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Micro Electromechanical System (MEMS)


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MEMS is a technique of combining electrical and mechanical components together on a chip. It produces a system of miniature dimensions i.e the system having thickness less than the thickness of human hair. The components are integrated on a single chip using micro fabrication technology which allows the microsystem to both sense & control the environment.

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Micro Electromechanical System (MEMS)

  1. 1. Outline  MEMS Introduction  Sensor and its type  Fabrication  MEMS Manufacturing Technology  Applications  Conclusion  References
  2. 2. What is MEMS?  MEMS or Micro-Electro Mechanical System is a technique of combining Electrical and Mechanical components together on a chip, to produce a system of miniature dimensions.  MEMS is the integration of a number of microcomponents on a single chip which allows the microsystem to both sense and control the environment.  The components are integrated on a single chip using micro fabrication technologies.
  3. 3. What is a Sensor?  A device used to measure a physical quantity(such as temperature) and convert it into an electronic signal of some kind(e.g. a voltage), without modifying the environment.  What can be sensed? Almost Everything!!! Commonly sensed parameters are:  Pressure  Temperature  Flow rate  Radiation  Chemicals  Pathogens N W E S 2 Axis Magnetic Sensor 2 Axis Accelerometer Light Intensity Sensor Humidity Sensor Pressure Sensor Temperature Sensor
  4. 4. But why MEMS for sensors?  Smaller in size  Have lower power consumption  More sensitive to input variations  Cheaper due to mass production  Less invasive than larger devices
  5. 5. Type of Sensors Mechanical Sensors • • • • • Optical Sensors Strain Gauges Accelerometers Pressure Sensors Microphones Gyroscopes(Rotation Rate) • Direct Sensors (Light  Electronic Signal) • Indirect Sensors (Light  Intermediate Energy  Electronic Signal) • Biological Light Sensors Thermal Sensors • Thermo mechanical (Dimension) • Thermo Resistive (Resistance) • Acoustic (Sound) • Biological Chemical & Biological Sensors • Electronic Nose • Electronic Tongue
  6. 6. Fabrication Materials used are:  Silicon Basic Process  Polymers  Metals  Ceramics Deposition Patterning Etching
  7. 7. Basic Process of Fabrication  Deposition  Deposition that happen because of a chemical reaction or physical reaction.  Patterning  The pattern is transfer to a photosensitive material by selective exposure to a radiation source such as light. If the resist is placed in a developer solution after selective exposure to a light source, it will etch away.  Etching  Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in.  There are two classes of etching processes:  Wet Etching  Dry Etching.
  8. 8. MEMS Manufacturing Technology Bulk Micromachining Surface Micromachining High Aspect Ratio (HAR) Silicon Micromachining
  9. 9. MEMS Manufacturing Technology Bulk Micromachining  This technique involves the selective removal of the substrate material in order to realize miniaturized mechanical components.  A widely used bulk micromachining technique in MEMS is chemical wet etching, which involves the immersion of a substrate into a solution of reactive chemical that will etch exposed regions of the substrate at very high rates. Etched grooves using (a) Anisotropic etchants, (b) Isotropic etchants, (c) Reactive Ion Etching (RIE)
  10. 10. MEMS Manufacturing Technology Surface Micromachining  In surface micromachining, the MEMS sensors are formed on top of the wafer using deposited thin film materials. (a) Spacer layer deposition. (b) Pattering of the spacer layer. (c) Deposition of the microstructure layer. (d) Patterning of desired structure. (e) Stripping of the spacer layer resolves final structure.
  11. 11. MEMS Manufacturing Technology High Aspect Ratio (HAR) Silicon Micromachining  HAR combines aspects of both surface and bulk micromachining to allow for silicon structures with extremely high aspect ratios through thick layers of silicon (hundreds of nanometers, up to hundreds of micrometers).  HAR MEMS technology enables a high degree of immunity to high-frequency, high-amplitude parasitic vibrations.
  12. 12. Applications in Medical Science  Biocavity Laser : This device distinguishes cancerous from non cancerous cells thus aiding the surgeons in operations.  Smart Pill :  Implanted in the body  Automatic drug delivery (on demand)  Sight for the blind : MEMS based array that may be inserted in the retina of a blind person to provide partial sight
  13. 13. Applications in Marine Science Sensing in marine environment maybe done for various reasons: Oil exploration and related applications Global weather predictions Monitor water quality for any contamination Measure parameters detrimental to the “health” of structures in the sea ( like oil rigs and ships ) Study of aquatic plants and animals In military operations
  14. 14. Applications in Marine Military Operations  An array of MEMS sensors spread on the ocean floor could detect the presence of enemy submarines.  MEMS sensors (pressure sensors, accelerometers etc.) are being used in anti-torpedo weapons on submarines and ships.  MEMS sensors in torpedoes are responsible for  Detonating the torpedo at the right time  Hitting the target in a crowded environment  Prevent any premature explosion
  15. 15. CONCLUSION  MEMS promises to be an effective technique of producing sensors of high quality, at lower costs.  Thus we can conclude that the MEMS can create a proactive computing world, connected computing nodes automatically, acquire and act on real-time data about a physical environment, helping to improve lives, promoting a better understanding of the world and enabling people to become more productive.
  16. 16. References  X. Wang, J. Engel, C. Liu, J. Micromech. Microeng. 2003, 13, 628.  Christian A. Zorman, Mehran Mehregany, MEMS Design and Fabrication, 2nd Ed. 2,16.  Ms. Santoshi Gupta, MEMS and Nanotechnology IJSER, Vol 3, Issue 5,2012  Stephen Beeby, MEMS Mechanical Sensor, PP. 7  Lenz, J., Edelstein, A.S., "Magnetic sensors and their applications." IEEE Sensors J. 2006, 6, 631-649.  Sinclair M J 2000 A high force low area MEMS thermal actuator Proc. 7th Intersociety Conf. on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena (Las Vegas, NV) pp 127–32  R. Ghodssi, P. Lin (2011). MEMS Materials and Processes Handbook. Berlin: Springer.  Chang, Floy I. (1995).Gas-phase silicon micromachining with xenon difluoride. 2641. pp. 117.