Herzberg’s tWO FACtOr
• PRESENTED BY :
Theory and its Significance
"We can expand ... by stating that the job satisfiers deal with the factors involved
in doing the job, whereas the job dissatisfiers deal with the factors which define
the job context.―
Herzberg's ideas relate strongly to modern ethical management and social
responsibility, and very directly to the Psychological Contract.
Although Herzberg is most noted for his famous 'hygiene' and motivational
factors theory, he was essentially concerned with people's well-being at work.
Underpinning his theories and academic teachings, he was basically attempting
to bring more humanity and caring into the workplace.
He and others like him, did not develop their theories to be used as 'motivational
tools' purely to improve organizational performance. They sought instead
primarily to explain how to manage people properly, for the good of all people at
Herzberg's research proved that people will strive to achieve 'hygiene' needs
because they are unhappy without them, but once satisfied the effect soon
wears off - satisfaction is temporary.
Then as now, poorly managed organizations fail to understand that people are
not 'motivated' by addressing 'hygiene' needs.
People are only truly motivated by enabling them to reach for and satisfy the
factors that Herzberg identified as real motivators, such as achievement,
advancement, development, etc., which represent a far deeper level of meaning
―Respect for me as a person" is one of the top motivating factors at any stage of
Experiment or Research Study on
Employees by Herzberg
The two-factor theory (also known as Herzberg's motivation-hygiene
theory and dual-factor theory) states that there are certain factors in
the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of
factors cause dissatisfaction.
The two-factor theory developed from data collected by Herzberg from
interviews with 203 engineers and accountants in the Pittsburgh area,
chosen because of their professions' growing importance in the
when they asked respondents to describe periods in their lives when
they were exceedingly happy and unhappy with their jobs.
Each respondent gave as many "sequences of events" as he could
that met certain criteria—including a marked change in feeling, a
beginning and an end, and contained some substantive description
other than feelings and interpretations.
The factors on the right that led to satisfaction (achievement, intrinsic
interest in the work, responsibility, and advancement) are mostly
unipolar; that is, they contribute very little to job dissatisfaction.
From analyzing interviews, he found that job characteristics related
to what an individual does that is, to the nature of the work one
The absence of such gratifying job characteristics does not appear to
lead to unhappiness and dissatisfaction. Instead, dissatisfaction
results from unfavorable assessments ..
Dual Factor Theory
The two-factor theory (also known as Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory and dualfactor theory) states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job
satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction.
What do people want from their jobs?
Do they want just a higher salary? Or do they want security, good
relationships with co-workers, opportunities for growth and advancement – or
something else altogether?
The purpose of the study is to develop the Herzberg theory and its possible
application to an organization as a means of increasing worker’s productivity.
The study was conducted by means of a systematic research of a representative
sample of the literature available on Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory.
The Two-Factor Theory is one of the best known and most widely accepted job
enrichment approaches today, however, it has caused considerable controversy
A sense of achievement meaning employees will know that because of their
hard work the business is going forward. Recognition of workers contribution
meaning the owner will give credit to the workers, making them feel good about
This factor has the affect to demotivate workers. The hygiene factors affect the
conditions of the workplace. If the hygiene in the area is not adequate then
workers might not want to work.
Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction
Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum with one increasing
as the other diminishes, but are independent phenomena.
The opposite of Satisfaction is ‘No Satisfaction’ but not dissatisfaction.
The opposite of Dissatisfaction is ‘No Dissatisfaction’ but not Satisfaction.
Satisfaction which is mostly affected by the "motivator factors". Motivation factors help
increase the satisfaction but aren't that affective on dissatisfaction.
Dissatisfaction is the results of the "hygiene factors". These factors, if absent or inadequate,
cause dissatisfaction, but their presence has little effect on long-term satisfaction.
Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation
• Company policy &
• Interpersonal relations
• Working conditions
Hygiene factors avoid
increase job satisfaction
Step One: Eliminate Job Dissatisfaction
• Herzberg called the causes of dissatisfaction "hygiene factors". To get rid of them,
you need to:
• Fix poor and obstructive company policies.
• Provide effective, supportive and non-intrusive supervision.
• Create and support a culture of respect and dignity for all team members.
• Ensure that wages are competitive.
• Build job status by providing meaningful work for all positions.
• Provide job security.
All of these actions help you eliminate job dissatisfaction in your organization. And
there's no point trying to motivate people until these issues are out of the way!
You can't stop there, though. Remember, just because someone is not dissatisfied,
it doesn't mean he or she is satisfied either! Now you have to turn your attention
to building job satisfaction.
Step Two: Create Conditions for Job Satisfaction
To create satisfaction, Herzberg says you need to address the motivating factors
associated with work. He called this "job enrichment". His premise was that every
job should be examined to determine how it could be made better and more
satisfying to the person doing the work. Things to consider include:
• Providing opportunities for achievement.
• Recognizing workers' contributions.
• Creating work that is rewarding and that matches the skills and abilities of the
• Giving as much responsibility to each team member as possible.
• Providing opportunities to advance in the company through internal promotions.
• Offering training and development opportunities, so that people can pursue the
positions they want within the company.
The 2008 graph diagram is based on the total percentages of 'First-Level' factors
arising in Herzberg's 1959 research of high and low attitude events among 200
engineers and accountants, encompassing short and long duration feelings.
• Correcting hygiene matters will improve the working environment, and help
reduce contentment displayed by the workers; keeping them happy as well.
• Because of this both the business and the workers are likely to benfit. This will
make the workers content, and motivated. Motivated workers will allow for an
increase in their productivity