine (1998) • iii. Strategic planning in education: Uni of York, England (2000- 2004) (pengajian Phd) • iv. Strategy Performance Measurement (BSC): Uni of Adelaide, Australia (2005) 4. Berkelayakan sebagai Lead Auditor MS ISO 9000 sejak 1998 (berdaftar dengan IRCA London). 5. SUMBANGAN: Memberi khidmat konsultasi dalam Pengurusan Strategik dan KPI untuk semua peringkat Bahagian dalam Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia dan Antarabangsa. Ahli Panel Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti Star Rating (SSR) KPM, 6. Kepakaran lain: Kursus Pemikiran Strategik, Benchmarking, Quality Tools, Strategic Change, Strategic Leadership Skills, Leadership Coaching & Mentoring , Leadership & Mangement Skills. Strategic Decision making 4MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  5. 5. Buku ketiga (buku keempat akan menyusul: Pemikiran Strategik) 5MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  6. 6. Borang: Rekod Pembelajaran Perkara yang telah saya pelajari Tindakan saya selepas ini Diri Tempat kerja hakmilik@MBAM.IAB 6
  7. 7. Objektif Sesi Latihan: Di akhir sesi latihan, anda akan memahami dan menguasai kemahiran untuk: 1. Menetapkan hala tuju organisasi dan menterjemahkannya/berkongsi dengan semua pihak berkaitan. 2. Membuat analisis persekitaran dan menetapkan bidang keberhasilan utama (BKU/KRA), objektif, KPI, sasaran prestasi, penjajaran objektif dan Kamus Data KPI untuk mencapai visi dan misi. 4. Menjana strategi/inisiatif dan pelan tindakan untuk mencapai objektif dan sasaran prestasi yang ditetapkan. 5. Merangka pelan implementasi pelan strategik secara berkesan.
  8. 8. Jadual Sesi Latihan 8.15-10.15 pg 10.45- 12. 45 pg 2.30-4.30 ptg 8.30-10.30 mlm RABU F1: Lapor diri dan Mandat dari Ketua Pengarah F1: Pengenalan konsep PS Bina Pelan kerja Kemahiran berfikir strategik F1: Formulasi Strategi Analisis Persekitaran f2: Formulasi Strategi Hala Tuju KHAMIS F2: Formulasi Strategi • KRA/ Matlamat Strategik • Objektif • Pemetaan/penjajaran Objektif F2: Formulasi Strategi • Pembinaan, KPI, Sasaran prestasi • Kamus data KPI • Kamus Inisiatif F2: Formulasi Strategi • Penjanaan strategi dan taktik F2: Formulasi Strategi • Penjanaan strategi dan taktik JUMAAT F3: Implementasi Strategi • Cascading Pelan tindakan dan pelan operasi F3: Implementasi Strategi • Pelaksanaan Strategi secara berkesan - Rumusan - Penutup Kursus tamat Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 8
  9. 9. 9 Hello Sir, I’m Mr. Muhd. Bustaman from IAB to …………..
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  11. 11. 12 What’s An Organization’s Strategic Planning Like? snake wall spear tree hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPM
  12. 12. Definisi Pelan Strategik
  13. 13. Definisi Perancangan Strategik Perancangan strategik sebagai satu proses formulasi strategi dan implementasi strategi untuk mencapai misi dan visi organisasi. Ianya melibatkan proses analisis strategik (strategic analysis), pilihan s formulasi hala tuju strategik (strategic direction choices) dan pelaksanaan strategik (strategic implementation).
  14. 14. FAEDAH PENGURUSAN STRATEGIK • Panduan kepada warga organisasi mengenai apa yang mereka perlu capai untuk merealisasikan matlamat organisasi 1 • Penggunaan maklumat untuk menguruskan kapasiti dan perkhidmatan organisasi 2 • Analisa pencapaian organisasi, program atau pasukan. Perbandingan data pencapaian : sebenar vs dirancang3 • Kepekaan lebih tinggi jika sesuatu itu diukur… ‘What gets measured, get done’ 4 Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 17
  15. 15. 4 Langkah UtamaPerancangan Strategik Mengenal Status Organisasi (Where Are We Now? Menetapkan Strategi (Where we want go?) Melaksanakan Strategi (How to get there?) Menilai Prestasi (feedback and Performance Measurement) mbustaman.IAB.KPM.15 19
  16. 16. Dimanakah kita sekarang? Kemanakah Arah Hala Tuju? Bagaimanakah caranya? mbustaman.IAB.KPM.15 Mbam IAB KPM 2019 Analisis Organisasi 1. Pra-perancangan 2. KKPC (SWOC) 3. Pemegang Taruh 4. Jurang Prestasi 5. Prestasi Pelan Strategik Sedia ada 6. Isu-Isu Strategik Kepimpinan Strategik: Pemikiran, Tindakan & Pengaruh Penetapan Hala Tuju A. Semak: 1 Mandat Kerajaan 2. Misi, Visi & Nilai B. Penetapan 1. Matlamat/Bidang Keberhasilan Utama/Teras strategik 2. Objektif, KPI, Sasaran Prestasi 5 tahun (Min 3 tahun) 3.Pemetaan Strategi (penjajaran objektif) 4.Kamus Data KPI Rancang Tindakan 1. Strategi/Inisiatif 2. Pelan Tindakan 3. Pelan Risiko & Bajet 4. Pelan Pelaksanaan (pelan operasi, coaching (sumber manusia), pemantuan, pelaporan, pengukuran prestasi, semakan & tambahbaik) 5. Dokumentasi pelan
  17. 17. Perkembangan Dari Dasar kepada operasi Mandat & Misi Visi KRA/BKU Objektif Peta Strategi (Alignment) Petunjuk Prestasi Utama (KPI) & Sasaran Prestasi nya Inisiatif Strategik Pelan Tindakan , Pelan Operasi & Bajet Apakah Arahan/Tujuan /Tugas Utama? Apakah gambaran pencapaian masa depan? Apakah Bidang Kritikal (keberhasilan utama)? Hasil terakhir (Outcomes) yang ingin dicapai? Adakah sejajar? Apakah cara nak ukur prestasi? Bagaimanakah caranya? Pelaksanaan: pimpin, kawal dan tambah baik Apakah persekitaran organisasi?
  18. 18. KONSEP PENJAJARAN STRATEGIK STRATEGIK Ke mana arah tujuan dan sebabnya? TAKTIKAL Apakah tindakan khusus yang terbaik dan bila? OPERASI Apakah prosedur melaksanakan kerja dengan betul? 23 Jangka panjang- Broad Brush plan Jangka sederhana- Focusing down - clearer Jangka pendek- Precise Minima: 3 tahun Maksima: 2 tahun Maksima: 1 minggu Tempoh Masa MBustaman-IAB.KPM.15
  19. 19. 1. Analisis Kendiri Amalan Perancangan Strategik Berkualiti di Organisasi Anda Senarai semak bagi menilai tahap amalan perancangan strategik di PPD, JPN dan Sekolah Kerangka untuk Pemantauan dan coaching.
