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Merchandising Activities in Apparel Industry Of Bangladesh
BY
Md Sazzad Hossain
ID: 121011419, Group: E
A DISSERTATION S...
2
DISSERTATION CERTIFICATION
I Sazzad Hossain, Id No: 121011419 affirm that this Dissertation, submitted in partial fulfil...
3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am grateful to the following people and acknowledge that without their valuable contributions, this
th...
4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract_______________________________________________________________01
CHAPTER – 1
1.1 Introduction...
5
4.4 Work of merchandising
……………………………………………....………...……………13
4.5 Work Flow Diagram
……………………………………………………....................
6
LIMITATION.................................................................................................................
7
ABSTRACT:
Bangladesh's export earnings carry more than 78% contribution from the Garments, Apparel,
and Knitwear Industr...
8
Chapter -01
INTRODUCTION_
9
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Merchandising is a specialized management functions within the fashion industry. It is the
business tha...
10
1.2 EVALUATION OF MERCHANDISER IN GARMENT:
The concept of term “Merchandising” can be traced dated back from the early ...
11
Chapter -02
Literature Review_
12
LITERATURE REVIEW:
The term merchandising means simply to buy and sell commodities for a profit. The role of
merchandis...
13
Chapter -3
RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY_
14
3.1 Aim:
To develop and implement Quick Response system in Apparel Merchandising for reducing lead
time, costs as well ...
15
Secondary source
 From library books
 Newspaper
 Article
 Magazines
3.5 Data CollectionInstrument
The following dat...
16
Chapter -04
Academic Overview_
17
4.1 Concept of merchandising technology:
Considering these definitions of technology, merchandising itself is a kind of...
18
4.2 Skill & knowledge that a merchandising requires:
A merchandiser must have the following skill:
 He must educated, ...
19
for getting quick costs because as beautiful as a garments might be, if it’s too expensive to
manufacturing, it might h...
20
 Making regular liaison with the customer.
 Follow up of customer instruction in respect of packing & packaging.
 Ar...
21
4.6 DATA COLLECTION:
Collection of facts (raw facts) is known as data. Direct observation and personal interview
with q...
22
4.7 Application of the P.O. Sheet in the Factory:
From the previous discussion, this is much clarified that the Purchas...
23
4.9 How do calculate button ligne from mm (milimetre)
If Button length (dia) is 12.7 mm then Button ligne will be ?
Rul...
24
DISCUSSIONS:
A thesis paper, also referred to as research paper, is a paper that provides the reader with
sufficient in...
25
 Performa making, swatch making and distribution to the production unit and quality
concern people.
 Pre-shipment ins...
26
Shipment
4.1.4 Negotiation with the buyers:
Business Collaboration
Negotiation with the buyers Business Collaboration T...
27
o PO (purchase order) – this is a legal document stating the quantity, delivery, price, style
no, buyer, vendor details...
28
decided on the quantity to be purchased in each of the styles. Hence in such a situation the
buyer gives a block bookin...
29
 Selecting the best vendor for the materials in terms of quality, price and delivery.
o The fabric order is places by ...
30
 Fabric inspection report – this is generally a third part inspection done by buyer
nominated inspection company like ...
31
 In case of a washed garment, 100% fabric should be tested for shrinkage. The test is done
as per the wash recipe. Onc...
32
assembly line and is aimed at ensuring that the operators of the assemble line understand
the required quality levels. ...
33
4.1.8 Function of a Merchandiser
Procuring of garments orders:
-Receiving order inquiry.
-Garment costing.
-Garment pri...
34
parties and the way they communicate at various stages in the negotiation. The following is an outline
of steps essenti...
35
 Right Quantities.
 Right Time.
Purchase order sheet:
What does a P.O. contain?
The Purchase Order is provided to the...
36
- Shipping terms defined by Purchasing Department.
Freight Terms
- Freight terms defined by Purchasing Department.
P. O...
37
4.1.9 Importance of Purchase Order:
The Purchase Order Sheet is abbreviated to PO Sheet. This is one of the very import...
38
Way of Application:
 When an exporter or a buyer confirms a merchandise to purchase, he sends a Purchase
Order Sheet t...
39
Solution of the Problem:
The problems mentioned above must have to be eradicated in order to minimize the obstacles
dur...
40
Color
Size
Full description of garment
Fabric description (content, construction, weight etc)
Name of customer
Name of ...
41
From all the sizes of the order M or L size sample made and sent to the Buyer for Dummy
fitting. After confirmation of ...
42
Required Light Fastness
Required pH (for washed garments)
Required Dimensional Stability of Garments
ETC.
The merchandi...
43
Here, GSM is 150 and in 1 piece of T-shirt has 2 sleeves
For Neck
Neck = Length × Width×12 ×GSM/10000000
= 61×7×12×200/...
44
= @0.84
Therefore, total cost = $16.8 + $0.84
= $17.64
= $18
So, the cost for 1 dozen mean’s T-shirt is $18
Costing tip...
45
1) Body Consumption: Calculate the body fabric consumption at first. If possible
calculate it after make the pattern. B...
46
thread. Calculate the sewing thread consumption part by part & add require wastage
percentage.
2) Labels: Take the quot...
47
4.2.5 CM (Cost of making)
Calculate the CM after discussion with your production department. It’s vary depends on
requi...
48
Single lacost 170-180 30 s/1 18.5" -- 34.5" 24" -- 45"
190-200 26 s/1 18.5" -- 34.5" 25" -- 46"
210-220 24 s/1 18.5" --...
49
a) Try to present yourself as a dutiful person to his job within the mail.
b) Put date accurately.
c) Give a relevant s...
50
 7 Pre-production
 8 Production Sample
 9 Shipping Sample
b). First pattern
 Def.: The first physical version of an...
51
 Purpose: Sales Meeting by Retailers, Market Appraisal, Demand / Order Forecast
 Status: Final stage of the order con...
52
n). Trims
Trims cover all the items used in the garment except the basic fabric. There are hundreds of
items used to ma...
53
2. Factory Capacity
3. Factory History
4. Factory Setup Details
5. Market Reputation
6. Type of Buyers Dealing
q). How ...
54
t). How does the accepted order is passed on the floor
1. Merchandiser searches the scope of knitting machine according...
55
a single selling period. Designers are key players in the product development process.
Responsibilities for product dev...
56
was sold. Percent markdown is markdown dollars as a percent of net sales. Maintained mark
up is the difference between ...
57
 Swatches (on received fabric and accessories).
IV). Documentation: Production oriented
 Production Plan.
 Daily pro...
58
If we open a L/C then need some things that are given below:
1. Trade license
2. Memorandum Certificate
3. Membership c...
59
LIMITATION:
 It was very different to collect the information from various personnel for the
job constraint.
 Garment...
60
RECOMMENDATIONS:
 Company should not plan to produce without considering its actual plants capacity.
 Machine break d...
61
CONCLUSION:
Today’s garments fully depend on merchandising. A good merchandiser can develop the
quality of product and ...
62
RREFERENCES:
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladeshi_RMG_Sector
2.http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&so...
63
14.http://www.assignmentpoint.com/business/marketing-business/report-on-merchandising-
is-an-important-work-in-garments...
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Merchandising activities in apparel industry of bangladesh

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Merchandising activities in apparel industry of bangladesh

  1. 1. 1 Merchandising Activities in Apparel Industry Of Bangladesh BY Md Sazzad Hossain ID: 121011419, Group: E A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS (HONORS) IN APPAREL MANUFACTURING MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY UNDER THE DEPARTMENT OF APPAREL MANUFACTURING MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY WE ACCEPT THIS DISSERTATION AS CONFORMING TO THE REQUIRED STANDARDS: ...................................................................................................................................... NOORUL MUQADDIM ASSISTANT PROFESSOR AND DISSERTATION SUPERVISOR DEPARTMENT OF APPAREL MANUFACTURING MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY DATED THIS 23rd DAY OF APRIL, 2016, IN AMMT CAMPUS, SMUCT, AND DHAKA, BANGLADESH
  2. 2. 2 DISSERTATION CERTIFICATION I Sazzad Hossain, Id No: 121011419 affirm that this Dissertation, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Arts in Apparel Manufacturing Management & Technology under the Department of Apparel Manufacturing Management& Technology, Shanto-Mariam University of Creative Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh is unreservedly mine unless otherwise referenced or acknowledged. The documenthas not been submitted for qualifications or other purposes at any other institution. ............................. Sazzad Hossain April , 2015
  3. 3. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am grateful to the following people and acknowledge that without their valuable contributions, this thesis would not have been successfully finished. Mr. Noorul Muqaddim, my supervisor, who has not only guided us through the work process but also has provided his own valuable critiques. He has challenged me on several occasions as an approach to stimulate me too efficiently implements my exposure on this Dissertation. Thanking you in anticipation.
