BY : Mussarat
D/o Qadeer Ahmed
Dr. Syed Iftikhar Jafri
Faculty of Education
University Of Sindh
• The word motivation derives from the Latin
verb mover meaning ‘to move'. OR
• Internal state or condition that activates
behavior and gives it direction.
• Desire or want that energizes and directs
• Influence of needs and desires on the
intensity and direction of behavior.
Importance of Motivation
Motivation is a primary or secondary
influence on behavior. That is, are
changes in behavior better explained by
principles of environmental/ecological
influences, perception, memory, cognitive
development, emotion, explanatory style,
or personality or are concepts unique to
motivation more pertinent.
Sources of Motivational Needs
Biological • Elicited by stimulus associated/connected to
innately connected stimulus.
• Obtain desired, pleasant consequences
(rewards) or escape/avoid undesired,
social • Imitate positive models.
• Acquire effective social competence skills.
• Be a part of a dyad, group, institution, or
Biological • Increase/decrease stimulation (arousal).
• Activate senses (taste, touch, smell, etc.
• Decrease hunger, thirst, discomfort, etc.
• Maintain homeostasis, balance.
Cognitive • Maintain attention to something interesting
• Develop meaning or understanding.
• Increase/decrease cognitive disequilibrium;
• Solve a problem or make a decision.
• Figure something out.
• Eliminate threat or risk.
Affective • Increase/decrease affective dissonance.
• Increase feeling good.
• Decrease feeling bad.
• Increase security of or decrease threats
• Maintain levels of optimism and
Conative • Meet individually developed/selected goal.
• Obtain personal dream.
• Develop or maintain self-efficacy.
• Take control of one's life.
• Eliminate threats to meeting goal, obtaining
• Reduce others' control of one's life.
Spiritual • Understand purpose of
• Connect self to ultimate
Theories of Motivation
1) Sociocultural Theories.
4) Psychoanalytic Theories.
5) Humanistic Theories.
6) Social Learning.
7) Social Cognition.
8) Transpersonal or Spiritual Theories.
9) Simulative Theories.
1. Encourage Students
2. Get Them Involved
3. Offer Incentives
4. Get Creative
5. Draw Connections to Real Life
Achievement Motivation can be defined
as an individual's need to meet realistic
goals, receive feedback and experience a
sense of accomplishment.
Twenty Tips on Motivating Students
• Know your student’s names and use their
names as often as possible.
• Plan for every class; never try to wing it.
• Pay attention to the strengths and
limitations of each of your students.
Reward their strengths and strengthen
• If possible, set your room in a U-shape to
encourage interaction among students.
• Vary your instructional strategies; use
lectures, demonstrations, discussions, case
studies, groups, and more.
• Review the learning objectives with your
students. Be sure students know what they
are expected to learn, do, know, etc.
• Move around the room as you teach.
• Make your classes relevant. Be sure
students see how the content relates to
them and the world around them.
• Be expressive. Smile.
• Put some excitement into your speech;
vary your pitch, volume and rate.
• Give lots of examples.
• Encourage students to share their ideas
and comments, even if they are incorrect.
You'll never know what students don't
understand unless you ask them.
• Maintain eye contact and move toward your
students as you interact with them. Nod your
head to show that you are listening to them.
• Provide opportunities for students to speak to
• Be available before class starts, during break,
and after class to visit with students.
• Return assignments and tests to students as
soon as reasonably possible. Provide
• Be consistent in your treatment of students.
• Make sure that your exams are current, valid,
and reliable. Tie your assessment to your
• Plan around 15-20 minute cycles. Students
have difficulty maintaining attention after a
longer period of time.
• Involve your students in your teaching. Ask
Motivation Christine Walters PSY/355 Jeremy
Christensen Motivation is the process in which
behavior is initiated, guided, and maintains goal-
oriented behaviors. “We may define motive
(or motivation) as a need, want, interest, or desire that
propels someone (or an organism) in a certain
direction” (Psychology, 2014). Motivation cannot be
directly observed but through behaviors we see it
manifested. It is thought of as the driving force that
compels a person to do something,
Behavior, Cognition, Human behavior.