  20. 20. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 25
  21. 21. Apakah persediaan yang perlu di lakukan sebelum proses utama bermula?Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 29
  22. 22. Pelancaran Program (Planning the Journey) Aktiviti Utama: • 1. Penaja dan Penglibatan Pemimpin. (the mission critical first step). Penentuan siapa yang akan memimpin. Jawatankuasa induk & Kerja • 2. Sumber: Manusia, Kewangan, Masa, Data Prestasi Organisasi, Fasiliti & konsultan • 3. Pelancaran Pengurusan Perubahan • 4. Pelan Program Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 30
  23. 23. 2.1 Sumber Maklumat: i. Latar belakang organisasi ii. Pencapaian organisasi yang lepas (dalam semua aspek) iii. Laporan analisis prestasi program/projek (strategi) tahun sebelum iv. Laporan status prestasi semasa v. Analisis prestasi perancangan strategik lepas Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 31
  24. 24. 3.1. Pengurusan perubahan: Mengadakan taklimat kepada semua staf: Fokus utama: bina tahap kesediaan minda dan komitmen semua staf untuk berubah secara strategik. 1. Berfikir strategik 2. Bertindak secara strategik melalui Bersikap Pro aktif dan Berfokuskan kualiti Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 32
  25. 25. 4. Membina plan kerja/aktiviti bagi pembangunan pelan strategik (lihat contoh) Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 33
  26. 26. BIL AKTIVITI TARIKH TINDAKAN 1. Penubuhan Jawatankuasa Induk 14 Jun XX Pengetua/ Guru Besar 2. Taklimat memperkasakan sekolah kepada Jawatankuasa Kerja 20 Jun XX Pengetua/ Guru Besar 3. Agihan tugas kepada guru-guru Jawatankuasa Pelaksana 20 Jun XX JK Induk 4. Proses Pertama 4.1 Praperancangan 4.1.1 Latar belakang sekolah 4.1.1.1 Sejarah Sekolah 4.1.1.2 Enrolmen Murid 4.1.1.3 Biodata Guru Besar 4.1.1.4 Prestasi akademik, koakademik dan kokurikulum 4.1.1.5 Disiplin Murid 4.1.1.6 Demografi Penduduk 4.1.1.7 Persekitaran Sekolah 4.1.1.8 Kemudahan Fizikal 21 Jun XX 24 Jun XX JK Induk, JK Kerja & JK Pelaksana 34Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE
  27. 27. BIL AKTIVITI TARIKH TINDAKAN Proses Pertama 4.1 Praperancangan 4.1.2 Pencapaian terbaik sekolah 4.1.3 Laporan analisis program 4.1.4 Laporan prestasi semasa 4.1.4.1 Menyemak tahap kesediaan sekolah 4.1.4.2 Menyemak tahap kesediaan staf 4.1.4.3 Mengenal pasti pendekatan 4.1.5 Mengenal pasti mandat 4.1.6 Menetapkan jadual kerja pelaksana 21 Jun XX 24 Jun XX JK Induk, JK Kerja & JK Pelaksana 5. Proses Kedua 5.1 Mendefinisikan hala tuju sekolah 5.1.1 Menyemak pernyataan misi 5.1.2 Menyemak pernyataan visi 5.1.3 Menyemak pernyataan piagam pelanggan 5.1.4 Menyemak pernyataan moto,slogan,logo, warna organisasi 21 Jun XX 24 Jun XX JK Induk, JK Kerja & JK Pelaksana 35Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE
  28. 28. BIL AKTIVITI TARIKH TINDAKAN 6. Proses Ketiga 6.1 Analisis persekitaran 6.1.1 Analisis Persekitaran Strategik 6.1.2 Analisis SWOT 6.1.3 Pengumpulan analisis persekitaran 27 Jun XX 1 Julai XX JK Induk, JK Kerja & JK Pelaksana 7. Proses Keempat 7.1 Pembinaan Pelan Strategik & Pelan Taktikal 7.1.1 Mengenal pasti & memilih isu-isu strategik 7.1.2 Membentuk matlamat strategik & KPI 7.1.3 Menetapkan objektif jangka pendek & panjang 7.1.4 Pembinaan strategik utama (TOWS @ COWS Matrik) 7.1.5 Melengkapkan borang pemilihan strategi yang strategik 1 Julai XX 8 Julai XX JK Induk, JK Kerja & JK Pelaksana 36Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE
  29. 29. BIL AKTIVITI TARIKH TINDAKAN 8. Proses Kelima 8.1 Pembinaan pelan taktikal 8 Julai XX 15 Julai XX JK Induk, JK Kerja & JK Pelaksana 9. Proses Keenam 9.1 Pembinaan Pelan Operasi 9.2 Pelancaran Pelan Strategik 2015 15 Julai XX 22 Julai XX JK Induk, JK Kerja & JK Pelaksana 37Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE
  30. 30. 1. Berfikir strategik Bina tahap kesediaan minda dan komitmen semua staf untuk berubah secara strategik. MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 38
  31. 31. 1. Pemikiran Strategik Penjanaan idea Apakah yang mungkin berlaku? 2. Membuat Keputusan Strategik Membuat Pilihan What will we do? 3. Perancangan Strategik Mengambil Tindakan Bagaimanakah cara untuk melakukannya? Idea strategik Pilihan Keputusan Strategi & Taktik 39 Hubungan di antara pemikiran strategik dengan dengan Perancangan Strategik MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  32. 32. BS: Mengintegrasi masa hadapan dalam proses membuat keputusan hari ini melalui berfikir secara Besar, Mendalam dan Jauh 1. BIG 3. LONG 2. DEEP MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 40
  33. 33. 1. Luas (Big) Bagaimana sistem organisasi berhubung dan berinteraksi MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 41
  34. 34. MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 42
  35. 35. 2. Dalam (Deep) Sedalam mana kita menyoal cara kita beroperasi? Adakah kita bekerja berdasarkan interpretasi pengalaman lalu atau jangkaan masa hadapan? Adakah andaian kita sekarang diterima pakai pada masa hadapan? MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 43
  36. 36. Model ‘Iceberg’ Peranan Sosial, Nilai Imej Diri Trait Motif Kemahiran Pengetahuan Perlu untuk prestasi jangka pendek Sifat-Sifat fundamental bagi perubahan dan kejayaan jangka panjang Kompetensi Fungsian Kompetensi Tingkah Laku Data based
  37. 37. 3. Long/Jauh Sejauh mana kita melihat persekitaran masa hadapan? Adakah kita memahami alternatif organisasi kita pada masa hadapan? MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 45
  38. 38. FASA 1 DIMANAKAH KITA SEKARANG?