  4. 4. 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract_______________________________________________________________01 CHAPTER – 1 1.1 Introduction _______________________________________________03 1.2 Evaluation Of Merchandiser In Garments_________________________04 1.3 Types Of Merchandiser _______________________________________04 CHAPTER – 2 2. Literature Review _____________________________________________________06 CHAPTER – 3 3 Research Methodology ____________________________________________________ 08 3.1 Aim ___________________________________________________________________ 08 3.2 Objectives_____________________________________________________________08 3.3 Methodology ________________________________________________________08 3.4 Data Collection ……………………………………………………………………………08 3.5 Data Screaming … …………………………………………………………………….....…09 3.6 Scope ………………………… ……………………………………………..........09 3.7 Limitation of the Report …………………………………………………............................09 CHAPTER – 4 4. ACADEMIC OVERVIEW ……………………………………….. ………….10 4.1 Concept of merchandising technology:………………………………................................11 4.2 Skill & knowledge that a merchandising requires ………............................................12 4.3 Mentor & motivate …………………………………………………….13
  5. 5. 5 4.4 Work of merchandising ……………………………………………....………...……………13 4.5 Work Flow Diagram …………………………………………………….......................…..14 4.6 Data Collection …………………………………………..................................................15 4.7 Application of the P.O. Sheet in the Factory ………………................................….…..….16 4.8 Machine Wise Sewing Thread Consumption PER Inch ………….........…....……….…..….16 4.9 How do calculate button ligne from mm (millimetre)……………......................................17 4.1.1 How to calculate fabric consumption for knits garment........................................… 17 4.1.2 Basic qualifications should have the technical Merchandisers …..............…... 18 4.1.3 Process flow chart of Merchandising ……..........................................……..19 4.1.4 Negotiation with the buyers............................................................................20 4.1.5 Preparing a detailed T & A ...................................................................................22 4.1.6 Fabric ordering ……………......................................................................................22 4.1.7 Responsibility of Senior Merchandiser……………………………………………………26 4.1.8 Function of a Merchandiser.......................................................................................27 4.1.9 Importance of Purchase Order....................................................................................31 4.2.0 Guidelines for a merchandiser....................................................................................33 4.2.1 Classification of different types of samples...................................................................34 4.2.3 Fabric consumption calculation Men’s........................................................................35 4.2.4 Costing………………………...…………………...…………………………............…37 4.2.5 CM (Cost of making)..................................................................................................41 4.2.6 Some Important Instructions to be a Good Merchandiser................................................42 4.2.7 Merchandising Calendar.............................................................................................48 RESULT..........................................................................................................................52
  6. 6. 6 LIMITATION...................................................................................................................53 RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………………….…....................54 CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................55 RREFERENCES................................................................................................................56
  7. 7. 7 ABSTRACT: Bangladesh's export earnings carry more than 78% contribution from the Garments, Apparel, and Knitwear Industry. The objective of this thesis is to provide an extensive overview of Garments Merchandising, as well as a reference and guide for its study. The chapters are written for the garments merchandising professional for detailed easing information, who wants an overview or specific information in one particular area. The book is organized comprehensive information on all aspects of Garments Merchandising from the initial concept of Garments Marketing, Garments Merchandising, Qualification of a good merchandiser, Merchandising procedure, Chronological process of Merchandising, important document for a Merchandiser, Costing and Consumption, Garments dry process, Garments washing, Inspection, Basic knowledge for a merchandiser, L.C and Other Documentation are included in this paper. This thesis paper contains the most recent technological information regarding industry practice as well as industry standards. The use of photographs and tables will help the reader to understand very easily. Merchandising plays a great role in our economy. The living standard and prosperity of a nation vary directly with increase the foreign currency of a nation and it’s totally depends of a merchandiser who deals not only liaison with the buyer but also directly work in the field of production. Electrical power is an important index of a country’s economic and technological progress.
  8. 8. 8 Chapter -01 INTRODUCTION_
  9. 9. 9 1.1 INTRODUCTION Merchandising is a specialized management functions within the fashion industry. It is the business that moves the world fashion from designers showroom to retail sales floor and in to the hands of consumers. It is the internal planning that takes place within a retail organization in order ensures adequate amount of merchandise are on hand to be sold at prices that the consumers are willing to pay to ensure a profitable operation. We should understand the term “Garments Merchandising” at first. “Garments” means apparels or clothing which we need to wear every day, everybody, every time not only in our country, all over the world also. “Merchandising’ means buying, producing and selling of any goods or products or services for the local or international market. If we combine this two English term “Garments Merchandising” then the meaning of “garments merchandising” becomes like following definition. All activities involved in procuring export order of any garments of any particular design for a specific quantity, analysis of the garment requires producing the garments, production of those quantity of garments with specific attention to required quality level, production scheduling and exporting the garments within fixed time frame, may be called garments merchandising. From the said definition of garments merchandising it can be assumed clearly that procuring a garment export order that is export L/C, production of those garments as per buyer satisfaction within limited time is not so easy. The activities involved in garments merchandising is normally done by a dynamic and expert person called garments merchandiser. The person “Garments Merchandiser” is one of the important key people of a garments production and garments export sector. In Bangladesh, the future of garments industries is brighter in the era of globalization. Ultra modern technology are being used in the woven and knit garment industries in the outside world other than Bangladesh. To survive in the free market of the world, we have to use world standard latest technology in our readymade garment sector. The study will cover the practice, procedures and technique followed by the merchandiser in the preparation of order to shipment. Bangladesh is a developing country. The development and progress of the country largely depend on export performance. In case of Bangladesh, among the export sector, the ready-made garments are the main earning source of foreign currency. In the garment and textile industry, merchandisers have been playing a vital role for the execution of export orders.
  10. 10. 10 1.2 EVALUATION OF MERCHANDISER IN GARMENT: The concept of term “Merchandising” can be traced dated back from the early historic period when the emergence of the trade between the countries. There are numerous notes about the existence and evolution of trade between the bigger civilizations in those periods like Greek, Roman, Indian, Chinese, and Egypt .But during those days the meaning of the term merchandising confined merely to exchange of materials or commodities which were availed from nature or produced from nature and they were not manufactured for specific purpose or specific customers. There was exchange of materials which fulfils the basic needs of living like commodities, live stocks, textiles and luxurious items like gold diamonds, precious stones etc…Earlier days the production of goods was home based and family oriented which were not mass produced. In the industrial period, home production was replaced by factory system and hand operations were replaced by machines. Mass productions were followed by large-scale consumption. The term “Merchandising” got its significance after the industrial revolution that emerged during the 20th century after World War 2 and particularly during the period when there was a dramatic shift from Custom Made Tailoring to Ready Made Garments. During this period there was great demand for product development. Merchandising evolved as a bridge between the design and sales to fill the needs. It got its further momentum when the market concept which give more impotence to the customer needs, emerged in the industry. The period between 1960 and the early 2000 saw dramatic changes in the structure, focus and content of apparel companies particularly in U.S. During 1970’s there was a remarkable growth surge to the apparel industry which continued trough the 1980 and 1990. United States played a major role in the evaluation of merchandising in apparel industry. 1.3 Types Of Merchandiser:
  11. 11. 11 Chapter -02 Literature Review_
  12. 12. 12 LITERATURE REVIEW: The term merchandising means simply to buy and sell commodities for a profit. The role of merchandising varies depending upon whether it is performed in retail or manufacturing context, Merchandising involves the conceptualization, development, procurement of raw materials, sourcing of production and delivery of product to buyers. The merchandiser must combine logical and analytical thinking with initiative and expressive creativity. I Collect some important statement of merchandising activities from books, Magazine, report, article & wed portal. A number of literatures in this regard have been reviewed Shakawat (2008), Merchandising activities may include display techniques, freesamples, on- the-spot demonstration, pricing, shelf talkers, special offers, and other point-of-salemethods. According merchandising encompasses "planning involved in marketing the rightmerchandise or service at the right place, at the right time, in the right quantities, and at the right price. Velumani Du.(2009) ,added that merchandiser is a person who interacts with the buyer and seller, and also puts efforts into proper relation between buying offices/ buying agents/ agency and seller/ exporter in terms of executing an order. Md. Harun(2007),include thatThe activity of promoting the sale of goods at retail. Merchandising activities may include display techniques, free samples, on-the-spot demonstration, pricing, shelf talkers, special offers, and other point-of-sale methods. According to American Marketing Association, merchandising encompasses "planning involved in marketing the right merchandise or service at the right place, at the right time, in the right quantities, and at the right price." In Wikipedia it is defined as “In the broadest sense, merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer. At a retail in-store level, merchandising refers to the variety of products available for sale and the display of those products in such a way that it stimulates interest and entices customers to make a purchase.”
  13. 13. 13 Chapter -3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY_
  14. 14. 14 3.1 Aim: To develop and implement Quick Response system in Apparel Merchandising for reducing lead time, costs as well as factory profit. How to improve skills and educated, experience employers in the apparel sector of Bangladesh 3.2 Objectives of Study  To know the management Procedure in Garments Industry.  To know merchandising activities  To compare the technical & practical part.  To mark a comment over the whole Internship Report.  To mark out the important part of Internship Report.  To focus on the valuable part of Internship Report.  To verified the important of marketing where I am doing internship program.  3.3METHODOLOGY This report has been prepared on the basis of experience gathered during the period of internship. For preparing the report, I have also got the information from annual report and website of the SB knit composite Ltd. I have presented my experience and finding by using different chart and tables in the analysis part. I have also write down my report on the basis of primary and secondary data. 3.4 Data Collection Primary source  Face-to-face conversation with the respective officers and staffs.  Practical work experience  Time to time discussion with the officials of SB knit composite Ltd.  Experts’ opinion and commend.  Collection of relevant information.
  15. 15. 15 Secondary source  From library books  Newspaper  Article  Magazines 3.5 Data CollectionInstrument The following date collection instruments are used during preparation of Dissertation.  Questionnaire : Data has been collected through questioning owners, workers, labor union leaders and staff.  Checklist : Checklist has been used during the preparation of the dissertation. 3. 6 Scope: 1. To satisfy the buyer. 2. Large number of labour. 3. Good business environment. 4. EU is willing to established industry in big way as option china particularly for knits, including sweater. 5. Energy at low price. 3.7 Limitations: The main limitation of the report is that it includes the data of a few industries but not all RMG industries because there was not enough time, and also permission by factory owner. During visiting the factories were not available from the part of concerned person for their work load. This study is a working document. Parts of the background study can become updated at any time. 1. Communication problem. 2. Time schedule problem. 3. Data information & internet problem.
