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Motivation and its importance in leaning

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  1. 1. Motivation BY : Mussarat D/o Qadeer Ahmed Assigned by: Dr. Syed Iftikhar Jafri Faculty of Education University Of Sindh
  2. 2. Motivation Definition • The word motivation derives from the Latin verb mover meaning ‘to move'. OR • Internal state or condition that activates behavior and gives it direction. • Desire or want that energizes and directs goal-oriented behavior. • Influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior.
  3. 3. Importance of Motivation Motivation is a primary or secondary influence on behavior. That is, are changes in behavior better explained by principles of environmental/ecological influences, perception, memory, cognitive development, emotion, explanatory style, or personality or are concepts unique to motivation more pertinent.
  4. 4. Sources of Motivational Needs Biological • Elicited by stimulus associated/connected to innately connected stimulus. • Obtain desired, pleasant consequences (rewards) or escape/avoid undesired, unpleasant consequences. social • Imitate positive models. • Acquire effective social competence skills. • Be a part of a dyad, group, institution, or community.
  5. 5. Biological • Increase/decrease stimulation (arousal). • Activate senses (taste, touch, smell, etc. • Decrease hunger, thirst, discomfort, etc. • Maintain homeostasis, balance. Cognitive • Maintain attention to something interesting or threatening. • Develop meaning or understanding. • Increase/decrease cognitive disequilibrium; uncertainty. • Solve a problem or make a decision. • Figure something out. • Eliminate threat or risk.
  6. 6. Affective • Increase/decrease affective dissonance. • Increase feeling good. • Decrease feeling bad. • Increase security of or decrease threats to self-esteem. • Maintain levels of optimism and enthusiasm. Conative • Meet individually developed/selected goal. • Obtain personal dream. • Develop or maintain self-efficacy. • Take control of one's life. • Eliminate threats to meeting goal, obtaining dream. • Reduce others' control of one's life.
  7. 7. Spiritual • Understand purpose of one's life. • Connect self to ultimate unknowns.
  8. 8. Theories of Motivation 1) Sociocultural Theories. 2) Behavioral. 3) Cognitive. 4) Psychoanalytic Theories. 5) Humanistic Theories. 6) Social Learning. 7) Social Cognition. 8) Transpersonal or Spiritual Theories. 9) Simulative Theories.
  9. 9. Motivating Students 1. Encourage Students 2. Get Them Involved 3. Offer Incentives 4. Get Creative 5. Draw Connections to Real Life
  10. 10. Achievement Motivation Achievement Motivation can be defined as an individual's need to meet realistic goals, receive feedback and experience a sense of accomplishment.
  11. 11. Twenty Tips on Motivating Students • Know your student’s names and use their names as often as possible. • Plan for every class; never try to wing it. • Pay attention to the strengths and limitations of each of your students. Reward their strengths and strengthen their weaknesses.
  12. 12. • If possible, set your room in a U-shape to encourage interaction among students. • Vary your instructional strategies; use lectures, demonstrations, discussions, case studies, groups, and more. • Review the learning objectives with your students. Be sure students know what they are expected to learn, do, know, etc. • Move around the room as you teach.
  13. 13. • Make your classes relevant. Be sure students see how the content relates to them and the world around them. • Be expressive. Smile. • Put some excitement into your speech; vary your pitch, volume and rate. • Give lots of examples. • Encourage students to share their ideas and comments, even if they are incorrect. You'll never know what students don't understand unless you ask them.
  14. 14. • Maintain eye contact and move toward your students as you interact with them. Nod your head to show that you are listening to them. • Provide opportunities for students to speak to the class. • Be available before class starts, during break, and after class to visit with students. • Return assignments and tests to students as soon as reasonably possible. Provide constructive feedback. • Be consistent in your treatment of students.
  15. 15. • Make sure that your exams are current, valid, and reliable. Tie your assessment to your course objectives. • Plan around 15-20 minute cycles. Students have difficulty maintaining attention after a longer period of time. • Involve your students in your teaching. Ask for feedback.
  16. 16. Conclusion Motivation Christine Walters PSY/355 Jeremy Christensen Motivation is the process in which behavior is initiated, guided, and maintains goal- oriented behaviors. “We may define motive (or motivation) as a need, want, interest, or desire that propels someone (or an organism) in a certain direction” (Psychology, 2014). Motivation cannot be directly observed but through behaviors we see it manifested. It is thought of as the driving force that compels a person to do something, Behavior, Cognition, Human behavior.