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Vernacular architecture
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Vernacular architecture

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Vernacular architecture

  2. 2. Continents of the world
  3. 3. Asia Africa South America Europe North America Australia Antarctica
  4. 4. Major climatic zones  Tropical zone:   it lies between tropic of cancer at 23 .5˚S. Since direct ray of sun fall through out year in this zone. Therefore it is temperate zone.  Sub tropical zone:  South temperate zone lies between tropic of Capricorn and Antarctic circle. North temperate zone lies between tropic of cancer and arctic circle. It is slightly temperate zone.   
  5. 5. Polar zone South polar zone lies between Antarctica circle and south pole. North polar zone lies between arctic circle and north pole. Day and night are of six months here.
  6. 6. A country is divided into five major climatic zones: 1. Hot and dry climate 2. warm and humid climate 3. Composite climate 4. Moderate climate 5. Cold climate
  7. 7. Vernacular Architecture  The word vernacular derived from ‘vernaculus’ means ‘native’.  Hence vernacular architecture – native science of building.
  8. 8.  The term "vernacular architecture" in general refers to the informal building of structures through traditional building methods by local builders without using the services of a professional architect. It is the most widespread form of building.  The builders of this structure are unschooled in formal architectural design and their work reflects the rich diversity of India's climate, locally available material and the intricate variation in social custom and craftsman.
  9. 9. Hot and dry climate  This zone lies in western and central part of India, jaisalmer, jodhpur, etc.  This region is usually flat, sandy, rocky ground with spares vegetation of cacti thorny bushes.  Water level is very low here.  The diurnal variation in temperature is quite high more than 10˚C.
  10. 10.  The climate is dry because relative humidity is generally very low.  The hot and dry regions receive less rainfall- the annual precipitation being less than 500mm.  Hot winds blow during summer and sand storms are also seen.  The absorbed radiation are dissipated to atmosphere at night. Mud hut of Rajasthan.
  11. 11.  Due to low water level and spares vegetation the houses are made using twigs, mud , clay, stone. The air is cool at night.
  12. 12. Warm and humid climate      The warm and humid zone covers the coastal region. Mumbai , Chennai, Kolkata lies under this region. The high humidity encourages abundant vegetation. The main design criteria in warm and humid region are to reduce heat gained by providing shading. The relative humidity is high about 70%-90% in year.
  13. 13. Houses in Kerala
  14. 14. Here tropical cyclones and hurricanes are common when wind speed are 45 to 70m/s. High salt contents of atmosphere corrodes the building material. Vegetation is lighter green colour as per amount of rainfall. In most parts of the zone, summer will be rainy.
  15. 15. Moderate climate The temperate climate has mild to warm summers and cool winters. The need for winter home heating is greater than the need for summer cooling.  It is a relatively comfortable climate, especially near the coast, where summers are cooler and winters warmer than further inland.
  16. 16. In the mountains of the Great Dividing Range, winters are cold and summers are pleasantly mild. Few opening on external side other than door. Cooking and sleeping outdoor in summer were as inside in winter.
  17. 17. Moderate zone ‘Bangalore’ Latitude: 12˚58’N Longitude: 77˚35’E Altitude: 921 m above mean sea level BANGALORE
  18. 18. Building material used: Floor : Lime concrete Walls: Stone masonry with lime mortar Roof: Stone slabs with lime concrete screed cover for flat roof. Mangalore tiles for sloping roof.
  19. 19. Reduction of solar heat gain: -by orientation of the bedrooms towards north -By shading of east and west walls by neighboring buildings. - By shading the windows and walls with projecting stone slabs NORTH ELEVATION
  20. 20. Reduction of internal heat gain: - By placing the kitchen outdoors in summer(and indoor in winter)
  21. 21. SITE PLAN Reduction of heat transfer to interior - by insulating roof. Increase of heat loss - by ventilation and smoke outlet through chimney.
  22. 22. Composite climate  The composite zone covers the central part of India.  Cities like Allahabad, Kanpur, new Delhi experience this climate.  A variable landscape and seasonal vegetation characterize this zone.
  23. 23. Toda hut
  24. 24.     The primary element was a single interior living space, which may have been sub- divided, multiplied, or otherwise modified. Second, an external space adjacent to or surrounded by the dwelling was emphasized by use of elements such as low platforms or verandahs. An average hut measured approximately 5 to 6 meters long and 3 to 4 meters wide. These huts were arranged in a linear pattern along the main street of a village, usually amidst a group of bamboo trees.  The houses were normally surrounded by a fence made of bamboo, shrubs, or twigs that defined the boundary between the public street and the semi-public courtyard area in front and at the rear of the hut.