  16. 16. 16 Chapter -04 Academic Overview_
  17. 17. 17 4.1 Concept of merchandising technology: Considering these definitions of technology, merchandising itself is a kind of technology. The impact of merchandising technology may have some effect on consumer behaviour, industrial and economic structure and activity, and furthermore, on human life, ideas, and creative activity. Therefore using a broad definition we can call merchandising in ways that reflect social and cultural value. The ultimate goal of merchandising technology is to use time effectively, increase merchandising accuracy, and optimize benefits to the firm and the customers. In today's markets, scientific knowledge and techniques relate primarily to use of computers, infor- mation systems, telecommunications, and related hardware and software. The operational definition of merchandising technology used in this text reflects this more limited perspec- tive: Merchandising technology is the systematic application of information technology and Telecommunications to planning, developing, and presenting protract lines in ways that reflect social and cultural value. [5] In the textile business, merchandisers have a particularly strong role because of the intensive nature of product range. The process of buying and selling goods and services are termed as merchandising. In other words, the area of a company that develops strategies to have the right merchandise, at the right places, at the right time and at the right locations to meet the needs and wants of the target customers. Effective merchandising saves time and money. It coordinates various departments in the organization. Merchandising forms an effective liaison with the buyers. It identifies and develops potential new buyers. It builds good relationship with the buying houses and merchandiser attends to queries, order processing and evaluation of apparel products. So merchandising is of greater importance in apparel industry.
  18. 18. 18 4.2 Skill & knowledge that a merchandising requires: A merchandiser must have the following skill:  He must educated, intelligent, smart and courageous.  He must have sound proficiency in English, both written & spoken.  He must be sound in basic computer literacy (MS office management knowledge).  He must have basic idea of fabric, types of fabric, fabric construction, fabric defect, fabric quality control, fabric consumption, costing & printing.  He should be familiar with trims & accessories required for garments, their sources, costing, printing, etc.  He must have knowledge of garments costing & pricing.  He should be familiar with sampling procedure, garments specifications, style etc.  He must be able to work under presser.  He must be hard working and motivated person;  A merchandiser must be able to work in team; [6] This way is very common for the apparel merchandiser because they basically do their first impressive communication through profile sending to the foreign buyers and try to ensure them the future business obviously will be up to the mark. Determining how and where to manufacturing apparel product has to become a major concern for most companies. A good sourcing executive must have a working knowledge of manufacturing processes, quality assurance procedures, garment costing, product development, government quota and important legislation, international cultural and business practices, and international communications.[ A merchandiser always should have a mentality to impress the buyers by means of:  Right Product.  Right Qualities.  Right Quantities.  Right Time. You have to have some knowledge of manufacturing. merchandising has to look at the garments and review cost of fabric, details added to the garments such as pockets, zippers, pleats, etc. all of which create the manufacturing cost. Merchandising is responsible therefore
  19. 19. 19 for getting quick costs because as beautiful as a garments might be, if it’s too expensive to manufacturing, it might have to be dropped. A merchandiser should have adequate knowledge regarding following: Different types of wash/dry processing Different types of dyeing and printing process of fabric Different types of fabrics/accessories and current market price of them [8] 4.3 Mentor & motivate: Because there’s staff turnover, prepare a “cheat sheet” of the merchandising basics and make it a part of a new recruit’s job description to read and put the basics into practice. Take a few shop employees at a time to other stores in your town. Visit all sorts of different types of stores—gift shops, clothing stores, kitchen and tabletop shops, grocery stores, etc. Point out which merchandising methods used in those stores could be adapted for use in yours. Identify the best merchandisers on your staff and ask them to mentor one or two others. Have them lead by example and work one-on-one with their “mentors” to help them develop skills and gain confidence. 4.4 Work of merchandising  Study of fashion trend & fashion forecast in association with fashion designer.  Studying potential target customer.  Sourcing information about the customer & his profile (type of customer).  Sourcing information about product, its categories, style, specifications, assortments size details etc.  Sourcing foreign buyers.  Negotiating orders, cost calculation, pricing, securing order through master LC.  Sourcing fabrics, trims & accessories.  Placing order for the above materials & making regular follow up.  Getting sample made, making costing & pricing of the same.  Rectifying sample if necessary.  Completing the whole sampling procedure as per customer requirements.  Getting buyers approval of the sample.  Estimating lead time.  Production & shipment planning.  Monitoring production & product quality.
  20. 20. 20  Making regular liaison with the customer.  Follow up of customer instruction in respect of packing & packaging.  Arranging product delivery on time.  Follow up with the customer in respect of shipment & payment again exports order.  Quick response follows up in respect of any of the buyers query. [10] 4.5 WORK FLOW DIAGRAM: Export order collectCosting of accessories Send to the buyer Sample making production Get approval Line balancingIn-house of accessories Production continuing (follow up) Inspection of the produced garments Garments Industry Merchandiser Production merchandiser Process Flow Assembling with poly bag, carton etc Conclusion Preparation of banking
  21. 21. 21 4.6 DATA COLLECTION: Collection of facts (raw facts) is known as data. Direct observation and personal interview with questionnaire is the main instrument to collect the data. Primary data have been used for the purpose of the study. The primary data have been collected on the basis of prepared questionnaire. I am collect lots of data which is related to my study topic technical merchandising in Apparel industry. This collected data are given below: Normally there are two types of invoice : 1. proforma invoice: it is needed at primary stage of any order for opening L/C. 2. Commercial Invoice: it is needed at final stage of any order for asking payment from buyer. A merchandiser always should have a mentality to impress the buyers by means of:  Right Product.  Right Qualities.  Right Quantities.  Right Time. Samples always should be sent with below information on tag: b) Date c) Style d) Color e) Size f) Full description of garment g) Fabric description (content, construction, weight etc) h) Name of customer i) Name of vendor j) Unit price (if needed) k) Any sample sent to buyer must be the good one in terms – no matter for what the customer is requiring this. Woven fabric three types. Such as, I. Yarn dyed II. Solid dyed III. Printed.
  22. 22. 22 4.7 Application of the P.O. Sheet in the Factory: From the previous discussion, this is much clarified that the Purchase Order Sheet is how much essential for beginning the production of a particular order to be purchased. Way of Application:  When an exporter or a buyer confirms a merchandise to purchase, he sends a Purchase Order Sheet to the assigned merchandiser.  After receiving the P.O. sheet, it has to be sent in each department of the factory related to the purchasing from getting order to the shipment of the merchandise. Therefore, the P.O. sheets are copied a few copies – a) for cutting section, b) for commercial section, c) for each production floor, d) for the merchandiser himself, e) For others if needed. 4.8 Machine Wise Sewing Thread Consumption PER Inch: From this post you will get information regarding the sewing thread consumption depending on type of Mach Machine Name Classification Require thread/inch Plain Machine, 1 Needle, 2.5" Plain Machine 2 Needle 5" Over lock 3 Thread 13.25" Over lock 4 Thread 16.75" Over lock 5 Thread 18.75" Flat lock 3 Thread 16.75" Flat lock 5 Thread 22.25" Bar tack stitching 7" Generally P/Operation Preparation of production files for production starting  Measurement sheet  Assortment  Fabric quantity  Approval Sample  Order sheet  Packing list  Carton measurement.
  23. 23. 23 4.9 How do calculate button ligne from mm (milimetre) If Button length (dia) is 12.7 mm then Button ligne will be ? Rule: Button dia (in mm) / 0.635 = button ligne 12.7 mm / 0.635 = 20 L (L = ligne ) Result = 20 L Chart of button ligne (mm to ligne) Pricing Terminologies used in Garment Exports Free on Board (FOB): In garment exporting, pricing of the garments mostly quoted on FOB. FOB is defined as a term of sale under which the price invoiced or quoted by an exporter manufacturer or a buying agency includes all charges up to placing the goods on board a ship at the port of departure specified by the buyer. 4.1.1How to calculate fabric consumption for knits garment? Like other business, garment factory is set for profit generation. Profit can be improved by saving from each cost factors of garment making. Fabric is most important constitute of garment and it represent around 60-70% of total product manufacturing cost. Fabric cost of a product depends how much fabric is consumed to make the garment including cut wastes and end bits.
  24. 24. 24 DISCUSSIONS: A thesis paper, also referred to as research paper, is a paper that provides the reader with sufficient information about a particular topic. Our thesis paper introduced as will be presented to you as a basic Performa of merchandising. In preparing this thesis paper the needs of both the teacher and the taught have been kept constantly in view so that it may be a useful guide to those who are willing to get a merchandising job as well as to those who are already in the job. Because, this paper will provide a fresh idea about each important document needed the merchandising job. Apparel Merchandising – Apparel merchandising involved in garments trade (Goods are bought and apparel sold). Merchandising is defined as the set of techniques and action intended to highlight products at the right place, at the right time, in the right quantities, at the right price to make returns of customer satisfaction. 4.1.2 Basic qualifications should have the technical Merchandisers:-  Good command in English and adequate knowledge of technical terms for accurate and efficient communication.  Good knowledge of fiber, yarn, fabric, dyeing, printing, finishing, dyes, colour fastness and garments production etc.  Clear conception of the usual potential quality problem in apparel merchandising.  Good knowledge of the usual raw materials, raw materials inspection system and apparel inspection system.  Knowledge of the buyer’s compliance and various standards.  Knowledge of the quota system, free-trade, shipping and banking documentation. Main function of a Merchandiser to execute an order perfectly on time (schedule):-  Fabric requirement calculation (consumption, YPD).  Accessories requirement, calculation.  Sourcing of fabrics.  Sourcing of accessories.  Possible date of arrival of fabrics and accessories.  Costing.  Garment analysis and production planning.
