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Cerebellum ppt

cerebellum powerpoint

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Cerebellum ppt

  1. 1. DR NILESH KATE MBBS,MD ASSOCIATE PROF ESIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GULBARGA. DEPT. OF PHYSIOLOGY CEREBELLUM
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES  Physiological Anatomy  Neural circuits & neuronal activity  Connections  Functions  Applied physiology.
  3. 3. Cerebellum.  Largest part of hind brain.  Called “silent area.”  Weight- 150 gms. Friday, January 16, 2015
  4. 4. Physiological anatomy.  External features .  Anatomical parts.  Anatomical divisions.  Phylogenetically divisions.  Functional divisions.  Histological structure. Friday, January 16, 2015
  5. 5. External features  Surfaces .  Folia.- transverse folds  Fissures.  Primary  Horizontal  Posterolateral. Friday, January 16, 2015
  6. 6. Anatomical parts  Parts of vermis.  Lingula  Central lobule  Culmen  Declive  Folium  Tuber  Pyramis  Uvula  Nodule.  Parts of hemisphere.  No lateral projection.  Alae  Anterior quadrangular lobule  Posterior quadrangular lobule  Superior semilunar lobule  Inferior semilunar lobule.  Biventral lobule  Tonsil  Flocculus. Friday, January 16, 2015
  7. 7. Anatomical divisions  Anterior lobe.  Posterior lobe.  Flocculonodular lobe.. Friday, January 16, 2015
  8. 8. Phylogenetically divisions  Archicerebellum  Floculonodular lobe  Lingula  Paleocerebellum  Anterior lobe except – lingula  Posterior lobe – pyramis, uvula & paraflocculus.  Neocerebellum.  Whole posterior lobe except –pyramis & uvula. Friday, January 16, 2015
  9. 9. Friday, January 16, 2015
  10. 10. Functional divisions.  Vestibulocerebellum.  Consists of Floculonodular lobe  Vestibular connections  N. fastigeal – effector N.  Control body posture & equilibrium.  Spinocerebellum.  Consists of Paleocerebellum.  N Interpositus. – effector N.  Postural reflexes.  Corticocerebellum.  Central cerebellum  Dentate N.- effector nucleus.  Smooth performance. Friday, January 16, 2015
  11. 11. Functional divisions. Friday, January 16, 2015
  12. 12. Histological structure.  Cerebellar cortex.  Molecular layer.  Purkinje cell layer.  Granule cell layer.  White matter.  Projection fibres.  Association fibres.  Commissural fibres.  Deep cerebellar nuclei.  Dentate nucleus.  Emboliform nucleus.  Globossus nucleus.  Fastigeal nucleus. Friday, January 16, 2015
  13. 13. Histological structure. Friday, January 16, 2015
  14. 14. Cerebellar cortex.  Molecular layer.  Stellate cells  Basket cells.  Purkinje cell layer.  Granule cell layer.  Granule cells  Golgi cells. Friday, January 16, 2015
  15. 15. Cerebellar cortex. Friday, January 16, 2015
  16. 16. Sensory inputs.  Climbing fibres  Inferior olivary nucleus  Cerebellum. ( purkinje cells)  Mossy fibres.  Spino, vestibulo, reticulo, cuneo & corticoponto  Cerebellum (Glomerulus) Friday, January 16, 2015 Olivocerebellar tract.
  17. 17. Sensory inputs. Friday, January 16, 2015
  18. 18. Friday, January 16, 2015
  19. 19. Friday, January 16, 2015
  20. 20. White matter.  Projection fibres.  Association fibres.  Commissural fibres. Friday, January 16, 2015
  21. 21. Deep Cerebellar Nuclei.  Dentate nucleus.  Emboliform nucleus.  Globossus nucleus.  Fastigeal nucleus. Near roof of IV ventricle. Friday, January 16, 2015
  22. 22. Friday, January 16, 2015
  23. 23. Neural circuits & neuronal activity.  Afferents of cerebellar cortex.  Climbing Fibres.  Mossy Fibres.  Neuronal activity of deep cerebellar circuits  Feed forward inhibition of purkinje cells.  Feed forward inhibition of Granule cells.  Feed back inhibition of Granule cells.  The reverberating circuits.  Neuronal activity of deep cerebellar nuclei. Friday, January 16, 2015
  24. 24. Friday, January 16, 2015
  25. 25. Friday, January 16, 2015
  26. 26. Afferents of cerebellar cortex.  Climbing Fibres.  Mossy Fibres. Friday, January 16, 2015