  39. 39. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 48 Fasa 2 Kandungan Utama 1. Analisis persekitaran • Dalaman • Luaran • Stakeholders 2. Analisis Jurang (Gap) 3. Cabaran/Isu
  40. 40. History of SWOT Analysis • SWOT analysis technique was found by Albert Humphrey who led a research project at Stanford University in the 1960s and 1970s. • He used the data from Fortune 500 companies to identify why corporate planning failed. • His research identified a number of key areas that were critical to corporate planning and the tool used to explore each of the critical areas was called SOFT analysis. • Albert Humphrey and the original research team used the following categories: “What is good in the present is Satisfactory, good in the future is an Opportunity; bad in the present is a Fault and bad in the future is a Threat.” • In 1964, at a conference the F in ‘SOFT’ was changed to a W, and thus, the emergence of ‘SWOT’ Analysis as we know it today came into existence. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 50
  41. 41. What is SWOT Analysis? SWOT Analysis enables a group/individual to handle everyday problems and look at traditional strategies from a new perspective. It is used as framework for organizing and using data and information gained from situation analysis of internal and external environment. SWOT Analysis is a planning tool used to understand Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats involved in a project/business. SWOT Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 51
  42. 42. Strengths S W O T W O T Strengths are: • Characteristics of the business or team that give it an advantage over others in the industry. • Positive, tangible and intangible attributes, internal to an organization. • Beneficial aspects of the organization or the capabilities of an organization, which includes human competencies, process capabilities, financial resources, products and services, customer goodwill and brand loyalty. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 52
  43. 43. Weaknesses S W O T S O T Weaknesses are: • Characteristics that place the organization at a disadvantage relative to others. • Detract the organization from its ability to attain the core goal and influence its growth. • Factors which do not meet the standards set in the organization. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 53
  44. 44. Opportunities S W O T S W T Opportunities are: • Chances to make greater profits in the environment. • External attractive factors that represent the reason for an organization to exist and develop. • Condition of the environment that benefits the organization in planning and executing strategies that enable it to become more profitable. Organization should be careful and recognize the opportunities and grasp them whenever they arise. Opportunities may arise from market, competition, industry/government and technology. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 54
  45. 45. Threats S W O T S W O ! Threats are: • External elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business. • External factors, beyond an organization’s control, which could place the organization’s mission or operation at risk. • Conditions in external environment that jeopardize the reliability and profitability of the organization’s business. Threats compound the vulnerability when they relate to the weaknesses. Threats are uncontrollable. When a threat comes, the stability and survival can be at stake. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 55
  46. 46. Tips for Effective SWOT Analysis Always be realistic about the strengths and weaknesses of your organization when conducting SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis should distinguish between where your organization is today, and where it could be in the future. SWOT should always be specific. Avoid gray areas. Keep your SWOT short and simple. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 58
  47. 47. Tips for Effective SWOT Analysis Always apply SWOT in relation to your competition, that is, better than or worse than your competition. Always keep in mind that SWOT is subjective. Avoid complexity and over analysis Once you have identified the key issues with your SWOT analysis, they feed into marketing objectives. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 59
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  51. 51. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 63
  52. 52. Analisis Pemegang Taruh Nama Pemegang Taruh (stakeholders) Tahap Kesan kepada organisasi : 1. Sgt tinggi 2. Tinggi 3. Rendah Apakah yang mereka perlukan dari kita? Peranan mereka dalam perancangan strategik Tahap kepentingan 1. Sgt tinggi 2. Tinggi 3. Rendah 1 2 3 4 5
  53. 53. 65 Where are we now? Where Do we want to go? How Do we do that ? What Do we need to Do to Get there? Basic Process for GAP Analysis Current State Gap Analysis Desired State Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE
  54. 54. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 68
  55. 55. Gap Analysis Baseline / Org Profile Challenges / SWOT Gap = Basis for Long-Term Strategic Plan Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 69
  56. 56. Definisi Risiko (risk)-ISO Guide 73:2010 •Risiko: Kesan yang tidak jelas/menentu (uncertainty) kepada pencapaian objektif (1.1) •Risiko ialah kemungkinan sesuatu peristiwa atau aktiviti yang memberi kesan kepada organisasi, kesan (sama ada negatif atau positif) pencapaian objektif organisasi/ hasil terakhir (outcomes) organisasi hak milik MBustaman IAB KPM 17 74
  57. 57. What is Risk? • Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value. • Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty . ( Uncertainty is a potential, unpredictable, and uncontrollable outcome; risk is a consequence of action taken in spite of uncertainty). hak milik MBustaman IAB KPM 17 75
  58. 58. DEFINISI PENGURUSAN RISIKO Pengurusan risiko didefinisikan sebagai penyelarasan aktiviti organisasi secara bersepadu melalui penetapan hala tuju dan kawalan dalam menghadapi risiko. MS ISO 31000:2010 hak milik MBustaman IAB KPM 17 76
  59. 59. Tujuan PR • The purpose of risk management is to ensure levels of risk and uncertainty are identified and then properly managed in a structured way, so any potential threat to the delivery of outputs (level of resourcing, time, cost and quality) and the realisation of outcomes/benefits by the Business Owner(s) is appropriately managed to ensure the project is completed successfully. • The objectives of the risk management approach in the organisation project are to identify, assess and mitigate risks where possible and to continually monitor risks throughout the remainder of the project as other risks or threats emerge or a risk’s impact or likelihood changes. hak milik MBustaman IAB KPM 17 77
  60. 60. Borang: Rekod Pembelajaran Perkara yang telah saya pelajari Tindakan saya selepas ini Diri Tempat kerja hakmilik@MBAM.IAB 78
  61. 61. 79 Analisis Jurang (Gap) MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  62. 62. FASA 2 KEMANAKAH ARAH HALA TUJU ORGANISASI?