  25. 25. 25  Performa making, swatch making and distribution to the production unit and quality concern people.  Pre-shipment inspection schedule.  Arranging shipping documents and final inspection. 4.1.3 Processflow chart of Merchandising: Merchandiser Negotiation with buyer & collect order Costing Sample making Get approval & placement of order Collect accessories for production Line balancing Production monitoring Final Inspection Banking
  26. 26. 26 Shipment 4.1.4 Negotiation with the buyers: Business Collaboration Negotiation with the buyers Business Collaboration The most critical work is the procurement of garment export order. Normally garment export order is found from the potential garment importers called garment buyer. Anybody wants to collect garments export order, should be able to convince the buyer. When the buyer is convinced about garment production, garments quality, garments costing and shipment ability of a garments exporter, he or she can think about issuing a garments export order. Without clear confidence among buyer & exporter from both sides, may be a risky business deal. If a garment exporter can continuously deal with only three or four buyer with buyer’s satisfaction, it will be sufficient enough to run garment production & garment export business smoothly round the year. A successful negotiation outcome does not generally occur through luck, but by following a clear process. The process reflects the different levels of knowledge of the subject of negotiation, various parties and the way they communicate at various stages in the negotiation. The following is an outline of steps essential to effective negotiation: Production merchandiser Process Flow Production merchandising process starts once the order / fabric commitment is received and the product development department hands over the file to production merchandiser and ends when the goods reach the buyers. The entire cycle involves all activities directly or indirectly related to procuring of materials, planning and monitoring of the order. A brief outline of the procedure is as below: Receipt of order o Receipt of an order means final confirmation of the order from the buyer. o Since, this is the final confirmation it is done by means of a legal document called a PO (purchase order) or an FC (fabric commitment)
  27. 27. 27 o PO (purchase order) – this is a legal document stating the quantity, delivery, price, style no, buyer, vendor details. On receipt of a PO it is very important that the merchandiser checks all details and confirms that they are correct like – quantity, delivery date, and price, style no, style description, color no & reference if mentioned, shipment mode, shipment port, vendor address, buyer address.  FC (fabric commitment) – fabric commitment is a legal document confirming that the buyer will be buying the said quantity of a particular fabric. A garment style no need not be mentioned on this document as it is a commitment only for buying fabric. This kind of a legal document is used by the buyer when there are very probable chances of change in the style or the same fabric is being used in a number of styles and the buyer has still not PREPARE DETAILED T&A FABRIC ORDERING FIT CYCLETRIM ORDERING FABRIC PO, PI, LC PILOT YARDAGE IN- HOUSE INSPECTION SHRINKAGE TEST BULK IN-HOUSE INSPECTION TEST REPORTS TRIM PO, PI BULK IN-HOUSE INSPECTION TEST REPORTS FIT APPROVAL SIZE SET & SEALER SAMPLE APPROVAL PRE-PRODUCTION MEETING ALL DEPARTMENTS ADVISED OF THE T&A RECEIPT OF ORDER PILOT RUN APPROVAL BULK CUTTING SEWING FINISHING PACKING FINAL AUDIT SHIPMENT OF GOODS AUDITS DONE AT VARIOUS STAGES OF PRODUCTION, TOP/PRS SAMPLES SENT TO BUYER AS PER REQUIREMENTS. PREPARE DETAILED T&A FABRIC ORDERING FIT CYCLETRIM ORDERING FABRIC PO, PI, LC PILOT YARDAGE IN- HOUSE INSPECTION SHRINKAGE TEST BULK IN-HOUSE INSPECTION TEST REPORTS TRIM PO, PI BULK IN-HOUSE INSPECTION TEST REPORTS FIT APPROVAL SIZE SET & SEALER SAMPLE APPROVAL PRE-PRODUCTION MEETING ALL DEPARTMENTS ADVISED OF THE T&A RECEIPT OF ORDER PILOT RUN APPROVAL BULK CUTTING SEWING FINISHING PACKING FINAL AUDIT SHIPMENT OF GOODS AUDITS DONE AT VARIOUS STAGES OF PRODUCTION, TOP/PRS SAMPLES SENT TO BUYER AS PER REQUIREMENTS.
  28. 28. 28 decided on the quantity to be purchased in each of the styles. Hence in such a situation the buyer gives a block booking for fabric. o Once the order is received four different activities are started off simultaneously. These activities are – preparing a detailed T&A, Fabric Ordering, Trim Ordering, fit cycle and sample approvals. 4.1.5 Preparing a detailed T & A o Preparation of a detailed time and action (T&A) calendar is very essential in production merchandising. The reason being, large no of activities have to be followed up for each order and a merchandised may be handling large number of such orders and hence it is essential that all activities are listed. This minimizes the risk of missing out any of the activities. Hence while preparing a T&A one should list down as many activities as one can think of which are essential in smooth running of the order. A detailed discussion on T&A is done later in this module. o This T&A is prepared by the merchandiser in consultation with all the concerned departments such as – sourcing (fabrics & accessories), production, and quality assurance, logistics. o Once the T&A is finalized the same should be circulated to all concerned departments. Another important aspect of the T&A is fixing the responsibility. Along with finalizing the date by which a particular activity has to be completed, the merchandiser should also mention the name of person who is responsible to complete the activity by that time. 4.1.6 Fabric ordering: o This activity involves ordering of fabric with the mill. The important points to be taken care of during this activity are:  Accurate computation of the requirement. This is essential to ensure that during bulk production the materials do not fall short nor are they in access and there are leftovers after the order is shipped. An accurate calculation of material requirement can be done if the BOM (bill of materials) as provided by the buyer in the specification sheet is studied thoroughly. Apart from just ensuring that the quantity is correct the BOM also helps in checking that all materials required in completion of the order are ordered and nothing has been missed out.
  29. 29. 29  Selecting the best vendor for the materials in terms of quality, price and delivery. o The fabric order is places by the merchandiser by means of a purchase order. The purchase order should list down the following very clearly –  Name & Reference no of the article  Quality description of the article  Quantity  Price  Delivery date  Quality parameters as required by the buyer  Payment terms  Pilot yardage requirements if any. o The mill sends a PI (Performa invoice) confirming the details as mentioned in the PO. In case of any changes required in the PO the same are also mentioned in the PI. The mill also provides its bank details on the PI so that the factory can work out the payments. o There can be various kinds of payment term agreements between the buying and the selling parties as below –  Some %c of payment in advance, the balance at sight – example, 20% advance, 80% at sight. This means that 20% of the total value of goods is paid in advance, the balance 80% is pain once the goods are received by the buyer (factory). This payment can be done by means of DD (demand draft), cheque or TT (telegraphic transfer)  LC (letter of credit) – in this payment mode the banks of both parties are involved. The buying party (factory in case of fabric) opens up a LC with its bank and the same is transferred to the mills bank. On acceptance of the LC by the mills bank, this becomes a legal contract between the two parties. Once the goods are dispatched the mill submits the dispatch details (Invoice, packing list and Air way bill details) in its bank and gets the payment for the goods. The mills bank then approaches the factories bank and gets its payment from the same. The factories bank then gets the payment from the factory. The LC once made, a copy of the same should be called in by the merchandiser and studied to make sure all details as mentioned are correct. The details to be looked at are:  Name & Reference no of the article  Quality description of the article  Quantity  Price  Delivery date  LC expiry date
  30. 30. 30  Fabric inspection report – this is generally a third part inspection done by buyer nominated inspection company like ITS, MTL etc. The most common and used method of inspection is the 4-point system. In this system every defect is given a point between 1 to 4 based on the nature of the defects. A maximum of 4 points per yards of fabric can be allocated. Fabric having more that 40 points per 100 square yards is considered to be reject. Different customers have different point levels depending upon how premium the brand is and also on the nature of the fabric. For example: a man made fiber should have lesser defects that a natural fiber and hence acceptable points level for polyester is kept lower that that of cotton.  Fabric shade band – the mill segregates the fabric on the basis of shade and makes a shade band. In general a maximum of 3 shade bands are acceptable by customer, however this can again vary from customer to customer. The customer evaluates the different shades by means of a grey scale rating acceptable.  Fabric test report (FPT – fabric performance test) – yardage from bulk is sent to the nominated testing laboratory such as MTL, ITS for testing the physical and color parameters of the fabric as required by the customer. The testing laboratory also provides a wash care instruction for the fabric, which essentially means the best washing conditions for the fabric.  Fabric shrinkage report – the mill tests 10% of the fabric to confirm that the fabric adheres to the specifications as laid down by the customer. For example if the customer accepts +/- 3% shrinkage, fabric having 5% shrinkage is rejected. The determining the shrinkage the fabric is tested as per the best washing conditions advised by the testing laboratory on the fabric test report.  Once fabric passes through all the above tests and inspections it is shipped to factory. The factory again checks the fabric on 4-point system and also checks the shade bands and also does fabric shrinkage test to confirm that they adhere to the requirements of the buyer.  With regards to fabric inspection the factory generally inspects 10% of the fabric, in case there is a problem the factory goes on to inspect 100% of the fabric.  For fabric shrinkage test – different procedures have to be adopted for ascertaining the shrinkages for a washed and a non-washed style.  In case of a non-wash garment testing 10% of the fabric is sufficient to determine the shrinkage that needs to be included in the pattern. The fabric is washed based on the recommended wash care instructions in the FPT.