  27. 27. Neuronal activity of deep cerebellar circuits  Feed forward inhibition of Purkinje cells.  Mossy fibres Granule cells  Purkinje cells. Basket cells.  Feed forward inhibition of Granule cells. Mossy fibres Granule cells. Golgi cells  Feed back inhibition of Granule cells. Friday, January 16, 2015
  28. 28. Neuronal activity of deep cerebellar neuclei. Cerebral cortex motor pathway. spinal cord. Thalamus brainstem nuclei. Deep cerebellar nuclei. Climbing fibres, mossy fibres. Friday, January 16, 2015
  29. 29. Connections of cerebellum.  Cerebellar Peduncles..  Inferior  Afferents  Dorsospinocerebellar.  External arcuate fibres.  Vestibulocerebellar tract.  Oliocerebellar tract.  Reticulocerebellar tract.  Middle.  Afferents. – cerebro- pontine – cerebellar.  Superior  Afferent –  Tectocerebellar  Ventral spinocerebellar  Efferent –  Dentorubral  Dentothalamic  Mid-brain. Friday, January 16, 2015
  30. 30. Friday, January 16, 2015
  31. 31. Afferent connections  Dorsal spinocerebellar tract. (external)  Ventral spinocerebellar tract. (Internal)  Cuneocerebellar tract. From accessory cuneate N.  Olivocerebellar tract. From brainstem, SC, cortex Friday, January 16, 2015
  32. 32. Afferent connections  Cortico-ponto-cerebellar tract.  Tectocerebellar tract. From superior colliculi (visual impulses)& inferior colliculi (auditory impulses)of tectum of mid brain.  Vestibulocerebellar tract. (position & movement of head)  Rubrocerebellar tract. ( from motor cortex )  Reticulocerebellar tract. Friday, January 16, 2015
  33. 33. Afferent connections Friday, January 16, 2015
  34. 34. Localization of sensory impulses to cerebellum. Friday, January 16, 2015
  35. 35. Efferents connections.  Dento-rubro-thalamo- cortical pathway.  Cerebello-thalamic- cortical pathway.  Cerebelloreticular pathway.  Cerebellovestibular fibres.  Cerebello-olivary fibres.  Oculomotor nerve & tectum. Friday, January 16, 2015
  36. 36. Efferent connections. Friday, January 16, 2015
  37. 37. Friday, January 16, 2015
  38. 38. Functions of cerebellum.  Control of body posture & equilibrium.  Control of muscle tone & stretch reflex.  Control of voluntary movements. Friday, January 16, 2015
  39. 39. Control of body posture & equilibrium. Friday, January 16, 2015
  40. 40. Control of muscle tone & stretch reflex. Friday, January 16, 2015
  41. 41. Control of voluntary movements. Friday, January 16, 2015
  42. 42. Mechanism of action.  Comparator function.  Damping action.  Timing & programming the movements.  Control of ballistic movements.  Servomechanism. Friday, January 16, 2015
  43. 43. Comparator function. Friday, January 16, 2015
  44. 44. Other functions of cerebellum.  Autonomic system (through Hypothalamus & reticular formation.)  Ascending sensory pathway. (through reticular formation & thalamus)  Eyeball movements. ( through vestibular nuclei) Friday, January 16, 2015
  45. 45. Cerebellar lesions.  Common causes.  Signs of cerebellar dysfunction.  Tests . Friday, January 16, 2015
  46. 46. Common causes.  Vascular occlusions (thrombosis)  Tumor  Injuries. Friday, January 16, 2015
  47. 47. Signs of cerebellar dysfunction.  Tone & posture disturbance  Atonia or hypotonia  Attitude changes.  Rotation of face to opposite side  Lowering of shoulder.  Outward rotation & abduction of leg.  Deviation movements.  Effect on deep reflexes. (weak & pendular) Friday, January 16, 2015
  48. 48. Signs of cerebellar dysfunction.  Equilibrium disturbance. (drunken gait)  Movements disturbance.  Ataxia  Intention tremors  Nystagmus.  Dysarthria.  Astasia. Friday, January 16, 2015
  49. 49. Clinical tests of cerebellar dysfunction.  Upper limb  Finger nose test  Diadokokinesia.  Rebound phenomenon.  Past pointing.  Lower limb.  Rombergs test.  Tandem gait. Friday, January 16, 2015
  50. 50. Tests . Friday, January 16, 2015
  51. 51. Thank You

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