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Fancy weaves


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Fancy weaves explained

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Fancy weaves

  1. 1. + WOVEN FABRICS - Review
  2. 2. + Decorative Effects  Plain Weave Examples:  Warp and/or Filling direction stripes  Stripes  gingham  plaids  Twill Weave Examples:  Houndstooth  Herringbone  Plaids
  3. 3. + Unbalanced Plain Weave (RIB) with Warp Stripes (Yarn Dyed)
  4. 4. Twill with warp & weft stripes  NOTE the skew that causes the fabric to be off grain.  The skew make the plaid’s horizontal stripes not at a right angle to the vertical stripes.
  5. 5. + Fancy / Complex Weaves Interlacing pattern is controlled by: warp yarns’ position during weaving
  6. 6. + Production of Fancy Weaves Complex Cost Specialized Techniques
  7. 7. + Fancy/Complex Weave main categories:  Figure, or novelty weaves  Surface figure weaves  Pile weaves  Double cloth  Leno weave  Crepe weave  Slack-tension weave
  8. 8. + Figureor Novelty Weaves Variationor combination of basic weaves - plain, satin, and twill. Simple designs Complicated designs Damask, Brocade, Brocatelle, Jacquard Tapestry, & Wilton Rugs
  9. 9. + Figure Weaves: Jacquard  Large-figured designs that require more than 25 different arrangements of the warp yarns to complete one repeat design are jacquard weaves.
  10. 10. + Figure Weaves – Jacquard  Figure weaves with large repeats or non- repeating designs with curves.  Each yarn is controlled independently to create intricate designs.
  11. 11. + Figure Weaves – Jacquard
  12. 12. + Figure Weaves: Damask green warp and beige filling Satin floats on a satin background The floats in the design are opposite those in the ground
  13. 13. Figure Weaves: Damaskfilament warp and spun filling
  14. 14. + Figure Weaves: DamaskStriped warp and solid filling Same color warp and filling
  15. 15. + Figure Weaves: Brocade Extra warp or filling yarns provide pattern on a solid color background Has satin or still floats on a plain, ribbed, twill, or satin background How Brocade varies from Damask:  Floats in the design are more varied in length  Often of several colors
  16. 16. Figure Weaves: Brocade
  17. 17. Figure Weaves: Brocatelle Similar to Brocade fabrics EXCEPT they have a raised pattern Frequently made from filament yarns Uses a warp-faced pattern and + filling-faced ground Coarse cotton stuffer yarns help maintain the 3D appearance
  18. 18. Figure Weaves: Brocatelle
  19. 19. +Figure Weaves: Jacquard Tapestry Originally, hand-woven with discontinuous filling yarns. Commissioned to celebrate military success, then religious images, then pastoral scenes Wall hangings for warmth VERY time consuming to weave
  20. 20. + Figure Weaves: Jacquard Tapestry Today’s jacquard tapestry is mass produced for upholstery and handbags2 or more sets of warp and two or more sets of filling yarns interlaced so that:  the face warp is never woven into the  the back filling does not show on the face.
  21. 21. + Figure Weaves: Jacquard Wilton Rugs Figured-pile fabrics made on a jacquard loom. Once considered imitations of Oriental rugs VERY expensive to weave! Now create similar figures through printing techniques
  22. 22. + Figure Weaves: Jacquard Wilton Rugs
  23. 23. + Figure Weaves -Piqué “Pique” come from the French word meaning “quilted.” Because of the raised effect in these fabrics is similar to that in quilts. The Pique weave produces a fabric with ridges, called wales or cords, that are held up by floats on the back side of the fabric. “Stuffer Yarns” are laid under the ridges in better quality pique fabrics to emphasize the roundness. (High Quality Indicator) (Christian Dior Couture Fall 2009)
  24. 24. + Tapestry WeaveNot the same as jacquard tapestryUsually identified with hand-woven textilesJacquard tapestry “imitates” many hand- woven textiles
  25. 25. + Tapestry• Hand produced, filling faced, plain- weave fabric• Discontinuous filling yarns are arranged so that as the color in the weave changes, a pattern is created
  26. 26. + Figure Weaves -PiquéReverse showing stuffer yarns Face
  27. 27. + –
  28. 28. + –
  29. 29. + Figure Weaves – Crisscross pattern
  30. 30. + Surface Figure Weave – Dobby  Usually an Eight (8) harness loom  Madras, Madras Gingham or Shirting Madras  Waffle cloth  Huck  Clipped-dot or clipped spot
  31. 31. + Surface Figure Weave: Dobby Hole-punch Loom System CAD system
  32. 32. + Surface Figure Weave: Dobby
  33. 33. + Extra Warp Yarns Surface Figure or Front Extra Yarn Weaves  Named by the extra yarns that form the design  may be in the warp or filling yarn direction  Small repeating designs Back  Ifextra yarns are removed, ground fabric will remain  Extra yarns float across the reverse side of the fabric
  34. 34. + Surface Figure Weaves – Unclipped Spot Extra filling yarns form the design  Madras gingham with extra warp yarns used to form the flowers Front Back
  35. 35. + Surface Figure Weaves – Unclipped SpotThe floating yarns between the motifs are not cut.