  31. 31. 31  In case of a washed garment, 100% fabric should be tested for shrinkage. The test is done as per the wash recipe. Once all rolls are tested, the rolls are segregated as per the shrinkages and different patterns are made to incorporate the shrinkages.  Factory then also checks the fabric for shade banding, compares the same with the once sent by the mill and if found acceptable sends one sent out to log the same with customer. Once the buyer confirms that the shade bands are ok, the fabric is ready to be cut.  Trim ordering – a similar process as done for the fabric is done for trims except for pilot trims. The factory can call in trims for sampling and these are called as PROMO TRIMS.  Fit / sample approval – while fabric and trim ordering is happening, simultaneously the sample approval procedure is also underway. The moment a style is selected it goes to the tech department for fitting. Here models wear the samples and they are evaluated in terms of fit, construction, measurement. The buyer then sends out comments, which are called as fit comments. In case another sample is requested the factory makes the same incorporating the comments and send again to buyer. This process is called fit cycle. Different customers have different no of fit cycles.  Pp sample - Once the fit sample is approved the factory makes a PP (Pre-production) sample. This can be called by different names such as sealer sample, green tag sample etc. This sample is sent out the buyer for final approval and once approved becomes the final sample on the basis of which entire production is made and audited. This is the most important sample and one should take care that everything on this sample is correct as this then becomes the standard.  Size set - Once PP sample is approved the next step is to make a SIZE SET. All the fit samples and the PP samples are in the medium size, now the medium size is graded into the different sizes as per the purchase order. The basic purpose of size set is to ensure that grading between sizes is correct.  Pre- production meeting – in this meeting everybody concerned with the style sits together to make sure that everybody is on the same page and understands the product. Hence, this meeting has the merchandiser, production in-charge, cutting, finishing, fabric in-charge, line supervisor, pattern master, sample master etc. All tentative problems are discussed and solutions sought to execute the order smoothly.  Pilot run – once pre-production meeting is done the factory does PILOT RUN. Factory cuts 100 – 200 garments based on the order quantity. The pilot run is done on the
  32. 32. 32 assembly line and is aimed at ensuring that the operators of the assemble line understand the required quality levels. This is very essential since all samples prior to the pilot run (fit samples, PP & size set) are made in the sampling unit.  Once pilot run is approved the factory goes into bulk production. In line and interim inspections are preformed during the production process to ensure that the final product quality meets the required quality level.  Once 80 – 90 % of the goods are packed a pre-final audit is done. This helps in taking corrective action if required before the final audit. Generally since the final audit happens very close to the shipment date, the pre-final gives factory a chance to amend problems if any.  The last is the Final audit. This is the last checkpoint before shipment. All aspects (packing, packaging, measurement, construction & visuals) are evaluated. Once the garments adhere to the required quality standards in all the parameters the shipment is passed and then the shipment is moved to thee logistic team.  Now the merchandiser interacts with the logistic department, takes the shipment schedule and sends the same to the customer. 4.1.7 Responsibility of Senior Merchandiser  Sample development  Price negotiation  Order confirmation  L/C opening  Opening summery  Sourcing  Material collection  Production planning  Production monitoring  Quality assurance  Arrange final inspection
  33. 33. 33 4.1.8 Function of a Merchandiser Procuring of garments orders: -Receiving order inquiry. -Garment costing. -Garment price quotation. -Price bargaining. -Order confirm. -Confirm schedule Procuring of raw materials: -Preparation and calculation of fabrics and accessories required. -selection of appropriate suppliers. -Possible date of arrival in the factory. - Costing and payments. -Follow up delivery of fabrics and accessories as per schedule. -Sending standard specification of desired materials. - sending procuring information to the stores. -Inspect Production of garments: -To know order quantity. -To know shipment date. -Garments production planning (sample section, production section, quality control section, finishing section, store etc) -Pre-shipment inspection schedule. - final inspection schedule. Shipment of garments: -Mode of transportation (Sea, Air….) -shipping lines (own/buyer) -FOB/CNF/CIF (Cost and Freight, Cost Insurance Freight) -Export documents. Negotiation with buyer A successful negotiation outcome does not generally occur through luck, but by following a clear process. The process reflects the different levels of knowledge of the subject of negotiation, various
  34. 34. 34 parties and the way they communicate at various stages in the negotiation. The following is an outline of steps essential to effective negotiation: Preparation Effective preparation is also vital to successful communication. It is essential that the buyer also has identified the maximum and minimum positions that she will accept for a range of factors including: product price order size Lead- time. Offer The buyer and supplier can make specific proposals to set the boundaries of the negotiation. Counter and revised offers This is the real bargaining where elements of the order, such as number of units, product details, lead- time and so on are being decided in the context of an overall cost price the buyer should make firm proposals. Qualities of technical Merchandiser: For a merchandiser, the most important quality is that he must have to be educated. He must be very skilled in English language as he has to communicate with the foreign buyer and supplier. He must have to be computer literate, i.e. a good idea about computer operating e.g. office program like Ms Word, Ms Excel and Ms Access etc. He must have enough knowledge about browsing e.g. e-mail sending and receiving, net searching etc. He must have a good appearance and should be smartly dressed. He should be capable of thinking at multi-level stage because he has to maintain communication outside the factory with buyer and supplier as well as inside the factory with various sections like sample, marker, sewing etc. A merchandiser should have adequate knowledge regarding following: Different types of wash/dry processing Different types of dyeing and printing process of fabric Different types of fabrics/accessories and current market price of them  A merchandiser always should have a mentality to impress the buyers by means of:  Right Product.  Right Qualities.
  35. 35. 35  Right Quantities.  Right Time. Purchase order sheet: What does a P.O. contain? The Purchase Order is provided to the vendor as a record of the Purchase. A sample Purchase Order Sheet indicates the followings- Purchase Order Number - The number is assigned to the purchase order. This is used to identify a definite order and for departmental record keeping. Vendor’s Name and Address - The complete name and address of the individual or company which manufacture the merchandise. Ship To - Receiving Department address. Deliver To - The complete name and location of the individual who requested the ordered goods. Date - The date at which the purchase order was received and also the date at which the order will have to be shipped. Payment Terms - Payment terms defined by Purchasing Department of the buyer. Ship Via - Shipping instructions entered by Purchasing Department. F.O.B.
  36. 36. 36 - Shipping terms defined by Purchasing Department. Freight Terms - Freight terms defined by Purchasing Department. P. O. Line No. - The sequential line number which corresponds with the line on the requisition (i.e., the first item would be line 1; the second would be line 2, etc.). Quantity - The quantity of the item being purchased. UOP (Unit of Purchase) - The packaging of the item to be purchased (i.e., each, box, package, poly, dozen, carton etc.). Unit Price - The unit price of the item ordered. Total Price - The total quantity of the item multiplied by its unit price. Description - The complete description of the item ordered in detail, i.e. color, size ratio, critical designs, buttons and other trims, printings, sewing thread used etc. Total - The total amount of all items on the purchase order. - During partial shipment, color-wise and size-wise quantity to be shipped is mentioned. For Questions Concerning This Purchase Order The buyer's name and telephone number to contact for questions concerning this purchase order.
  37. 37. 37 4.1.9 Importance of Purchase Order: The Purchase Order Sheet is abbreviated to PO Sheet. This is one of the very important documents for both buyer and manufacturer. It can be explained from the both buyer’s and seller’s point if view. From the buyer’s point of view, A Purchase Order Sheet is used to request product e.g. garments like shirt, trouser, shorts, kid’s item etc. from manufacturer. Rather than calling the manufacturer to request their purchase, they send them a Purchase Order Form. On the Purchase Order Sheet the buyer describes three most important things:- What it is that he requires i.e. garment details? When he wants it i.e. the date of delivery? How much he expects to pay for it i.e. unit price and total price? By using this Purchase Order Sheet, the buyer can ensure his receive exactly what have been ordered at the right time and at the right price. From the seller’s point of view, The manufacturer can use the purchase order to clearly specify the delivery details, billing information and order details for supplier or manufacturer. a) The manufacturer can identify the followings from a Purchase Order Sheet: Purchase details and requested delivery date Delivery details for the items purchased Billing and supplier information Quantity and unit price of each item Total price of the purchase b) By using this Purchase Order Form, the manufacturer can: Monitor the delivery of goods from suppliers Put in place an approval process to control project expenditure Ensure that suppliers deliver exactly what was requested Report the status of procurement to management. Application of the P.O. Sheet in the Factory: From the previous discussion, this is much clarified that the Purchase Order Sheet is how much essential for beginning the production of a particular order to be purchased.
  38. 38. 38 Way of Application:  When an exporter or a buyer confirms a merchandise to purchase, he sends a Purchase Order Sheet to the assigned merchandiser.  After receiving the P.O. sheet, it has to be sent in each department of the factory related to the purchasing from getting order to the shipment of the merchandise. Therefore, the P.O. sheets are copied a few copies – a) for cutting section, b) for commercial section, c) for each production floor, d) for the merchandiser himself, e) For others if needed. After receiving the copies of P.O., first the cutting section starts their action and the hereafter functions go on accordingly one after another. Possible Problems during Application: The application is not so much easier as described before. There may create lots of problems regarding the copies of P.O. The most two of them are as below – As the activities start from the cutting section, the P.O. sheets should be reviewed as very good and notified the number of pieces to be cut as per size and color. Then the cutting master proceeds on his function. But the problem arises when he is to find out the necessary points (color –wise and size –wise quantity) from each of the large number of P.O. sheets. It becomes very difficult for him to spend such a huge time beyond this. Besides, sometimes in our country the cutting incharges are not literate enough to study the P.O. sheets as well. Another problem arises when a large number of P.O. sheets have to be copied. We know that the Purchase Order for a particular product may contain a lot of sheets having different P.O. number. The merchandiser does not do this work himself rather it is generally done by the peon or the photocopier. So, often it occurs that there have to face problems during copying them and arranging them in order according to the P.O. number.
