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Organic farming


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Organic farming

  1. 1. Nazir A Ganai SKUAST-K
  2. 2. Contents  Organic food  Organic farming  Why organic  Impacts of modern agriculture  Status of Organic Farming-World  Organic husbandry
  3. 3. What is Organic Farming?  Organic farming is the production of crops and livestock without the use of synthetic chemicals and in- organic fertilizers.  Organic agriculture aims at the human welfare without any harm to the environment which is the foundation of human life itself. 3
  4. 4. History of Organic Farming  Organic farming was practiced in India since thousands of years. Agriculture was practiced using organic techniques, where the fertilizers, pesticides, etc., were obtained from plant and animal products.  Post-independent India witnessed severe food crisis.  India depended on heavy imports of food-for-aid from western countries.  Green Revolution introduced in 1970’s changed the situation from food importer to food exporter by 1990
  5. 5. What is Organic agriculture  Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soil, ecosystem and people.  It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and biological cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of synthetic inputs with adverse effects.  Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality life for all involved.
  6. 6. Why Organic  Healthy food: Contains no toxic substances  „Natural & Good taste  „Higher benefit cost ratio due to less external input use and premium price (20-25%)  „Takes care of Environmental concerns of Farming
  7. 7. Why farm organically? Organic farming aims to:  increase long-term soil fertility.  control pests and diseases without harming the environment.  ensure that water stays clean and safe.  use resources which the farmer already has, so the farmer needs less money to buy farm inputs.  produce nutritious food, feed for animals and high quality crops to sell at a good price.
  8. 8. 8 What is conventional/ modern agriculture?  Modern agriculture uses pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides and harmful chemicals to produce the food we eat.  The food produced from conventional agriculture is harmful to human health because they contain residues of chemicals and in-organic fertilizers.
  9. 9. Intensive Farming - chemicals Many different chemicals are used to make plants and animals grow faster Intensive farmers use artificial fertilizers and growth promoters. It is easier to use than manure and smaller quantities are needed, because it contains more of the elements. Artificial fertilizers are spread on the ground or sprayed on the crops.
  10. 10. Intensive Farming - chemicals Problems:  They do not just disappear but stay in the plants that we eat, so our food is contaminated with chemicals.  Soil used to grow the plants will also be contaminated and have chemicals in it for a very long time.  Animals eat the grass , which has had chemicals sprayed on to it, so the chemicals get into their blood and therefore the meat that we eat.  Chemicals run off the land into rivers and kill plants and fish.
  11. 11. ORGANIC farming  Artificial fertilizers are banned in Organic farming.  Organic farmers use animal manure, compost and human sewage, (which has been heated to destroy any harmful microbes) to make their crops grow.  ‘Green manure’ is grown – plants are grown, then ploughed in and left to rot.  Worms, insects and bacteria underground are always working on making the soil good.  By using a process called CROP ROTATION (changing the crop grown each year), the farmer can keep a good soil for many years.
  12. 12. Advantages Organic farming Fewer workers neededFewer blemishes on crops Produce is cheaper Large numbers of animals kept in ideal conditions Bigger yields from land available Antibiotics use keeps animals healthy Use of hormones increases meat production Soil structure is better Less harmful to environment More birds and insects Animals lead happier lives No harmful chemicals – healthier?
