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Deepwater horizon

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catastrophe écologique

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Deepwater horizon

  1. 1. Deepwater Horizon Source: du net Manuel & musical 02-05-2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>Deepwater Horizon plate-forme de forage </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>le 20 avril 2010 explosion et le naufrage ultérieur de la Deepwater Horizon plate-forme de forage est très visible. La plate-forme était située à environ 50 miles au sud de la côte de la Louisiane. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>La plateforme Deepwater Horizon, propriété de la société Transocean, contenait 2,6 millions de litres de pétrole et extrayait près de 1,27 million de litres par jour. Elle a sombré 48 heures après une explosion suivie d'un incendie. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>L'image de gauche a été acquise par RADARSAT-1 en mode ScanSAR étroit A le 26 avril 2010 à 11:59:39 TUC, tandis que l'image de droite a été acquise par RADARSAT-2 en mode ScanSAR étroit B le 28 avril 2010 à 11:51:29 TUC. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>L’explosion le 20 avril sur une plate-forme pétrolière du golfe du Mexique, a fait 17 blessés et 11 disparus. Des colonnes de flammes s'élèvent du derrick de 122 mètres de haut. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Ce n'est pas la première marée noire qui les atteint (voir les naufrages de l'Exxon Valdez en 1989, de l'Odyssey en 1988; du Burmah Agathe en 1979, de l'Hawaiian Patriot en 1977, du Corinthos en 1975 ou encore du Mandoil en 1968). Par contre, compte tenu de son ampleur, celle-ci risque d'être la plus grave jamais enregistrée </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>La compagnie pétrolière britannique BP, exploitant de la plateforme de forage en eau profonde qui a sombré au large du golfe du Mexique, assume &quot;l'entière responsabilité de la marée noire </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Michael Abdenhoff, un porte-parole de BP   Nous avons trouvé une nouvelle fuite. Elle est en amont des deux fuites déjà présentes. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Un responsable du groupe pétrolier BP a reconnu jeudi que la fuite de pétrole dans le golfe du Mexique pourrait atteindre 5.000 barils (800.000 litres) par jour, </li></ul>
  11. 18. <ul><li>Des barrages flottants ont été mis en place près de la côte </li></ul>
  12. 19. <ul><li>Un bateau récupère le pétrole qui s'est échappé de la plateforme </li></ul>
  13. 22. <ul><li>la Garde nationale construis une barrière Hensco sur l'île Dauphin, Alabama.May 3, 2010. Les barrières devront solidifier le pétrole qui entre dans les barrières. </li></ul>
  14. 23. Crédits photo: © BP plc
  15. 28. La couleur rouge corresponds à un pétrole vieilli
  16. 30. <ul><li>Les marais côtiers de la Louisiane constituent un sanctuaire pour la faune, en particulier les oiseaux aquatiques. la nappe ne pollue les pêcheries, cruciales pour l'économie locale. </li></ul>
  17. 31. Près de 200 bateaux se trouvent aux abords de la nappe du brut qui s’ étend désormais sur plus de 200km de long et 110 de large
  18. 33. <ul><li>L'énorme silo blanc d'une centaine de tonnes a été embarqué à bord d'une barge partie de Port Fourchon (Louisiane). BP a par ailleurs commencé à creuser un puits de secours afin de boucher le conduit d'origine et détourner définitivement le pétrole vers une autre plateforme. </li></ul>
  19. 34. <ul><li>L’Exxon Valdez est le nom d'un pétrolier américain qui s'échoua en 1989 sur la côte de l'Alaska et provoqua une importante marée noire qui eut un grand retentissement aux États-Unis et entraina des modifications significatives de la législation américaine sur le transport maritime en particulier de pétrole. </li></ul>l'Exxon Valdez
  20. 35. <ul><li>Plus de 40 millions de litres de pétrole brut se répandent au large de l'Alaska. En tout, 2000 kilomètres de côtes sont touchés. On pensait que tout avait été nettoyé mais une nouvelle étude montre que ce n'est pas le cas. De nombreuses plages sont toujours polluées, vingt ans après. </li></ul>
  21. 36. Plate-forme Ixtoc 1
  22. 37. <ul><li>La plate-forme Ixtoc 1 était une plate-forme pétrolière d'exploration mexicaine de la Pemex située dans le Golfe du Mexique, à 950 kilomètres au large du Texas. Le 3 juin 1979, à la suite d'une fausse manœuvre, le pétrole est violemment expulsé du puits, puis prend feu. La plate-forme incendiée s'écroule et commence à libérer son pétrole, provoquant la plus grande marée noire de l'histoire. Entre dix et trente milles barils de brut se répandirent par jour dans le golfe pendant 9 mois. Lorsque la fuite d'hydrocarbure est colmatée en mars 1980, ce sont entre 470 000 et 1 500 000 tonnes de pétrole qui se sont échappées. </li></ul>
  23. 38. <ul><li>Les marées noires sont un véritable traumatisme pour les régions touchées. Ces pollutions ont un impact global à la fois écologique, économique et sanitaire. </li></ul>Bonne journée

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