  25. 25.      This open-to-sky courtyard acted a prime space for the house, especially during the day in winter and in the evenings in summer. Most day to day activities occurred in this space. Often there was a well in this courtyard that served as the source for water for drinking, bathing, washing, and cooking. People used this courtyard to dry clothes, crops, and eatables during the day time. The house sat on a raised platform made of compacted earth. The high thermal mass helped keep the house cool in the evenings in summer which made it pleasant for people to rest in the evenings.
  26. 26.      The huts normally had minimal fenestration. Often the only opening on the external walls was the main door. Some houses had windows, but they were small and placed high to ventilate the indoors while, at the same time, acting as a visual barrier for the private spaces. The small windows also served to keep the hot summer sun and cold winter winds out. Mud wall with wooden posts of typical hut Special mud blocks left with vegetable waste matter to mature for wall construction. Figure
  27. 27.    The roof rested on nine wooden posts erected in three rows, with three posts per row. These posts were sunk into the raised platform and tied with wooden beams and purlins that supported the roof structure. The huts usually had a gabled thatch roof. Bamboo sticks formed the mullions to support the thatch. The thick thatch used as roofing material prevented rain from entering the house and at the same time provided insulation to the building. Typical hut construction.
  28. 28. Site Plan View of decayed thatch roof in a hut over a period of time. Section of house Painting on the wall of a hut
  29. 29.         Summers: Use evaporative cooling. Protect against summer heat gain. Keep the sun out in summers to reduce heat gain and glare. Flatten day-to-night temperature swings to reduce cooling in summers. Use vegetative cover to prevent reflected radiation and glare. Expand use of outdoor spaces during the night. Night time flush ventilation to cool thermal mass.     Winter: Let the winter sun in to reduce heating needs. Protect from cool winter winds to reduce heating. Expand use of outdoor spaces during the day.    Spring: Use natural ventilation to cool in spring. In part, the specific climate of Jharkhand has given rise to particular vernacular types. These types will be explored in the next chapter. 
  30. 30. Trees to shade the west wall Interlocking burnt clay tiles Front verandah used for sitting in winter and to shade the light colored exterior walls. Light colored walls to reflect heat
  31. 31. Door and window placed opposite to each other for cross ventilation. Use of courtyard for drying clothes and food. View of attic space and used as store
  32. 32. The spaces too lack windows which reduces heat gain inside the house but keeps warmer Thick mud walls to increase the thermal capacity of the wall Roof with interlocking burnt clay tiles to block rain from entering the house.
  33. 33. Cold climate Cold climate Cold and sunny Cold and cloudy
  34. 34. This type of climate is experienced in Leh (Ladakh). The region is mountainous and little vegetation considered as a cold desert. The solar radiation is generally intense with very low percentage of diffuse radiation.
  35. 35. The building is an innovative articulation of material like stone mud clay. In ladak houses are very close to each other. Mud and clay house in ladak
  36. 36. The most conspicuous of the migratory birds is the hoopoe, the Indian redstart.  The brown-headed gull is a surprise of sorts in this region. Other migratory birds which breed in Ladakh are the brahmini duck (ruddy Sheldrake), the bareheaded goose, and the great crested grebe.
  37. 37.  The foxes, along with other small carnivores like marten, weasel and otter, are sought after for their fur. Apart from these, the brown bear is also found in Ladakh near Dras and the upper Suru Valley.  The smaller animals found in Ladakh are marmots, voles and hares and several varieties of pika, also known as the mousehare, a small animal common in the mountains of central Asia.
  38. 38.     Ladakh is an extremely cold and dry desert with rocky and uneven terrain. The harsh climate and low temperatures limit the number and type of vegetation found here. There are certain narrow valleys in the region which are quite fertile. Certain plants and agricultural crops are grown apart from this, greenish patches of vegetation can be seen round the riverbanks and along the snow line, certain varieties of willow groves, wild roses and herbs are grown.
  39. 39. For plinth and floor: stone masonry with mud mortar or cement mortar finish For walls: unburnt bricks masonry with mud mortar and cow dung finish For ceiling and roof: wooden planks and twigs with a layer of dry grass, covered with mud
  40. 40. Increase of solar heat gain - By direct gain through thermal storage walls exposed to the sun - Glazed windows on east, west, south sides. Increase of internal heat gain - By utilizing heat produced by smokeless stove - By utilization of warmth developed by livestock Decrease of heat loss - by high thermal insulation of roof and walls - By high compound wall providing shelter from wind Humidity control - by absorption/desorption of unburnt brick walls. Balance of temperature fluctuation - By massive wall construction
  41. 41. Cold and cloudy Such climate prevails in Kashmir , Sikkim, upper part of Assam hill station from the southern India. Srinagar ,shimla, dalhouse are best represented by this climate. Located at shimla at above 2000m above sea level in middle Himalayas. The climate requires building to be heated through out the year.
  42. 42. Thin mud and bamboo wall for upper floor and for ground floor brick or bamboo. Roof is out of thick stone slab or country tiles. Roof over hang from all the sides protecting the core spaces effectively.
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