  13. 13. Man-made chemicals used Chemicals stay in soil Organic farming Natural predators destroyed Chemicals wash into rivers Animals live in crowded conditions Smaller yields Hedgerow habitats destroyed More blemishes on crops More expensive More farm workers needed Disadvantages
  14. 14. Modern Chemical Farming creates “Dead Soil”  Acidic soils with few microorganisms  Lacking in micro elements, trace elements, poor vitality  Almost O organic matter
  15. 15. Organic Farming creates “Living Soil”  Full of life with microorganism, fungi, worms and termites.  Very rich in macro and micro elements, trace elements, and vital energy  Very rich in organic matter  A 22-year farming trial in N York (USA) concludes that:  Organic farming produces the same yields of corn and soybeans as does conventional farming, but uses 30 percent less energy, less water and no pesticides,  "Organic farming approaches for these crops not only use an average of 30 percent less fossil energy but also conserve more water in the soil, induce less erosion, maintain soil quality and conserve more biological resources than conventional farming does,
  16. 16. What is wrong with intensive (conventional) agriculture  Artificial fertilisers and herbicides are easily washed from the soil and pollute rivers, lakes and water courses.  The prolonged use of artificial fertilisers results in soils with a low organic matter content which is easily eroded by wind and rain.  Dependency on fertilisers. Greater amounts are needed every year to produce the same yields of crops.  Artificial pesticides can stay in the soil for a long time and enter the food chain where they build up in the bodies of animals and humans, causing health problems.  Artificial chemicals destroy soil micro-organisms resulting in poor soil structure and aeration and decreasing nutrient availability.  Pests and diseases become more difficult to control as they become resistant to artificial pesticides. The numbers of natural enemies decrease because of pesticide use and habitat loss.
  17. 17. How 'modern farming' affects our world • Land exhaustion – Loss of soil fertility • Nitrate run-off – water contamination • Soil erosion • Reduced soil porosity due to soil compaction • Excessive use of pesticides, weedi cides, fungicides • Cruelty to animals due to over-crowding • Loss of cultivated biodiversity • Threat to indigenous seeds and animal breeds and species • Habitat destruction • Contaminated food • Destruction of traditional knowledge systems and traditions • Control of agriculture inputs and food distribution channel • Threat to individual farmers
  18. 18. Pesticides in our food (and water) Food product Contaminant pesticides Apples Diphenylamine, Captan, Endosulfan, Phosmet, Azinphos-methyl Bananas Diazinon, Thiabendazone, Carbaryl Cabbage Methamidophos, Dimethoate, Fenvalerate, Permethrin, BHC Carrots DDT, Trifluralin, Parathion, Diazinon, Dieldrin Cauliflower Methamidophos, Endosulfan, Dimethoate, Chlorothalonil, Diazion Cherries Parathion, Malathion, Captan, Dicloran, Diazinon Corn Sulfallate, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Dieldrin, Lindane Cucumbers Methamidophos, Endosulfan, Dieldrin, Chlorpyrifos, Dimethoate Grapes Captan, Dimethoate, Dicloran, Carbaryl, Iprodione Green Beans Dimethoate, Methamidophos, Endosulfan, Acephate, Chlorothalonil Lettuce Mevinphos, Endosulfan, Permethrin, Dimethoate, Methomyl Onions DCPA, DDT, Ethion, Diazinon, Malathion Oranges Methidathion, Chlorpyrifos, Ethion, Parathin, Carbary Peaches Dicloran, Captan, Parathion, Carbaryl, Endosulfan Pears Azinphos-methyl, Cyhexatin, Phosmet, Endosulfan, Ethion Potatoes DDT, Chlorpropham, Dieldrin, Aldicarb, Chlordane Spinach Endosuslfan, DDT, Methomyl, Methamidophos, Dimethoate Strawberries Captan, Vinclozolin, Endosulfan, Methamidophos, Methyl Parathion Sweet Potatoes Dicloran, DDT, Phosmet, Dieldrin, BHC Tomatoes Methamidophos, Chlorpyrifos, Chlorothalonilo, Permethrin, Dimethoate Watermelon Methamidophos, Chlorothalonil, Dimethoate, Carbaryl, Captan
  19. 19. The REAL effect of pesticides Trade name Long-term effects Camphechlor Cancer suspect, toxic to fish, very persistent Chlordane/Heptachlor Leukemia suspect, toxic to wildlife, very persistent Chlordimeform Cancer suspect, bladder damage, toxic to wildlife DBCP Cancer risk, male sterility, persists in water DDT Cancer causing, damage to liver, nerve, brain, extremely persistent, toxic to wildlife Aldrin/Dieldrin/Endrin Cancer suspect, birth defects, very persistent, toxic to wildlife EDB Potent cancer cause, birth defects, lung, liver damage, very persistent BHC/Lindane Proven cancer cause, miscarriage, leukemia suspect, very persistent, toxic to fish Paraquat No antidote, lung scarring Endosulfan Nervous system damage PCP Nervous system damage, liver damage, skin disease 2,4,5-T Potent cancer cause, birth defects, toxic to fish, very persistent
  20. 20. Today, Oncologists from the Harvard Medical School recommend to cancer patients to:  Change lifestyle  Become vegetarians or avoid red meat  Eat lots of organic food  Avoid eating at FAST FOOD Restaurant like McDonalds
  21. 21. Certification of Organic crop production by INDOCERT Standards of certification (i) National standards for organic production (NPOP), Govt. of India (ii) European Union regulations for organic production rules equivalent to EC.No.834/2007 (iii) United States organic standards USDANOP (National Organic Programme).
