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Herzberg’s TWO FACTOR THEORY

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Herzberg’s TWO FACTOR THEORY

  1. 1. Herzberg’s tWO FACtOr THEORY • PRESENTED BY : • Chakrapani(17) • Anusha(22) • Vennela(18) • Niranjan(21) Aishwarya(23) Venktesh(20) Nithin(24)
  2. 2. Theory and its Significance "We can expand ... by stating that the job satisfiers deal with the factors involved in doing the job, whereas the job dissatisfiers deal with the factors which define the job context.― Herzberg's ideas relate strongly to modern ethical management and social responsibility, and very directly to the Psychological Contract. Although Herzberg is most noted for his famous 'hygiene' and motivational factors theory, he was essentially concerned with people's well-being at work. Underpinning his theories and academic teachings, he was basically attempting to bring more humanity and caring into the workplace. He and others like him, did not develop their theories to be used as 'motivational tools' purely to improve organizational performance. They sought instead primarily to explain how to manage people properly, for the good of all people at work.
  3. 3. CONT.. Herzberg's research proved that people will strive to achieve 'hygiene' needs because they are unhappy without them, but once satisfied the effect soon wears off - satisfaction is temporary. Then as now, poorly managed organizations fail to understand that people are not 'motivated' by addressing 'hygiene' needs. People are only truly motivated by enabling them to reach for and satisfy the factors that Herzberg identified as real motivators, such as achievement, advancement, development, etc., which represent a far deeper level of meaning and fulfilment.  ―Respect for me as a person" is one of the top motivating factors at any stage of life.
  4. 4. Experiment or Research Study on Employees by Herzberg The two-factor theory (also known as Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory and dual-factor theory) states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction. The two-factor theory developed from data collected by Herzberg from interviews with 203 engineers and accountants in the Pittsburgh area, chosen because of their professions' growing importance in the business world.
  5. 5. Contd.  when they asked respondents to describe periods in their lives when they were exceedingly happy and unhappy with their jobs.  Each respondent gave as many "sequences of events" as he could that met certain criteria—including a marked change in feeling, a beginning and an end, and contained some substantive description other than feelings and interpretations. The factors on the right that led to satisfaction (achievement, intrinsic interest in the work, responsibility, and advancement) are mostly unipolar; that is, they contribute very little to job dissatisfaction.
  6. 6. Contd. From analyzing interviews, he found that job characteristics related to what an individual does that is, to the nature of the work one performs The absence of such gratifying job characteristics does not appear to lead to unhappiness and dissatisfaction. Instead, dissatisfaction results from unfavorable assessments ..
  7. 7. Dual Factor Theory  The two-factor theory (also known as Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory and dualfactor theory) states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction.  What do people want from their jobs?  Do they want just a higher salary? Or do they want security, good relationships with co-workers, opportunities for growth and advancement – or something else altogether?
  8. 8. The purpose of the study is to develop the Herzberg theory and its possible application to an organization as a means of increasing worker’s productivity. The study was conducted by means of a systematic research of a representative sample of the literature available on Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory. The Two-Factor Theory is one of the best known and most widely accepted job enrichment approaches today, however, it has caused considerable controversy among behaviorists. Motivators: A sense of achievement meaning employees will know that because of their hard work the business is going forward. Recognition of workers contribution meaning the owner will give credit to the workers, making them feel good about themselves Hygiene: This factor has the affect to demotivate workers. The hygiene factors affect the conditions of the workplace. If the hygiene in the area is not adequate then workers might not want to work.
  9. 9. Rate of Pay Relation with Others Company Policies Hygiene Factors Quality of Supervi sion Job Security
  10. 10. Career Advance -ment Achievement Respons -ibility Personal Growth Motivati -onal Factors Recognit -ion
  11. 11. Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum with one increasing as the other diminishes, but are independent phenomena. The opposite of Satisfaction is ‘No Satisfaction’ but not dissatisfaction. The opposite of Dissatisfaction is ‘No Dissatisfaction’ but not Satisfaction.
  12. 12. Satisfaction which is mostly affected by the "motivator factors". Motivation factors help increase the satisfaction but aren't that affective on dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction is the results of the "hygiene factors". These factors, if absent or inadequate, cause dissatisfaction, but their presence has little effect on long-term satisfaction.
  13. 13. Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation • Company policy & administration • Supervision • Interpersonal relations • Working conditions • Salary • Status • Security Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction Motivation factors increase job satisfaction • • • • • • • Achievement Achievement recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Salary
  14. 14. Step One: Eliminate Job Dissatisfaction • Herzberg called the causes of dissatisfaction "hygiene factors". To get rid of them, you need to: • Fix poor and obstructive company policies. • Provide effective, supportive and non-intrusive supervision. • Create and support a culture of respect and dignity for all team members. • Ensure that wages are competitive. • Build job status by providing meaningful work for all positions. • Provide job security. All of these actions help you eliminate job dissatisfaction in your organization. And there's no point trying to motivate people until these issues are out of the way! You can't stop there, though. Remember, just because someone is not dissatisfied, it doesn't mean he or she is satisfied either! Now you have to turn your attention to building job satisfaction.
  15. 15. Step Two: Create Conditions for Job Satisfaction To create satisfaction, Herzberg says you need to address the motivating factors associated with work. He called this "job enrichment". His premise was that every job should be examined to determine how it could be made better and more satisfying to the person doing the work. Things to consider include: • Providing opportunities for achievement. • Recognizing workers' contributions. • Creating work that is rewarding and that matches the skills and abilities of the worker. • Giving as much responsibility to each team member as possible. • Providing opportunities to advance in the company through internal promotions. • Offering training and development opportunities, so that people can pursue the positions they want within the company.
  16. 16. The 2008 graph diagram is based on the total percentages of 'First-Level' factors arising in Herzberg's 1959 research of high and low attitude events among 200 engineers and accountants, encompassing short and long duration feelings.
  17. 17. Conclusion • Correcting hygiene matters will improve the working environment, and help reduce contentment displayed by the workers; keeping them happy as well. • Because of this both the business and the workers are likely to benfit. This will make the workers content, and motivated. Motivated workers will allow for an increase in their productivity
  18. 18. THANK YOU

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