  63. 63. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 81 Fasa 2 Kandungan Utama • 1. Penjelasan Hala Tuju Organisasi: • Mandat/Dasar Kerajaan, • Misi, • Visi, • Nilai Teras
  64. 64. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 82
  65. 65. mbustamanIABKPM14 Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 83
  66. 66. What is mandates? • Mandates are things the organisation is required to do (or not to do) and are often imposed by external actors. • Formal- law & regulation, rules • Informal- political mandates (Bryson, 2011) Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 85
  67. 67. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 86 Mandate Type of Mandate What does the mandate require us to do KPI to measure mandate met or not Process involved Formal Informal
  68. 68. 1. Kenal Pasti Hasil terakhir (outcomes) 88 Mandat Kerajaan Titik Permulaan Untuk Membina KPI MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  69. 69. Bagaimana untuk menulis pernyataan Misi, Visi dan Nilai? Mengapa ia perlu? How to get everybody on board? (participate in setting the organisational direction)
  70. 70. Mission Aspect How does or should this affect the strategy formulation & implementation Indicator- whether being fulfilled or not Assessment proces to determine the extend of mission fulfillment Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 92
  71. 71. Vision Aspect How does or should this affect the strategy formulation & implementation indicator- whether being fulfilled or not Assessment proces to determine the extend of vision fulfillment Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 93
  72. 72. NILAI TERAS PERKHIDMATAN
  73. 73. 2 MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 95
  74. 74. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 96 Fasa 2 Kandungan Utama • KRA/BKU • Objektif • Pemetaan Objektif (Penjajaran Objektif) • KPI • Sasaran prestasi • Kamus Data KPI
  75. 75. 97 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 97 Govt’ Mandate & Mission Vision Goals/KRA Objectives Measures Targets Actions/ Initiatives Why we exist What we want to be What we must achieve to be successful Indicators and Monitors of success Desired level of performance and timelines Planned Actions to Achieve Objectives O1 O2 AI1 AI2 AI3 M1M2M3 T1T1 T1 Specific outcomes expressed in measurable terms (NOT activities) Strategic Planning Action Planning Implementation / Measures SP, KRA or Strategic Goals Strategic problem, KRA or Goals serve as the starting point for developing Objectives, Initiatives, and KPIs down through the organization Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE
  76. 76. Apakah itu isu /masalah strategik? • Issue/Problem: “any thing, matter, person etc, that is difficult to deal with, solve or overcome” (Coyle, 2004) • Strategic: “a particular long-term plan for success” (Coyle, 2004) • Soalan: Apakah itu isu strategik? • Apakah ciri-ciri masalah strategik? Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 98
  77. 77. Penetapan Fokus/Bidang Strategik: Matlamat Strategik atau KRA • Strategic goals define what must be done to achieved the mission & vision. (Niven, 2003) • “Key Result Areas” or KRAs refer to general areas of outcomes or outputs to achieved the mission & vision (or for which the department's role is responsible). • Apakah bidang-bidang (general areas) yang perlu cemerlang untuk capai misi & visi? 99Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE
  78. 78. Rumusan •Apakah Bidang - Bidang Keberhasilan Utama (BKU)/ Organisasi Anda? Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 100
  79. 79. Isu Strategik (vs Isu Operasi) • Skop impak: Keseluruhan organisai • Tempoh masa: panjang • Bajet dan risiko: lebih 25% • Strategi penyelesaian: mandat, perubahan misi, struktur oragnisasi, cara kerja, fisiliti, pertambahan staf, stakeholders, perubahan teknologi,, penyampain • Kesan: jangka panjang
  80. 80. 102 Perspektif 3: Pembelajaran dan pertumbuhan KRA5: Pembangunan sumber manusia Objektif Strategik Pengukuran strategik(2018, 2019,2020) Inisiatif Strategik AkauntibilitiKPI Target Pemilik KPI 01: Peningkatan kapasiti dan keupayaaan staf organisasi 1.1 Peratus tahap kepuasan kerja warga Tov:: 80% 2018: 85% 2019: 86% 2020:88% Timbalan Pengarah sektor khidmat pengurusan Ketua Bahagian Pengurusan dan pentadbiran MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  81. 81. mbustaman.IAB.KPM.15 103 CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE Strategic Objective Strategic Measures (ST–2010; LT-2015; BL-2006) Strategic Initiatives 2007 Strategic Initiatives Accountability KPI Target ST / LT KPI Owner C1. Achieve status as a leading international academic & research institution imbued with Islamic values C1.1 World University Ranking according to Times Higher Education Supplement (THES) ST: Top 500 LT: Top 200 Rector 1. IIUM representatives in the OIC secretariat to play active role in the discussion of the OIC university ranking criteria 2. Highlight the following in the IIUM website: – academic linkages with reputable universities of the world – important international experts’ engagement with the IIUM – achievements of IIUM staff and students – Published articles in top journals – Books published by international publishers IIUM representatives in the OIC Secretariat ITD/PRO C1.2 University Ranking among the OIC countries BL: NEW ST: Top 25 LT: Top 10 Rector
  82. 82. 1.Berupaya menjawab terhadap isu strategik organisasi; 2.Objektif ialah sesuatu yang perlu dicapai berdasarkan sasaran prestasi yang ditetapkan. 3.Hasil akhir (final outcomes) yang ingin dicapai yang dinyatakan secara khusus yang ingin dicapai oleh organisasinya semasa melaksanakan misi asasnya 4.Secara keseluruhannya ia adalah suatu proses yang menjawab kepada persoalan “APAKAH YANG HENDAK DICAPAI?” (Desired Results) Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 104
  83. 83. 105 Pernyataan objektif strategik secara umumnya mengandungi tiga komponen UTAMA: KATA KERJA PRESTASI MENJAWAB ISU / FOKUS STRATEGIK UNTUK APA Contoh: Pertingkatkan, Peningkatan. Penurunan. permerkasaan, Perkukuhkan, Pemantapan, Penwujudkan dll Contoh: keupayaan, kualiti, pencapaian, kapasiti, kecekapan dan keberkesanan tadbir urus, sumber hasil, kualiti hidup, kolaborasi, , perundangan, pentadbiran, prestasi pengurusan dll Contoh: kecemerlangan organisasi, keberkesanan, kepuasan pelanggan, memenuhi mandat, komprehensif, efisien & profesional, kos efektif, kemakmuran negara dll 1 2 3 OBJEKTIF STRATEGIK Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 105
  84. 84. 108Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE
  85. 85. 109 Perhatian Penting • Setiap penulisan pernyataan objektif mesti jelas apakah hasil akhir atau outcomes yang ingin dicapai dalam satu tempoh tertentu. • Kegagalan mematuhi perkara di atas boleh memberi masalah untuk membina KPI. • Kesilapan umum: Objektif ialah ends bukan proses atau cara (means) iaitu strategi. Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE
  86. 86. The individual needs of each student are met Our students enjoy a positive and enjoyable learning experience Our students demonstrate exemplary behaviour Providing quality & varied extra curricula activities Effective teaching methods that instil the joy of learning Knowledgeable, efficient, competent, nurturing & highly motivated staff who display our core values Transparency & Accountability Financial viability FIDUCIARYLEARNINGINTERNALCUSTOMER b.1. ‘Align’: Pemetaan Objektif dengan Misi & Visi sekolah Our students strive towards academic excellence Safe welcoming, efficient, comfortable facilities and working environment Ongoing maintenance & upgrading of facilities Ample supply of resources – teaching aids, technology, equipment Consistent discipline Providing opportunity for Learning religion Principles Responsive curriculum that encompasses the motto “work, play and learn together” Our students are well rounded & excel in all fields Our students enjoy a safe, welcoming, efficient, comfortable and family oriented environment 113
  87. 87. Basic Scorecard Terminology (Institute Aminuddin Baki) Objectives Objectives: What the strategy is trying to achieve Targets Targets: The level of performance or rate of improvement needed Initiatives: Key action programs required to achieve targets InitiativesMeasures Measures: How success or failure (performance) against objectives is monitored Financial Excellent Financial Management Stakeholders & Customer satisfied with IAB services Stakeholders & Customer satisfaction Innovation & Growth Strategy Map Quality Core Business Quality & World Class Educational Leaders High Competency Staff and Peacefull Internal Business Processes Mission & Vision 114
  88. 88. Misi Sekolah:… Visi Sekolah:….. Isu Strategik: Peningkatan prestasi belum mencapai tahap yang diinginkan. KRA/Matlamat Strategik: Peningkatan Prestasi Akademik Objektif Petunjuk (KPI) Tov (base) 2012 2013 2014 Inisiatif / Strategi Akauntibiliti Peningkatkan prestasi SPM GPS % Lulus % 5As 2.0 93 10%.1 1.8 94.5 12% 1.7 97.0 16% 1.50 100 20% 1. meningkakan Kapibiliti guru dalam P&P 2. meningkakan Kemahiran Belajar pelajar 3. Meningkatkan sokongan komuniti GPK 1 (p) GPK HEM GPK koku 115
  89. 89. Penjajaran Objektif (Alignment) Pemetaan Objektif dengan Misi dan Visi
  90. 90. • A strategy map is a visual representation of the strategy of an organization. • It is an element of balanced scorecard concept. • It illustrates how the organization plans to achieve its mission and vision by means of a linked chain of continuous improvements. Strategy map
  91. 91. 120Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE
  92. 92. 124 Basic Scorecard Terminology (Institute Aminuddin Baki) Objectives Objectives: What the strategy is trying to achieve Targets Targets: The level of performance or rate of improvement needed Initiatives: Key action programs required to achieve targets InitiativesMeasures Measures: How success or failure (performance) against objectives is monitored Financial Excellent Financial Management Stakeholders & Customer satisfied with IAB services Stakeholders & Customer satisfaction Innovation & Growth Strategy Map Quality Core Business Quality & World Class Educational Leaders High Competency Staff and Peacefull Internal Business Processes Mission & Vision MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  93. 93. 126 Mengapakah pentingnya KPI dalam proses perancangan strategik? Mengikut Kaplan (2003): • If we can’t measure our processes, we can’t manage our processes • If we can’t manage our processes, we can’t change our processes for improvement • If we can’t improve our processes, we can’t meet or exceed our customers’ expectations • MEASURE - MANAGE – CHANGE - EXCEED MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  94. 94. 127 Definisi KPI • KPI adalah suatu parameter yang boleh diukur, yang telah dipersetujui bersama, dan yang akan mencerminkan kejayaan sesuatu organisasi • KPI adalah penunjuk atau tanda (signpost) kejayaan bagi membantu organisasi mentakrif dan mengukur kemajuan untuk mencapai objektif, matlamat, visi dan misi organisasi. • Kesimpulan: KPI adalah satu kaedah mengukur prestasi strategi dan matlamat sesebuah organisasi MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  95. 95. 130 Basic unit of measurement ◦ Percentage ( Peningkatan prestasi sebanyak 20% bagi tahun 2008) ◦ Absolute Numbers (Angka ) no. of… ◦ Total amount of .. (money/cost, time ) ◦ Ratio (Jumlah output rosak:jumlah output) ◦ Rating (CGPA 3 keatas) ◦ Ranking (Top 10, Best in the World) ◦ Average ◦ Grade ◦ Level of achievement mbustaman.IAB.KPM.15
  96. 96. 131 Identifying & Creating KPIs … That Can Present in Different Forms Rankings (Benchmarks) Absolute Numbers Rating (surveys) Ratio Percentages Indices Strategic Information Generated ComplexityofAnalysis MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  97. 97. APAKAH ITU SASARAN (target)? • Targets are quantified and time-based • Target: Desired level of performance *a performance measure (e.g., % of customer satisfaction target = 95%) (source: Balanced Scorecard Institute, USA. 2005) * Remember to set the baselines or take of values (TOV)/ a point to start measurement) 133MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  98. 98. 134 Why Do it? •1. to make objectives explicit and tangible •2. to quantify the expected value of the strategy •3. to motivate desired behaviors •4. to set timing for performance-improvement expectations •5. to calibrate strategic evaluation and learning mbustaman.IAB.KPM.15
  99. 99. 135 Why Do it? •1. to make objectives explicit and tangible •2. to quantify the expected value of the strategy •3. to motivate desired behaviors •4. to set timing for performance-improvement expectations •5. to calibrate strategic evaluation and learning mbustaman.IAB.KPM.15
  100. 100. 136 •1. Choose the Right Achievement Targets •Potential areas to consider when setting targets: •a. TOV or Baselines and trends •b. National, state, local or Education Standards. •c. Benchmarking •d. Feedback from customers and stakeholders • e. SWOT/C. mbustaman.IAB.KPM.15
  101. 101. •2. Understand the predictive (lead) and outcomes Metrics •3. Review the existing portfolio of metrics •4. Listen the voices of customer, stakeholders and others •5. Consider Noneconomic •6. Be careful with expensive benchmarking 137mbustaman.IAB.KPM.15
  102. 102. Bengkel: KAMUS DATA KPI 138mbustaman.IAB.KPM.15
  103. 103. 139PERFORMANCE MEASURE RECORD SHEET Measure A good self explanatory title Purpose Why are we measuring this? Relate to To which top level business object does this relate? Target What is to be achieved and by when? Formula How is this measured? Be precise Frequency How often is this measured and reviewed? Who Measures? Who collects and reports the data? Who acts on the data? Where does the data comes from? What do they do? What are the general steps which should be taken? Notes & Comments (Adapted from Neely et al, 1996) mbustaman.IAB.KPM.15