  22. 22. “Intensive cultivation of land without conservation of soil fertility and soil structure would lead ultimately to the springing up of deserts. Irrigation without arrangements for drainage would result in soils getting alkaline or saline. Indiscriminate use of pesticides, fungicides and herbicides could cause adverse changes in biological balance as well as lead to an increase in the incidence of cancer and other diseases, through the toxic residues present in the grains or other edible parts. Unscientific tapping of underground water would lead to the rapid exhaustion of this wonderful capital resource left to us through ages of natural farming. The rapid replacement of numerous locally adapted varieties with one or two high yielding strains in large contiguous areas would result in the spread of serious diseases capable of wiping out entire crops, as happened prior to the Irish potato famine of 1845 and the Bengal rice famine of 1942. Therefore, the initiation of exploitative agriculture without a proper understanding of the various consequences of every one of the changes introduced into traditional agriculture and without first building up a proper scientific and training base to sustain it, may only lead us into an era of agricultural disaster in the long run, rather than to an era of agricultural prosperity.” - M.S. Swaminathan Indian Science Congress, Varanasi, January 4, 1968 Sustainable Food Production
  23. 23. Livestock Husbandry in Temperate Himalyan region  The Himalayan region is vast, gigantic, diverse and youngest mountain system in the world.  It occupies 591 thousand square kilometer (18% of geographical area of India)  spread over 2,800 kilometer in length and 220 to 300 kilometer wide across the 11 states of India  In this region, 6% of Indian population resides  Livestock are integral part of farming system for this region where it not only supplement the family income but also contributes FYM to the farm which is an essential requirement of largely rain-fed agriculture of this region.
  24. 24. Himalayan farming System  Land holdings - small and fragmented,  rain-fed agriculture,  low input-low output production system,  sparse population,  undulating terrain  poor means of transport and communication,  women centred agriculture,  out migration of males in search of off farm employment,  poor productivity of crop and livestock,  fragile eco-system,  low risk bearing capacity of farmers yet rich in plant and animal diversity etc.  People have sustained themselves in this difficult condition and in their endeavour the livestock were active partner.  Indigenous livestock provide practical means of using natural grasslands in this region
  25. 25. Organic Livestock  Organic cattle farming is a method for raising cattle in a more "natural" way.  animals raised this way are allowed to graze on natural foods and have access to the outdoors.  Feed for animals is grown organically,  Not given antibiotics or hormones.  Animals often have much better living conditions than most large-scale cattle farms that are often crowded and prevent cattle from getting much exercise in order to maximize profits.  Farm Yard manure is used for producing organic manure thru vermi-composting, and bio-gas production
  26. 26. Organic livestock farming practices  Breeds and breeding- ◦ use of well adapted breeds, ◦ conserve animal genetic resource biodiversity  Pasture management ◦ access to pastures  Animal nutrition ◦ No growth hormones ◦ No animal by-products in feed  Housing, ◦ Loose and comfortable  Animal health and disease management ◦ Minimal use of antibiotics  Manure must be managed to prevent contamination of crops, soil or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals or residues of prohibited substances.