  36. 36. + Surface Figure Weaves – Unclipped Spot
  37. 37. + Surface Figure Weaves – Clipped Spot
  38. 38. +Surface Figure Weaves: Clipped Spot – Dotted Swiss
  39. 39. + Surface Figure Weaves: Clipped Spot - Eyelash
  40. 40. + Swivel Weave
  41. 41. + Pile Weaves  3-dimensional structures  Weaving an extra set of warp or filling yarns into the ground yarns  Makes loops or cut ends on the surface  Woven cut pile example:
  42. 42. + Warp- and Weft-Pile Fabrics  Warp pile: extra set of warp yarns form the pile  Filling/weft pile: extra set of filling yarns form the pile
  43. 43. + PILE FABRIC Warp pile fabrics.  Double Cloth Method: Velvet  Over-the-wire Method:  Terry cloth  Friezé Weft or Filling Pile  Velveteen  Corduroy Used in:  Outerwear  Lining of coats, gloves, and boots  Carpets, upholstery, bedspreads  Absorbent towels and washcloths  Stuffed Toys
  44. 44. Warp Pile - Velvet –Double Cloth Method
  45. 45. + Warp Pile – Velvet 
  46. 46. + Warp Pile – Velvet
  47. 47. + Warp Pile – Velvet
  48. 48. + Warp Pile - Panne Velvet
  49. 49. + Warp Pile - Devore Velvet
  50. 50. + Warp Pile: Over-the-Wire
  51. 51. + Warp Pile -Over-the-wire: Loops are very regular and in rows
  52. 52. + Warp Pile - Over-the-wire: Terry Cloth Uncut pile fabrics manufactured with an extra set of warp yarns to create the loop by slack-tension method. Terry toweling quality, cost, and durability depend on weave type (plain or twill), count of base cloth, and loop characteristics. Terry cloth has pile on both sides of the fabric. Some fabrics have pile on the face side only. In velour (e.g., towels, robes), the loops are sheared on one or both sides to enhance appearance and softness.
  53. 53. + Warp Pile -Over-the-wire: Terry Cloth
  54. 54. + Warp Pile -Over-the-wire: Terry Cloth
  55. 55. + Filling Pile Fabrics  The pile in Filling-pile fabrics is made by long filling floats on the surface that are cut after weaving  Filling Pile Fabrics Examples  Corduroy  Velveteen
  56. 56. +Filling Pile Weave - Corduroy  Theextra set of filling yarns forms floats (similar to velveteen).  The floats are cut to create the pile in parallel lines along the length of the fabric.
  57. 57. Filling Pile Weave: Corduroy
  58. 58. + Filling Pile Weaves - Corduroy Ridges or cords, known as wales, along the length of the fabricDescribed by: Number of wales per inch, e.g. 8 wale,10 wale,16 wale. The higher the number of wales, the finer the fabric. Width of the wales.e.g,wide wale,pinwale, and featherwale.
  59. 59. + Filling Pile Weaves - Corduroy
  60. 60. Filling Pile Weave: Velveteen Filling Yarns
  61. 61. + Filling Pile Weaves - Velveteen Velveteen fabrics are woven with an extra set of spun yarns.