  39. 39. 39 Solution of the Problem: The problems mentioned above must have to be eradicated in order to minimize the obstacles during further functions. And a merchandiser is the only one who can find out the solution. Just he has to perform one more function after obtaining the P.O. sheets. The merchandiser studies the P.O. sheets from point to point and prepares a Microsoft Excel Sheet notifying each important point separately. The necessary points to be mentioned are as follows – 1. Factory Name, 2. P.O. Number, 3. Style #, 4. Color Ratio, 5. Size Ratio, 6. Quantity as per size, 7. Total Quantity, 8. Poly – no. of pieces per poly, 9. Carton – no. of pieces per carton, 10. Delivery Date, 11. Order replete or not. Therefore, a lot of P.O. sheets will be summarized in one sheet that makes easier to study for others as well as also increase the productivity. A sheet is given next where there a number of P.O. sheets are summarized. If it is compared with the P.O. sheets stated before, we shall find out that how much it is easy to study than that of a number of sheets. 4.2.0 Guidelines for a merchandiser: These guidelines are very important for a merchandiser that helps him to do his job efficiently. These are the care instructions while a merchandiser is sustaining his responsibilities. These care instructions are divided into two steps as following:- 1. Preliminary Care Instruction- for fabric lab test. 2. Final Care Instruction- issued after garment test. It may vary due to use of special trims (rubber patch, print, appliqué, lining, etc. Description of various care instructions are given below-. During Submitting Samples: Samples always should be sent with below information on tag: Date Style
  40. 40. 40 Color Size Full description of garment Fabric description (content, construction, weight etc) Name of customer Name of vendor Unit price (if needed) Any sample sent to buyer must be the good one in terms – no matter for what the customer is requiring this. 4.2.1 Classification of different types of samples: 1. Development sample 2. Advertisement sample 3. Fit sample 4. Photo Sample 5.Pre- production sample 6. Lab test sample 7. Size set sample 8. Seal sample 9. Counter sample 10. Production sample 11. Shipment sample Development sample: Which sample made by available fabric and accessories, with different design and style, to collect order from the Buyer. That sample is called Development sample. Advertisement sample: This sample required from Buyer as used for advertisement of coming design in the show room of the Buyer. Fit sample:
  41. 41. 41 From all the sizes of the order M or L size sample made and sent to the Buyer for Dummy fitting. After confirmation of fitting Buyer will made a size spec of all sizes by grading from this size. Pre-Production sample: Which sample made by actual fabric and accessories and sent to the Buyer for final approval to start production, this sample is called Pre-production or P.P. sample. Lab test sample: This sample made by actual fabric and accessories and sent to the Buyer nominated laboratory for testing of fabric construction, GSM, Shrinkage, color fastness, print and embroidery color bleeding and accessories color bleeding also. Size set sample: According to Order sheet all size sample made by actual fabric and Accessories and sent to local Buying House for approval to start Production these sample is called Size set sample. Seal sample: size set approval one sample they seal, sign and tagged then It is hanged in the production floor this sample is Seal sample. Counter sample: Which sample reserved with the pattern for repeat order from the Buyer this sample is called Counter sample. Production sample: When production start in Apparel Industry , from the first output sample need from Buyer to compare with the Pre production sample. Shipment sample: When all production is completed and ready for shipment that time sample required from Buyer covering all color and all size, those sample is called shipment sample. 4.2.3 Standard Merchandise Test Method: Merchandisers always have to be aware of buyers’ satisfaction, i.e. how the buyer will be satisfied as much as possible. To do this, the requirements of buyer should be fulfilled accurately, such as – Required Crocking Fastness
  42. 42. 42 Required Light Fastness Required pH (for washed garments) Required Dimensional Stability of Garments ETC. The merchandiser must have to check those factors on the garments. Though this includes in the quality department, merchandisers should have a good idea about the testing metho 4.2.3 Fabric consumption calculationMen’s: Item Men’s T shirt: Measurement Measurement chart No. Parts Actual measurement(cm) Allowance (cm ) Total 1 Chest 96 6 102 2 High point solder 65 5 70 3 Sleeve length 20 5 25 4 Arm hole 46 3 49 5 Neck 58 3 61 6 Neck width 4 3 7 Formula: For Body CPD (Consumption per dozen)= Length × Width×12 pices×GSM/10000000 = 102×70×12×150/10000000 = 1.2852 kg Here, GSM is 150 For Sleeve CPS = Length × Width×12 ×2 parts×GSM/10000000 = 25×49×12×2×150/10000000 = 0.441 kg
  43. 43. 43 Here, GSM is 150 and in 1 piece of T-shirt has 2 sleeves For Neck Neck = Length × Width×12 ×GSM/10000000 = 61×7×12×200/10000000 = 0.10248 kg Here, GSM is 200 Total consumption = body + sleeve + neck + 7 % wastage = 1.2852+0.441+0.10248+0.07 = 1.89868 kg/dozs So total fabric required to make one dozen of T-shirt 4.2.4 Costing Coat a price for 1 dozen Men’s T-shirt 1. Fabric consumption 2 kg/dz $5.0/kg $10/kg 2. Accessories $2/dz $2/dz 3. CM (cost of manufacturing) $2/dz $2/dz Total =$14 A) Direct cost (raw materials) = $14.0 B) Indirect cost (15% to 20% of direct cost) Indirect cost = $14.0 x 20% = $2.8 Total = $14.0 + $2.8 = $16.8 C) Profit @5% = $16.8 x 5%
  44. 44. 44 = @0.84 Therefore, total cost = $16.8 + $0.84 = $17.64 = $18 So, the cost for 1 dozen mean’s T-shirt is $18 Costing tips for the knits Items Costing: Before start costing 1) Fabrication: You must take clear idea regarding the fabrication before taking the order from the buyer / buying house. After then, you must ensure that, you have strong source of the followings fabric. 2) Size spec: Make sure that, you have got the correct/latest size spec with the measurement of all the sizes, which will be ordered. Many times we see that, PO sheet has come with new bigger size which was not during the costing. 3) Fabric color: Try to know that, how many colors the style has & also try to know that, color wise order qty ratio. 4) Qty: Take information regarding approximate order qty. 5) Shipment date: Asked buyer for the shipment date & check with your production department that, they have enough space for shipped out the followings qty within the require ship date Or tell your possible date. 6) Test requirement: Let you know that, the order has any test or not. 7) L/C payments term: Take a previous l/c copy from them & discuss with your commercial people regarding all the terms along with payment terms. 8) Inspection: get a confirmation from the buyer that, who will inspected the goods. If third party then who will pay their charges. 9) GSP: confirm that, buyer has need the GSP or not. Calculating Fabric Consumption
  45. 45. 45 1) Body Consumption: Calculate the body fabric consumption at first. If possible calculate it after make the pattern. Be confirmed regarding the dia. Calculate the consumption with adding + 5 gsm extra which fabric is sells in kg (s/j, pique, rib etc). Or reduce 2” (in width) from the both side which are in yards (tricot, taffeta etc). Moreover, if the garments are wash garments then make sure that, the pattern has the wash allowance. 2) Rib: Calculate the rib consumption carefully because sometimes the garments have rib at cuff opening & bottom hem. Some people mistakenly do the consumption considering one cuff. 3) Neck tape: Calculate the consumption of neck tape. 4) Appliqué & others fabric: Make sure that, you are not missing any appliqué & any other fabric. 5) Estimate the wastage: Normally we add 9% wastage for the knit items. However, it’s may vary depends on how many process the garments have. If it is with only front chest print then 9% is ok but if with all over/rotary print, with heavy wash etc then you must increase the wastage. Moreover, if the garments with pigments dye then add minimum 25 to 30% wastage because in this pigment dye garments reject percentage is very high. Others item 1) Print: If the garments have print then make sure that, you have a clear art work of it. Check that there clearly mentioned the print quality, dimension & placement. Send the art work to your printers for a better price idea. Also let you know from your printers regarding the difficulties of the followings print. Many times we found that, buyer has asked for so many type/kind prints in same body which is so difficult for production. Such as, if buyer asked for Flock + discharge & foil print in at the same artwork then it is not possible for production. 2) Embroidery: Discuss with your embroidery supplier regarding the embroidery & take price quotation. 3) Wash: Take the wash price quotation from washing factory. 4) Test: Confirm the charges of test from the testing company. Accessories & trims 1) Sewing thread: Confirm that, which thread you need 100% cotton, spun polyester or filaments. Then ensure the count 50/2 or 40/2 or any other denier. Its may vary on fabrications. Regarding the pigment dye garments we normally used cotton grey color cotton
  46. 46. 46 thread. Calculate the sewing thread consumption part by part & add require wastage percentage. 2) Labels: Take the quotation from your supplier for the entire woven & satin/paper label. 3) Tape: Calculate the consumption of tape if it has, such as Velvet, herringbone or canvas etc. 4) Elastic: Make sure which denier & width it need. Then take the quotation from supplier. 5) Zipper: If the garments have zippers then confirm that, from where you will purchase that. Many time the logo zipper need to import the mold from abroad. Make sure the zipper quality, such metal, nylon or vislon zipper. Check the zipper measurement from your production department and get prices from your zipper supplier. 6) Button: Take the button price from your supplier if the garments have it. 7) Inter lignin: Calculate the inter lignin price if the garments need. 8) Patch or badge: Calculate the patch or badge or others metal item if the garments have. 9) Finishing item: Tissue paper, silica gel, hang tag, barcode sticker, back board, h/tag string, scotch tape, security tag calculate the prices of these item. 10) Hanger: Take the quotation of hanger. 11) Poly: Make the measurement of poly. Confirm the quality & with adhesive or not. 12) Carton: Find out the carton measurement & take the prices from carton supplier along with top, bottom & divider. 13) Gum tape: Confirm the gum tape quality that, whether it is normal transparent or with any logo. Then take the price quotation. 14) PP belt: Take the price quotation of pp belt if buyer asked it. 15) Carton sticker: Take quotation for sticker. Commercial cost Normally we add 3% of total purchase (Fabric cost+ other item cost + Accessories cost) as commercial cost if the L/c payments terms is as sight. If the l/c is 60 days deferred then you can add 7.5% additional cost of total price and it will be 15% for 90 day deferred.