  104. 104. 140PERFORMANCE MEASURE RECORD SHEET Measure Customer complaints Purpose To understand what upsets customers so service and products can be improved Relate to Satisfying customers and retaining their business in the future Target Maintaining a customer complaint level of under 5 per cent per annum. Formula Number of customer complaints Number of orders despatched X 100 Frequency Monthly. Who Measures? Julie Carter, Customer Service Manager. Who acts on the data? Julie Carter, Customer Service Manager. What do they do? Analyse complaints by type, ensure relevant managers are informed of problems in their area and that those managers report back corrective action taken. Flag any major trends for discussion at quarterly management meeting. Notes & Comments A customer complaint is an email, letter or problem highlighted by telephone call to call centre staff which is logged on to the complaints system. mbustaman.IAB.KPM.15
  105. 105. 141 Bil Perkara Penjelasan 1. Perspektif BSC Stakeholder/Proses Dalaman/Pembelajaran/Kewangan 2. Matlamat Strategik/ KRA General Outcomes atau matlamat strategik yang juga dikenali strategi teras (grand strategy) / KRA yang dinyatakan secara umum (skop yang luas) dan tempoh masa yang panjang. 3 Objektif Hasil terakhir (final results) yang ingin dicapai 4 Penerangan tentang objektif Penerangan mengapa objektif itu penting untuk misi & visi 5 Fokus Kualiti Jenis : kecekapan, keberkesanan, kepuasan pelangan dll 6 Kekerapan masa pengukuran & Polariti Bilangan pengukuran dan trend pergerakan: cth meningkat itu baik atau menurun itu baik 7 Jenis unit pengukuran Contoh: peratus/ ranking/bilangan/ratio/tahap pencapaian 8. Formula pengukuran formula pengiraan 9 Sumber pengukuran jika ada 10 Kualiti data Validiti & realibiliti 11 Pemunggut Data Siapa yang bertanggungjawab 12 Baseline/TOV/status semasa titik permulaan sebagai asas pengukuran kemajuan 13 Target Prestasi (3-5 tahun) Pengukuran prestasi: cth 10%/ bilangan 2/ Tahap Johan 14 Rasional Target justifikasi penetapan sasaran- ia mesti realistik & realiable 15 Inisiatif Usaha/tindakan untuk capai objektifmbustaman.IAB.KPM.15
  106. 106. KAMUS DATA KPI Perspektif Kepuasan 'Stakeholders' dan Pelanggan Nama / Nombor Pengukuran/: Kepuasan Pelanggan / c01 Bertanggungjawab (owner) Dr.Samsiah bt Mustaffa (Tim Pengarah Khidmat Latihan) Matlamat Strategik: Stakeholders' dan Pelanggan Berpuas Dengan Perkhidmatan Teras yang Ditawarkan Objektif: Meningkatkan keberkesanan perlaksanaan program latihan Penjelasan Ukuran: Kepuasan pelanggan merujuk kepada % peserta kursus berpuas hati dengan program latihan yang sediakan oleh IAB. Ianya dinilai melalui skor komposit yang kira daripada skor sesi latihan(BK9)-90% dan skor pengurus kursus( Item 5 BK 10) Lag/Led: Lag Kekerapan: 4 kali setahun Jenis Unit: Peratus Polaritti Nilai Tinggi adalah petanda prestasi cemerlang Formula: 90% Skor Pengendalian Sesi Latihan (BK 9) + 10% skor Pengurus Kursus ( item 5 BK 10) Sumber Data : Penilaian Peserta kursus melalui sistem elektronik / manual BK 9 dan BK 10 yang diproses di Pejabat Urusetia Kursus Kualiti Data : Tinggi kerana dapat dianalisa secara 'on-time' pada akhir setiap kursus secara elektronik Pengumpul Data: En.Saufie bin Abdul Manaf (Penyelaras Program IAB) TOV: 95% Sasaran: 2009 2010 2011 100% 100% 100% Rasional Sasaran Kepuasan pelanggan adalah matlamat utama kualiti . Skor kepuasan pelanggan adalah penting untuk menilai sejauhmanakah program-program latihan IAB dilaksanakan dengan berkesan. Target 100% menunjukkan aspirasi IAB untuk mencapai 'zero-defect' dalam sistem penyampaian perkhidmatan yang diberikan serta penekanan kepada 'value for money' Inisiatif 1. Program orientasi dan Pembangunan pensyarah 2. Pematuhan Prosedur Kualiti PK-OP-02 dan Semakan 3. Latihan Pengurusan Kursus 4.Menyediakan kemudahan kursus yang lengkap dan terbaik 5.Memantapkan instrument penilaian kursus mbustaman.IAB.KPM.15 142
  107. 107. Bengkel Pembinaan Kamus Data Inisiatif mbustaman.IAB.KPM.15 143
  108. 108. 145 SasaranKPIObjektifMatlamatMisi/Visi Misi Visi M1 O1 O2 M2 O3 KPI 1 KPI 2 KPI 3 S -3 tahun s s Inisiatif, Pelan Tindakan & Pelan Operasi RUMUSAN: Rajah Pokok Untuk Perhubungan Misi dengan Sasaran MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  109. 109. 146 Inisiatif Strategik “ Broad priorities”: the overall directional areas the organisation will pursue to achieve its mission. MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  110. 110. 147 What is Organisational Strategy? • “A strategy is defined as a pattern, of purposes, policies, programmes, actions, decisions, or resource allocations that define what a school is, what it does, and why it does it. Strategies can vary by level function, and by time frame.” (Bryson, 1995, p.32) MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  111. 111. 149 Kriteria untuk formulasi strategi • Penerimaan (pembuat keputusan) • Impak kepada pelanggan/stakeholder • Relevan • Konsisten dengan msi, visi dan nilai • Fisibiliti teknologi dan kos • Pengurusan risiko • Latihan yang diperlukan • “Timing’ • Adaptibiliti dengan persekitaran MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  112. 112. 153 THE COWS MATRIX (GENERATION OF STRATEGIC OPTIONS) STRENGTHS 1. 2. LIST STRENGTHS 3. 5. 6. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT WEAKNESSES 1. 2. LIST WEAKNESSES 3. 4. OPPORTUNITIES 1. 2. LIST OPPORTUNITIES 3. 4. 5. S-O STRATEGIES PENETRATION EXPANSION INTENSIFICATION ACQUISITION INTEGRATION OF BACKWARD AND FORWARD LINKAGES W-O STRATEGIES NICHE LINKAGING OR NETWORKING SUB-CONTRACTING ANCHORING ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT/CAPABILITY BUILDING CHALLENGES/THREATS 1. 2. LIST THREATS 3. 4, 5. S-T STRATEGIES DIVERSIFICATION CONSOLIDATION CONTINGENCY MECHANISMS W-T STRATEGIES RETRENCH MERGE WITHDRAW CLOSE SHOP STATUS QUO EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  113. 113. 154 PENILAIAN STRATEGI KRITERIA PEMILIHAN STR 1 STR 2 STR3 STR4 STR 5 STR 6 STR 7 STR 8 a. Tahap kesukaran proses kerja kompetensi staf yang bertanggungjawab. b. Kompetensi staf yang bertanggungjawab. c. Sumber kewangan dan kos pembiayaan terlibat d. Kemudahan infrastruktur dan peralatan. e. Andaian keupayaan yang mengatasi halangan. f. Andaian hasil yang dijangkakan/ impaknya untuk mencapai objektif, matlamat/isu, misi dan visi. g. Rekod keberkesanan pelaksanaan yang lepas. h. Kesesuaian dengan persekitaran terkini. i. Akur/ kepatuhan dengan mandat dan arahan. 0 2 5 3 2 5 5 5 5 5 1 5 1 0 2 1 1 5 3 1 4 1 3 2 0 2 2 0 1 2 2 1 2 1 0 1 0 1 1 5 3 4 5 4 7 1 2 2 2 4 0 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 1 5 0 3 2 1 3 1 2 2 2 0 Jumlah 32 21 18 10 30 19 24 16 Kedudukan Strategi Mengikut Keutamaan 1 4 6 8 2 5 3 7 MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  114. 114. Analisa Cadangan Strategi Objektif Strategi yang dicadangkan Pelan Taktikal yang dicadangkan Fakta yg menyokong strategi ini Halangan untuk melaksanakan strategi ini Pendorong untuk memilih strategi S1: Meningkatkan semangat kecintaan kepada sekolah dan kerja berpasukan dikalangan warga sekolah S2:Menekankan kepada prinsip kerja berkualiti (TQM) setiap masa dikalangan semua staf. 1. Program Perasa 2. Summer Camp 3. Hari Anugerah Kualiti 4. Jamuan akhir tahun & hari keluarga 5. Anugerah staf cemerlang 6. Ceramah Motivasi 7. Lawatan ‘Benchmarking’ 1 Ceramah Kefahaman tentang TQM & ISO 9000 2. Bengkel pemantapan prosedur kerja 3. Hari bersama pelanggan 4. Kajian kepuasan pelanggan 5. Lawatan ‘benchmarking’ 155MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  115. 115. Blue Ocean Strategy Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 156