  62. 62. + Filling Pile Weave – Cotton Velveteen
  63. 63. + Filling Pile Weave - Velveteen
  64. 64. + Warp Pile-like (faux pile) Surfaces by Other Methods Tufted Flocked surfaces
  65. 65. Tufting
  66. 66. + Flocking Short fibers attached to the surface of a fabric with adhesive Placement of fibers  Mechanical operation  Electrostatic operation
  67. 67. + Flocking application methods Mechanical Electrostatic Mechanical Application
  68. 68. + Surface Figure Weaves: Extra YarnLappetSwivelLeno
  69. 69. +Surface Figure Weaves: Leno Weave Extra Yarn - Leno  Looking at Leno:  Yarns are crossed and that one yarn of the pair is always above the other. Together they wrap the perpendicular yarn.  Fabric names: Marquisette - Mosquito netting  Casement fabrics used for window treatments
  70. 70. +Surface Figure Weave: Extra Yarn Weaves - Leno
  71. 71. +Surface Figure Weave: Leno Weave Extra Yarn Weaves - Leno
  72. 72. + Surface Figure Weave: Extra Yarn Weaves - Leno Marquisette
  73. 73. + Momie or Crepe Weave Gives a pebble-like surface that looks like a true crepe Presents no “wale” or other distinct weave effect but gives the cloth the appearance of being sprinkled with small spots (pebbles)
  74. 74. + Momie or Crepe Weave Random interlacing of warp and filling yarns that results in an irregular surface. Produced using a dobby attachment. The pebbly surface of the fabric is due to distortion of the weave by the over- twisted crepe yarns that shift once tension during weaving is released. True crepe is produced with crepe yarns (very high twist) in the warp and/or filling direction of plain or satin weave fabrics. Crepe weave is used instead of true crepe to reduce cost.
  75. 75. + Momie or Crepe Weaves Granite Weave Crepe Weave (any fiber can be used to make a crepe weave) Sand Crepe – medium-heavy weight fabric; repeat pattern of 16:16; no float is greater than 2 yarns in length Granite Cloth – momie weave based on a satin weave; even-sided fabric; no long floats, no twill effect Moss Crepe – combines high twist crepe yarns and crepe weave Bark Cloth – heavyweight momie-weave; found in furnishings; rough texture – tree bark
  76. 76. + Fancy Weave Warp Pile: Double Cloth
  77. 77. + Double Cloth Made from 3 or more sets of yarns. The two sides of double- cloth fabrics usually look different because of the fabrication method. Tends to be heavier and have more body than single cloths
  78. 78. + Examples of Each Double Cloth  Double-faced double cloth (3 sets of yarns)  satin ribbons with satin on both sides  blankets or blanket fabric with sides that are different colors  silence cloth  Double weave double cloth (4 sets of yarns)  pocket cloth  matelassé  Double cloth double cloth (5 sets of yarns)  melton  kersey  velvet
  79. 79. + Double Cloth: Pocket Cloth
  80. 80. +
  81. 81. + Double Weave Double Cloth: Matlasse
  82. 82. + Double Weave Double Cloth: Matelassé
  83. 83. + Double Faced Double Cloth Weaves Double faced fabric is constructed with three sets of yarns.  The combination can be either two warp sets and one filling set, or vice versa.  Examples:  Double-sided satin ribbon,  Double georgette
  84. 84. + Double-Faced Fabric
  85. 85. + DOUBLE WEAVE
  86. 86. + Double Weaves Reverse Face
  87. 87. BackFront
  88. 88. + Double Weaves
  89. 89. + Double Weaves
  90. 90. + Slack-tension WeaveSections of warp yarns have reduced tension. Results in bands or stripes of slightly puckered areas. Because the puckering is woven into the fabric, the pucker cannot be flattened. Seersucker fabrics are relatively more expensive to produce as the fabrics are woven at a slower speed.
  91. 91. + Slack Tension: Seersucker
  92. 92. + Slack Tension Weaves  Method: Two warp beams are used.  The yarns on one beam are held at regular tension and those on the other beam are held at slack tension.  As the reed beats the filling yarns into place, the slack yarns crinkle or buckle to form a puckered stripe  The regular-tensioned yarns form the flat stripe (Some warp yarns have less tension to create relaxed areas that result in ripples or loops)  Examples of slack tension fabrics:  Seersucker (ripple areas, usually forming warp direction stripes)  Terry cloth (loop areas, usually forming a slightly irregular set of pile loops)
  93. 93. Regular tension areasSeersucker Slack tension areas
  94. 94. + Narrow Fabrics  Weaves used are the same as previously discussed  Examples:  Elastics  Velcro  Piping  Trims  Ribbons  satin weave  rib weave (unbalanced plain weave)  Zipper tapes  twill weave
  95. 95. + Questions ??? ??? ???