  47. 47. 47 4.2.5 CM (Cost of making) Calculate the CM after discussion with your production department. It’s vary depends on require machine qty & output qty. Profit Normally we add 20% of CM cost with the price as profit. Yarn selection: Yarn selection is the most important for a merchandiser. It is the another responsibility of merchandiser. Different types of yarn are used in this industry to make fabric. It depends on buyer requirements. Yarn count calculation for different types of fabric weight is as follows- Fabric Name Fabric GSM Yarn count Machine Dia Finished dia Single jersey 110-120 40 s/1 18.5”-34.5” 17"-- 33" 125-135 34 s/1 18.5”-34.5” 18" -- 34" 140-150 30 s/1 18.5” -34.5” 19" -- 35" 160-170 26 s/1 18.5” -34.5” 20" -- 37" 180-190 24 s/1 18.5” -34.5” 20" -- 37" 200-220 20 s/1 18.5” -34.5” 21" -- 38" Interlock 220-230 30 s/1 18.5”-34.5” 230-245 28 s/1 18.5”-34.5” 250-260 26 s/1 18.5” -34.5” 270-280 24 s/1 18.5” -34.5” 1/1 Rib 180-190 30 s/1 18.5” -34.5” 190-210 28 s/1 18.5” -34.5” 210-230 26 s/1 18.5” -34.5” 230-250 24 s/1 18.5” -34.5” Pique 170-180 30 s/1 18.5" -- 34.5" 25" -- 47" 180-200 28 s/1 18.5" -- 34.5" 25" -- 47" 210-220 26 s/1 18.5" -- 34.5" 26" -- 48" 220-245 24 s/1 18.5" -- 34.5" 27”-49” 260-270 20 s/1 18.5”-34.5” 28”-50”
  48. 48. 48 Single lacost 170-180 30 s/1 18.5" -- 34.5" 24" -- 45" 190-200 26 s/1 18.5" -- 34.5" 25" -- 46" 210-220 24 s/1 18.5" -- 34.5" 26" -- 47" 220-245 22 s/1 18.5”-34.5” 27" -- 48" Double lacost 170-180 34 s/1 18.5" -- 34.5" 25" -- 48" 190-200 30 18.5" -- 34.5" 26”-49” 210-220 28 18.5" -- 34.5" 27”-47” 220-250 24 18.5" -- 34.5" 27”-45” Lycra Jersey 170-180 34 s/1+40dI 22" / 25" 21" / 24" Lycra Jersey 190-200 30 s/1+40dI 22" / 25" 22" / 25" Lycra Jersey 210-220 26 s/1+40dI 22" / 25" 23" / 26" Lycra Jersey 230-240 24 s/1+40dI 22" / 25" 23" / 26" 4.2.6 Some Important Instructions to be a Good Merchandiser: Tips to be well – Organized Always try to be a good negotiator with the suppliers and prices need to be vetted with minimum 3-4 parties. Keep all records of quotations as reference. Make a list of work to do and prioritize them for action. Make a Master file against a program for details records. Use file dividers to keep different information in a systematic way. Update your file regularly with relevant important information. This is a must. Tips for Presentation: Try to be very good in presentation. It is much more important because it gives a better impression of the company to the buyer. Review the definite program very well as much as possible. Take an over – all good idea about the program. Try to be relaxed and do not take any pressure in mind before presenting. Try to be polite in manner during presenting the program. And the most important thing is that try to be confident yourself. Tips for Writing Mails:
  49. 49. 49 a) Try to present yourself as a dutiful person to his job within the mail. b) Put date accurately. c) Give a relevant subject and regarding topic. d) Be specific about your statement. e) Try to shorten your statement as much as possible. f) Do not start a mail with negative approach – even the email is regarding negative issue. g) If there is a request from buyer that you can not comply, submit your message in a different way and try to provide options (if possible) with alternate solutions. Hence, in an over – all sense, good merchandising is –  to be smart enough in negotiation,  to be very good in planning,  to be intelligent in maintaining things,  to be able in keeping good relationship,  And to be well organized for keeping records (very very important). Merchandising Chronological Processes: A). Salesman Samples, Counter Samples, Approval Samples, Photo Samples, Preproduction Samples, Production Samples, Shipping Samples. B). Swatch and Trims, Trim’s related Affairs, Communication in international Business. Sample: Reference garment corresponds to • The artwork (styling) done by designer and/ or developer • Particular purchase order • Any revision to the style work • Conform with any specific requirement etc. a). Sequence of sampling  Serial No. Name of Sampling  1 1st Pattern  2 2nd Pattern  3 Counter Sample  4 Sales Man Sample  5 PHOTO Sample  6 Approval Sample (Size Set, Mock-up)
  50. 50. 50  7 Pre-production  8 Production Sample  9 Shipping Sample b). First pattern  Def.: The first physical version of any garment as per the artwork done by designer and/or developer.  HUMAN MIND > SKETCH > PAPER PATTERN > SAMPLE  Purpose: See the Design work & test the fitting  Status: Nothing specific  Material: Available  Price: Not conformed  Quantity: 1 (for customer) + 1 (for Merchandiser)  Delivery: As per urgency  c). Second pattern  Usually designer/ developer always ask for some CHANGES to the first pattern.  Second pattern is made as per comments. d). Counter sample Where first pattern is made on designers artwork, Counter sample is to make not on designer’s artwork, has to follow another sample given by the merchandiser.  Purpose: See the Workmanship &Test the Factory skill.  Status: Nothing specific  Material: Available  Price: Not conformed  Quantity: 1 (for customer) + 1 (for self keeping)  Delivery: As per request e). Salesman sample Sample is made when price is confirmed and orders are on speculation, usually in L size in all color combinations of expected order. Buyer arrange a meeting with its customer and record their response on order quantity per color, size etc. and finally place order to their vendor.
  51. 51. 51  Purpose: Sales Meeting by Retailers, Market Appraisal, Demand / Order Forecast  Status: Final stage of the order confirmation  Material: Actual  Price: Confirmed  Quantity: There is minimum quantity per color combination  Delivery: Very important to meet the delivery date. f). Photo sample Samples are made with actual color and material to be worn by the models on the event of shooting for catalog. g). Approval sample In any discrete period of time, whenever it required any revision in the sample, a new sample is made (some times mock-up is workable too) as per new specification. It is sent to buyer for his approval of the conformity that- the revision is done correctly. h). Size set Consists of 1 pc from Each Size for Each Color combination. j). Pre-Production sample When material for bulk production arrived, factory makes a sample with the actual material and sends to buyer. k). Production sample It is a reference to the buyer that the bulk is being produced as per specification. Buyer wants to be assured that correct material is sourced and line workmanship confirm to the quality. l). Shipping sample A sample is kept from every Pre Shipping inspection to be referred, if required, after the order has been delivered. Usually for any disputes (e.g. Claim) shipping sample is important. m). Swatch Swatch is a presentation of all the materials is (Fabric & Accessories) used for any specific style/order. Usually small piece of fabric and each piece of accessories are attached in board paper in a systematic manner. Swatch is very important for production line to make the correct construction of a garment and QC department ensures it. Concerned merchandiser should confirm/approve the swatch.
  52. 52. 52 n). Trims Trims cover all the items used in the garment except the basic fabric. There are hundreds of items used to manufacture the garments, proper selection of trims and its quality are very important for styling, otherwise the garment may be rejected or returned by the customers. Following is a part of list that covers some names of the trims: • Zipper/Fastener • Sewing Thread • Main Label • Flag Label • Button • Elastic • Eyelet • Tags • Tag pin • Plastic clip • Sticker • Hanger • Poly bag • Scotch tape • Gum tape • Photo Board • Back Board • Tissue • Carton. Etc. o). Communication in international business • Telephone Conversation. • Fax/ E-Mail • Formal Meeting • Lunch & Dinner p). The information normal get about an order 1. Factory Loading
  53. 53. 53 2. Factory Capacity 3. Factory History 4. Factory Setup Details 5. Market Reputation 6. Type of Buyers Dealing q). How a merchandiser meets buyer requirements 1. Merchandiser detail to buyer about factory profile. 2. Merchandiser Understand the Order sheet. 3. Arrange the all component for order execution. 4. Production Tracking. 5. Timely Shipment. r). Method of purchasing raw materials Here fabric and some related accessories are the main raw materials. They are: 1. Lab-Dip 2. Approval the Lab-Dip 3. Collect price Quotation 4. Negotiation 5. P.I. Received 6. Back to Back L/C transfer 7. Delivery Chelan received s). Procedure of imported goods • Procure of IRC • Price Inquiry (Quotation) • P.I. Received and Placing Order • L/C Opening • Received Shipping Advice • Facing Customs • Closing Transaction
  54. 54. 54 t). How does the accepted order is passed on the floor 1. Merchandiser searches the scope of knitting machine according to required Gauge. 2. Make production schedule 3. Trim & Accessories Card Prepare 4. Make well finishing according to buyer requirement in case of - • Labeling • Zippering • Buttoning • Ironing • Packaging • Cartooning u). How merchandiser tracks his production in the factory 1. Follow-up yarn supply in factory 2. Knitting follow-up 3. Linking follow-up 4. Accessories supply 5. Finishing follow-up 6. Ready for export 4.2.7 Merchandising Calendar Firms commonly establish a merchandising calendar that guides the timing of product development processes and/or the purchase of finished goods for line development. A line planning, development, and presentation calendar includes weeks of the year in relation to product development activities. It also defines product development in relation to the selling periods the firm has defined. The activities included in a merchandising calendar are the same items presented in the merchandising taxonomy in Chapter 3, "Merchandising Processes." A merchandising calendar for a children's wear company that sells the line at wholesale and in outlet stores. According to the calendar, the firm has four selling periods-spring, summer, fall, and holiday. The product development cycle for a selling period is about 30 weeks. The calendar identifies 49 activities required to develop the line. The numbers 1, 2, and 3 in the shaded boxes represent the development of three different merchandise groups that will be made available to vendors sequentially to keep fresh merchandise on retailers' shelves during
  55. 55. 55 a single selling period. Designers are key players in the product development process. Responsibilities for product development are discussed here from the perspective of creative design and technical design. During-the-Period Trend Analysis Merchandise planning and forecasting is an ongoing, dynamic process. A merchandise plan is only good as long as it meets the needs of the firm and its customers. Plans should be reviewed at least every four weeks and modified as the need becomes apparent. Trend analysis needs to be conducted (luring the current selling period, because after the period ends, it may be too late for planning the same selling period for next year. Trend analysis might develop during the season as follows:  Evaluate fast sellers  Determine the appeal of the product-quality, style, color, fit, price, other.  Reorder for continued sales potential, if time permits.  Rework merchandise presentation to feature similar and related merchandise.  Update trend analysis.  Evaluate slow sellers  Determine problem(s) with the product-quality, style, color, fit, price..  Rework merchandise presentation to better display merchandise.  Mark down promptly if price is too high.  Consider stage of fashion cycle.  Update trend analysis. End-of-Period Trend Analysis Analyzing overall productivity by classification is the final component of classification analysis. In a multi-store operation, it may be useful to look at combined statistics for a classification by store. The evaluation criteria include sales volume, turnover, markdown percentage, maintained markup, and current sales trend. The means are presented for each criteria at the bottom of the table. Sales volume is total sales for the classification during the selling period being evaluated. Turnover is the number of times average inventory on hand
  56. 56. 56 was sold. Percent markdown is markdown dollars as a percent of net sales. Maintained mark up is the difference between cost of merchandise, including its transportation, and selling price. Percent change in sales reflects the sales trend as compared to the same selling period last year. Other criteria might be included depending on the firm's goals. Documentation of merchandising Production merchandising process starts once the order / fabric commitment is received and the product development department hands over the file to production merchandiser and ends when the goods reach the buyers. The entire cycle involves all activities directly or indirectly related to procuring of materials, planning and monitoring of the order. I). Order confirmation document:  Copy of master LC.  Contract sheet:  Contract no  Style no  Shipment date  A.Q.L  Order quantity & size Ratio  Fabric description  Labels & position  Buyer’s comments & regarding approved sample.  Proved trim card. II). Import document:  Performa invoice.  Commercial invoice.  Packing list.  Utilization permission.  PSI (Pre shipment Inspection) Certificate. III). Documentation on received of the material at the factory:  Inventory report.