  116. 116. Blue Ocean Strategy Tools Strategy Canvas • A diagnostic tool for building a compelling blue ocean strategy • It captures the current state of play in the known market space • Allow you to understand : • where the competition is currently investing • the factors the industry currently competes on in product, service and delivery • what customers receive from existing competitive offerings on the marketCopyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 157
  117. 117. Four Action Framework Eliminate Reduce Raise Create Which of the factors that the industry takes for granted should be eliminated? Which factors should be reduced well below the industry’s standard? Which factors should be created that the industry has never offered? Which factors should be raised well above the industry’s standard? Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 158
  118. 118. Potential strategy fail? • 1. mistaken focus on where, not how, to compete. • 2. Strategy not unique or adaptable • 3. Not enough attention paid to timing, place, people, budget. • 4. Wrong measures used to determinea success. • (McKinsey)
  119. 119. 160 Perspektif 3: Pembelajaran dan pertumbuhan KRA5: Pembangunan sumber manusia Objektif Strategik Pengukuran strategik(2018, 2019,2020) Inisiatif Strategik Akauntibiliti KPI Target Pemilik KPI 01: Peningkatan kapasiti dan keupayaaan organisasi 1.1 Peratus tahap kepuasan kerja warga Tov:: 80% 2018: 85% 2019: 86% 2020:88% Timbalan Pengarah sektor khidmat pengurusan Ketua Bahagian Pengurusan dan pentadbiran MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  120. 120. 161 Misi :… Visi :….. KRA/Matlamat Strategik : Peningkatan Prestasi Akademik Objektif Petunjuk (KPI) Tov (base) 2017 2018 2019 Inisiatif / Strategi Akauntibiliti Peningkatkan prestasi UPSR GPS % Lulus % 5As 2.0 93 10%.1 1.8 94.5 12% 1.7 97.0 16% 1.50 100 20% 1. meningkakan Kapibiliti guru dalam P&P 2. meningkakan Kemahiran Belajar pelajar 3. Meningkatkan sokongan komuniti GPK 1 (p) GPK HEM GPK koku MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  121. 121. 1. Initiative name (project to achieve objective) 1.1 Initiative Description 2. Initiative Owner 2.1 Strategic Objectives covered 2.2 Project Roles & Responsibiliies 3. Intended Results 3.1 Risks 3.2 Assumptions & constraints 3.3 Management control 3.4 Major Tasks 3.5 Milestones 3.6 Deliverables & Staff 4. Purpose/business case 4.1 Budget 4.2 PRIJECT Project KPI & target Copyright ©2016 MBustamanAM IAB MOE 162 Strategic Initiative Dictionary (SID)
  122. 122. 163 MEMBINA PELAN TAKTIKAL MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  123. 123. Satu set rangka tindakan yang diperlukan untuk memastikan objektif strategik tercapai. Mengandungi lima komponen utama: 1. Strategi/Inisiatif Strategik 2. Tindakan/Program & Tanggungjawab 3. Masa (tarikh pelaksanaan) 4. Sumber (bajet) 4. Indikator (KPI)-petunjuk prestasi program 5. Sasaran Pencapaian 6. Pelan Kontigensi/B (pada aktiviti yang perlu) MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 164
  124. 124. 165 1. STRATEGI – Suatu susunan pendekatan-pendekatan dan kaedah-kaedah untuk mencapai objektif strategik. Bagaimana nak capai? 2. TINDAKAN/PROGRAM– Apa yang perlu dilakukan? & Siapa Yang bertanggungjawab pada program itu (pemilik KPI) 3. Tempoh masa atau Tarikh Perlaksanaan 4. Sumber: khususnya kos 5. INDIKATOR (KPI) – Kayu ukur pencapaian dan keberkesanan strategi/program yang dilaksanakan 6. SASARAN/TAHUN SASARAN – Angkubah yang ditetapkan untuk dicapai dalam tempoh tertentu. 7. Pelan Risiko & Peluang PELAN TINDAKAN MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 165
  125. 125. PELAN TiNDAKAN Objektif : Meningkatkan kerjasama sepasukan dalam kalangan guru dan staf Tempoh : sekali setahun KPI : % penglibatan staf . Sasaran : 95% guru dan staf melibatkan diri 166MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 NAMA INISIATIF/STRATEGI Mewujudkan Partnership/ Rakan Strategi dengan pihak luar BIL AKTIVITI/PROGRAM/ PROJEK T/JAWAB TARIKH KOS/ SUMBER Hasil akhir (output/outcome) KPI Sasaran Pencapaian 1 Program Maju Diri GPK HEM Minggu 1 Jan, Mei, Julai RM500.00 PIBG murid lebih positif dan berminat untuk belajar % murid yang berubah sikap dan minat belajar % murid terlibat % penurunan kes disiplin % datang kelas tambahan 100% 100% 100% 100% 2 Bengkel Kemahiran belajar (Kelas peperiksaan) GBSM 2 hari Mac Setiap tahun RM300.00 KAUNSELING Murid menguasai kemahiran belajar % murid dapat pendedahan 100%
  126. 126. Format 2 MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 167
  127. 127. Questions
  128. 128. 169 2.6: MEMBINA PELAN OPERASI MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  129. 129. Penterjemahan Pelan Strategik Kepada Pelan Operasi. HALA TUJU STRATEGIK Organisasi SUMBER DELIVERABLES KPI Ketua jabatan Punca Kuasa Stakeholder & Pelanggan Visi dan Misi KRA (termasuk MKRA jika berkaitan) Isu-isu Stratgeik Objektif Strategik KPI & Sasaran Pencapaian Strategi/inisiatif Pelan Tindakan (tahunan) KPI Berdasarkan Outcome (termasuk MKPI jika berkaitan) KPI: Output/outcomes Aktiviti : Prestasi Individu : Prestasi Kewangan : Prestasi Proses : Prestasi Penyampaian Perkhidmatan KPI BERDASARKAN OUTPUT PELAN OPERASI/SKT Pelan Operasi Menjelaskan aktiviti-aktiviti yang hendak dilaksanakan pada tahun semasa berserta sasaran yang ditetapkan oleh bahagian didalam sesebuah agensi. MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 170
  130. 130. 171 Format Program/Pelan Operasi • 1. Nama Program • 2. Rasional • 3. Objektif Program • 4. Tarikh dan Tempoh Pelaksanaan • 5. Jawatankuasa pelaksana dan senarai tugas • 6. Kos Pelaksanaan • 7. Jadual Tindakan (senarai proses kerja termasuk carta aliran kerja) & tindakan kontingensi • 8. Penilaian Program • 9. Tindakan Susulan • 10. Lampiran Berkenaan MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  131. 131. 172 Alat Asas Kualiti (Tools) 1. Carta Aliran 2. Lembaran Semak 3. Histogram 4. Gambarajah Pareto 5. Gambarajah Sebab & Akibat (Tulang Ikan) 6. Gambarajah Serakan 7. Stratification 8. Force Field Analysis 9. Carta Kawalan MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  132. 132. 173 ALAT KUALITI (QUALITY TOOLS) UNTUK MEMBUAT ANALISIS MAKLUMAT BAGI MENJANA DAN MEMILIH STRATEGI DAN TAKTIK 173MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  133. 133. 174MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  134. 134. 175 Management Methods  TOWS/COWS  Affinity Diagram  Benchmarking  Deming Wheel(PDCA)  Gantt charts  ISO 9001  Quality Circles  7S McKinsley  6 Sigma  KPI MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  135. 135. 176 Strategi Kanvas (Blue Ocean Strategy) MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  136. 136. 177 *Image via Bing MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 Fasa 3: Implementasi (HOW)
