History of animal tissue culture and natural surroundings for animal cell
History of animal tissue culture and naturalsurroundings for animal cellMADE BY : NEERAJ CHAUHAN
Introduction of ATC• Animal Tissue Culture ?• Roux in 1885 for the first time maintained embryonic chick cells in a cell culture• Cell culture was first successfully undertaken by Ross Harrison in 1907.
Historical events in the development of cell culture• 130-140 years old.• Arnold (1880) –showed that leucocytes can divide outside body.• Roux (1885)- maintained embryonic chick cells in a saline culture.• Jolly (1903)- studied behaviours of animal cells immersed in serum lymph .• Ross Harrison (1907)- cultivated frog nerve cells in a lymph clot and observed the growth of nerve fibers in vitro.
• Lewis (1911) - made the first liquid media consisted of sea water, serum, embryo extract, salts and peptones.• Carrel (1913) - developed a method for maintaining cultures free from contamination.• Rous and Jones (1916) – trypsinization and subculture of explants.• Eagle (1955) – development of defined media.• Littlefield (1964) - introduced the HAT medium for cell selection.• Ham (1965) - introduced the first serum-free medium which was able to support the growth of some cells.
• Harris and Watkins (1965) - were able to fuse human and mouse cells by the use of a virus.
Factors which effect the choice choice of the substrate1. Cell yield (cell production) –• For small scale production we use micro titration plates multi well plates. Micro titration plate
Multi well plates• For large scale production we use flask and petri dishes
2.Whether the cells are monolayer/suspension culture -• Monolayer culture Microtitration plate• Suspension culture Flask3.Venting – Airing to culture.• Also called as aeration.4.Sampling and Analysis –• Micro wells are used for sampling.• Two type of microscopes are used for analysis.
Inverted microscope Phase contrast microscope5.Uneven Growth - When r.p.m. is high during shaking than uneven growth comes.6.Cost
1. pH- potential of H+ ion .Optimum pH Animal tissue – 7.4 Plant tissue – 5.5 Epidermal tissue – 5.5 Transformed tissue – 7-7.4 Fibroblast - 7.4- 7.72. Temperature –Optimum temperature Animal – 37 ͦ C Birds – 38.5 ͦ C
3. Gas Phase – Two phase CO2 - drops pH level• 5% required by the cells. O2 – 40-90% required• Some cells requires more O2 ,than extra O2 carrier sources added i.e Hb .4.Osmolarity – Salt concentration of the cell Animal - 290miliosmo /kg Mice - 310milliosmo /kg5.Foaming – Characteristic of suspension.Drawbacks :- contamination occure.• Denaturation of protein.
• Interfare with the exchange of gas phase .• To prevent foaming add antifoaming agent ex :- Pluronic F68,CMC( carboxy methyl cellulose)6.Viscosity – Serum is added to increase viscosity.