  57. 57. 57  Swatches (on received fabric and accessories). IV). Documentation: Production oriented  Production Plan.  Daily production report.  Daily quantity report.  Daily production and inspection report V). Export documentation:  IC (Final Inspection certificate).  BL (Bill of lading).  AB (Airway bill).  PL (Packing list)  Certificate of origin. Payment monitoring: After getting order from buyer A L/C have to open by the buyer .L/C means Letter of Credit. It is a conditional undertaking of payment. It is a document issued by a bank on behalf of an applicant undertaking to make payment to a beneficial up to a stated amount of moneys within a prescribed time limit and design stipulated documents. Types of L/C: 1. Revocable L/C: This type of credit can be amendment or cancel by the applicant without only prior notice to the beneficial. Here all risks are involves for the seller but buyer has more flexible. 2. Irrevocable L/C: This type of credit ca be amendment or cancel only to the agreement of all parties concern. 3. Irrevocable & Confirmed L/C: This type of credit involves the undertaking of the advising bank in addition to that of issuing bank .It means that issuing bank request a 2nd bank to add its own confirmation to the credit .So that the confirmation bank is responsible to make payment if the issuing bank to pay the beneficiary. 4. Transferable L/C: This type of L/C that is transferable as per the need. 5. Back-to-Back L/C: This type of L/C can be against a valid expert L/C. Master L/C. It is so much popular in textile area.
  58. 58. 58 If we open a L/C then need some things that are given below: 1. Trade license 2. Memorandum Certificate 3. Membership certificate 4. IRC 5. TIN 6. Bond license 7. Insurance 8. Factory Insurance 9. Agreement with the house owner Benefits of L/c: Sellers End: 1. Without having cash payment 2. Guaranteed business without investing any cash involvement 3. Risk free Buyers end: 1. Guaranteed business without investing any cash involvement 2. Without having cash payment. RESULT: Merchandising is an important work in garments sector. Without merchandiser no garments can run smoothly. Without buyer no garments company can exists. For this reason buyer satisfaction is very important. In garments sector buyer means especially foreign buyer who come to our country and buy products from our garments. At this time of giving order if buyer satisfied with the help of merchandiser then the buyer will come again. Buyers another condition is delivery the products in due time. Merchandiser take care this condition seriously. Because if buyers do not get products due time then they will not come again that garments. So merchandisers are handling and caring all kinds of work from taking order to delivery products to buyers and always wants to satisfy them because garments or garments sector’s welfare depends on buyer’s satisfaction.
  59. 59. 59 LIMITATION:  It was very different to collect the information from various personnel for the job constraint.  Garments policy was not disclosing some data and information for obvious reasons.  Due to time limitation many of the aspects could not be discussed in the present report.  Since the garments personals where very busy, they could provide me little time.  Another significant problem faced during the preparation of this report was the contradictory explanation of a single subject by different employee.  Because of the limitation of information some assumption was made. So there may be some personal mistake in the report.  The time 5 months only, which is insufficient to know all activities of the garments functions.  Lack of experience in this field.  Lack of proper authority to conduct the interview program  Due to long distance between the factory and University campus it was very difficult to communicate and meet with the supervisor.
  60. 60. 60 RECOMMENDATIONS:  Company should not plan to produce without considering its actual plants capacity.  Machine break down is a common cause of production delay affecting delivery schedules. So, company should improve maintenance and repair of sewing machines and equipment.  Company should introduce more efficient layout and work methods  It should cut idle sewing machine time and reduce wasted time of workers  It should reduce stocks and organize production more effectively  It should allow more efficient changeover to new products  Learning more skills  Paying more attention to productivity, quality and delivery schedule.  Avoiding absences and lateness and working harder  Adapting faster to production changes and following rules  Meeting targets and standards  Avoiding accidents and making useful suggestions  The company should be more aware of JIT (Just in time) in allover its function.  The company should also pursue its vision of innovation, speed and service-driven marketing, activities to the complete satisfaction of the customers. The above recommendations should be achieved in terms of:  Creating an open mind towards the improvement process.  Broadening the perspective beyond normal tasks with focus on meeting requirements of internal customers i.e. next process.  Overcoming the cultural and attitudinal for the improvement.  Transfer of Process improvement methodology.  Delivery process for establishing the internal customer supplier linkages, performance indicators and establishing preliminary improvement targets and action plans on some of the issues.
  61. 61. 61 CONCLUSION: Today’s garments fully depend on merchandising. A good merchandiser can develop the quality of product and increase the sales of the product. Merchandising is a big job and is a complex one. It is so much important in our garments industry. Merchandising is a managerial work. It is the centre of all garments related activities. I learn sample development. Garments costing, quality, banking, buyer negotiation by thesis. Bangladesh is a developing country in this unemployment problem is slightly overcoming by our garments or apparel sector. Merchandisers goal is to collect order, execute, develop the best & supply the best and achieve the safety and trust from buyer.
  62. 62. 62 RREFERENCES: 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladeshi_RMG_Sector 2.http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8 &ved=0CCsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fdspace.daffodilvarsity.edu.bd%3A8080%2Fbitstr eam%2Fhandle%2F123456789%2F859%2FStudy%2520on%2520Knit%2520Garments%25 20Merchandising.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&ei=klDKVJbKGKHEmwXc8oCoBg&usg=AFQj CNF6d1jczNIhohErYxYO6Krw00i9xQ&sig2=FZq3OEqo4jlR0FhWRdGlXw&bvm=bv.846 07526,d.dGc 3. http://www.bgmea.com.bd/chart/total_product_export#.VX8S4fmqqko 4. https://www.scribd.com/doc/55039857/6/LITERATURE-REVIEW 5. merchandising theory ,principle and practice, Grace I. kunz,2nd edition, page no 35, ISBN- 56367-353-3 6. Introduction to apparel merchandising, Engr.A.J.S.M. Khaled, page no 31 7. http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/IKM/article/viewFile/6679/6822 8.http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&uact=8 &ved=0CDYQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fdspace.daffodilvarsity.edu.bd%3A8080%2Fbits tream%2Fhandle%2F123456789%2F825%2FWoven%2520Garments%2520Merchandising. pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&ei=ELfLVLDJH4HMmAXLrYGoCg&usg=AFQjCNH8_JY1gc2X BegDY0AESfcbrGIDQA&sig2=vStFX_MO28vUWysaK68WVg&bvm=bv.84607526,d.dG Y 9. Apparel Merchandising, Jermy A.Rosenau, David L.Wilson, page no 53, ISBN 56367-198- 0 10. http://dspace.bracu.ac.bd/bitstream/handle/10361/1723/report%20fnal.pdf?sequence=1 11.https://apparelbrief.wordpress.com/merchandising-term/apparel-garment-consumption- costingt-shirtshirtpants/ 12.http://textilecalculation.blogspot.com/2014/11/fabric-consumption-formula-for- trouser.html 13.http://www.slideshare.net/PriyambadaKhushboo/apparel-manufacturing process?related=1
  63. 63. 63 14.http://www.assignmentpoint.com/business/marketing-business/report-on-merchandising- is-an-important-work-in-garments-sector.html 15.http://dspace.daffodilvarsity.edu.bd:8080/bitstream/handle/123456789/859/Study%20on% 20Knit%20Garments%20Merchandising.pdf?sequence=1 17.http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2013/10/role-of-merchandiser-in-apparel industry.html 18.http://www.academia.edu/6769029/ROLE_OF_MERCHANDISER_IN_APPAREL_IND USTRY_EXPORT_ORGANIZATION_Introduction_to_Apparel_Industry

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