  137. 137. Planning without implementation is useless. Implementation without planning is dangerous - Sun Tze- MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 178
  138. 138. 179Source: Palladium GroupMBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  139. 139. 180 Isu-Isu Utama Dalam Pelaksanaan Perancangan Strategik Secara Berkesan Satu kajian dalam majalah Fortune mendapati bahawa kurang10 peratus daripada strategi yang dijana dengan berkesan telah dilaksanakan dengan berkesan. Dalam kajian lain, Fortune mendapati bahawa dalam lebih daripada 70% peratus daripada kes-kes apabila CEO gagal bukan berpunca daripada strategi tetapi pelaksanaan yang jauh menyimpang. MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  140. 140. 181 HALANGAN TERHADAP PELAKSANAAN STRATEGI MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  141. 141.  Program Kesedaran  Memperuntukkan sumber yang mencukupi bagi aktiviti yang kritikal  Menggubal polisi yang menyokong strategi  Menginstitusikan amalan-amalan terbaik dan program-program penambahbaikan berterusan  Menyediakan sistem sokongan  Menanam budaya korporat yang menyokong strategi  Meluaskan pelaksanaan kepimpinan strategik  Membangunkan mekanisme untuk memantau dan menganalisa prestasi berdasarkan tahap pencapaian sasaran pelan tindakan  Perlu dilaksanakan sepanjang masa dan konsisten serta mampu menyalurkan maklumat yang diperlukan dalam membuat keputusan  Boleh mengukur tahap kecekapan penggunaan sumber dan tahap keberkesanan pelaksanaanMBustaman-IAB KPM 15 182
  142. 142. Fleksibiliti dan Simplisiti 183 MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  143. 143. Make a strategic plan more flexible. How? No strategic plan plays out exactly to script. More frequent progress reviews increased accountability and keep the plan flexible. We can overcame this barrier by: • Frequently review progress and how the environment is changing • Keep the strategic plan at a high level, with flexibility for implementation of the details and some reserve funds • Increase you contact with vendors and customers as the plan rolls out • Track the details of cross-functional work, not within departments. Let the department heads manage their teams • Make sure you have the right people involved -those with something in it for them • Part of the plan includes several 'what if' contingencies • Set the review cycle to give time for actions to take effect but not too long miss a market opportunity • Give the key players the 'right' to reconvene the team if they see something that must be addressed 184MBustaman-IAB KPM 15
  144. 144. mengumpul maklumat dan menilai pencapaian dengan membandingkan pencapaian sebenar dengan sasaran prestasi yang telah ditetapkan. MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 185 Rujuk Helaian Kerja Edaran: Penilaian Strategi
  145. 145. AKTIVITI TAHUN BULAN BULAN BULAN BULAN BULAN 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 rbincangan Persiapan Awal ngkel : Pembangunan Pelan Strategik nulisan Draf Pelan Strategik murnian Draf Pelan Strategik gn-off ncetakan Pelan Strategik it Conference Gantt Chart Pelan Strategik PBT MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 186
  146. 146. Tindakan 1. Senaraikan KPI dan sasaran prestasi yang telah ditetapkan. 2. Kumpulkan data mengenai pencapaian sebenar bagi setiap KPI. 3. Bandingkan pencapaian sebenar dengan sasaran prestasi bagi setiap KPI. 4. Kira peratus pencapaian bagi setiap KPI dan kenal pasti jurang pencapaian. 5. Buat analisis dan rumusan mengenai prestasi pencapaian setiap perkhidmatan yang disampaikan kepada pelanggan berasaskan pencapaian semua KPI yang diwujudkan bagi setiap perkhidmatan. 6. Buat analisis jurang dan kaji punca berlakunya jurang. MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 187
  147. 147. 7. Sediakan laporan mengenai tahap pencapaian prestasi organisasi keseluruhan yang mengandungi: a. Analisis mengenai pencapaian sasaran prestasi setiap perkhidmatan. b. Analisis mengenai jurang pencapaian sebenar berbanding sasaran prestasi setiap KPI yang ditetapkan. c. Analisis mengenai punca-punca berlakunya jurang. d. Cadangan tindakan pembetulan dan penambahbaikan untuk meningkatkan tahap prestasi perkhidmatan yang disampaikan kepada pelanggan. Tindakan MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 188
  148. 148. 189 MISI VISI Contoh: BORANG PELAPORAN PRESTASI Objektif KPI Tov Sasaran Prestasi Sebenar Ulasan MATLAMAT: (LIHAT TOOL KIT 9) MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 189
  149. 149. Bil Nama Risiko (Risk Area & Name) Isu Dalaman & luaran Isu Berkaitan Stakeholde rs Punca Risiko (Source Of Risk) (insiden) Keberangkalian Impak Tahap Risiko (Risk Severity) Strategi Penyelesaian (Mitigation Strategy) Kaedah Pelaksanaan (Key Controls) Tanggungjawa b (Responsibilit y/ Risk Owner) Kajian Semula (Review) 1. Bidang risiko 1.1. nama risiko 1.2. nama risiko PELAN PENGURUSAN RISIKO(nama organisasi) DAFTAR RISIKO (RISK REGISTER) BAHAGIAN: …………………………………. hak milik MBustaman IAB KPM 17 190
  150. 150. RUMUSAN MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 194
  151. 151. Rujukan utama • 1. Allison and Kaye. (2003) Strategic Planning for Public and Non-profit Organizations. San Francisco: John Wiley & Son, Inc. • 2. Bryson, J.M. (2004). Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations: A guide to strengthening and sustaining organizational achievement 3rd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. • 3. Hairuddin.M.A. & Muhamad Bustaman.A.M. (2009) Perancangan Strategik Sekolah. Kuala Lumpur: PTS Publication • 4. Kaplan & Norton. (1996) Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy Into Action. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. • 5. Kaplan & Norton. (2004) Strategy Maps: Converting Intangible Assets Into Tangible Outcomes. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. • 6. Kaplan & Norton. (2006) Alignment: Using the Balanced Scorecard to Create Corporate Synergies. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. • 7. Miller, B.A. (2007) Assessing Organizational Performance in Higher Education. San Francisco: John Wiley & Son, Inc. • 8. Niven, P.R. (2003). Balanced Scorecard: Step-by-step for Government and Nonprofit Agencies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. • 9. Sevier, R. (2000). Strategic Planning for Higher Education Institution. Chicago, USA. 10. http://managementhelp.org/plan_dec/str_plan/str_plan.htm MBustaman-IAB KPM 15 195

teknik untuk membangun pelan strategik untuk organisasi awam. Techniques to develop strategic plan for public and non profits organisation

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