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Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products with Nir Eyal

What makes some products so engaging while others flop? Nir Eyal explains the psychology behind the world's most habit-forming technologies and provides practical advice for increasing user engagement.

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Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products with Nir Eyal

  1. 1. hooked @nireyal
  2. 2. Products can profoundly 
 change our behaviors
  3. 3. PA TT E SNR ?
  4. 4. 100’s of millions of users… …and 100’s of millions of dollars.
  5. 5. An impulse to do a behavior with little or no conscious thought hab·it
  6. 6. Habits can be used for good
  7. 7. The hook is an experience designed to connect the user’s problem to your product
  8. 8. with enough frequency to form a habit
  9. 9. External Triggers The information for what to do next is within the trigger.
  10. 10. Internal Triggers The information for what to do next is informed 
 through an association in the user’s memory. People Places Emotions Situations Routines
  11. 11. Negative emotions are powerful
 internal triggers indecisive tense fatiguedinferior bored confused fear of loss dissatisfied powerless discouraged lonesome
  12. 12. People who are depressed check email more often Source: Kotikalapudi et al 2012
  13. 13. When we feel lonely we use .
  14. 14. When we feel unsure we use
  15. 15. When we are bored we use
  16. 16. Do you know your customer’s internal trigger?
  17. 17. What triggers make 
 so habit-forming?
  18. 18. external triggers
  19. 19. solves the pain of 
 losing the moment.
  20. 20. Stressed Lonely Curious Insecurity Bored But is also a social network. Urge to preserve
  21. 21. The simplest behavior 
 in anticipation of a reward.
  22. 22. Scroll
  23. 23. Search
  24. 24. Play
  25. 25. b=m+a+t According to BJ Fogg, for any behavior to occur, we need motivation, ability, and a trigger
  26. 26. mo·ti·va·tion “The energy for action” - Edward Deci
  27. 27. Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University Seeking Pleasure
 Seeking Hope
 Seeking Acceptance
 Avoiding Pain
 Avoiding Fear Avoiding Rejection 6 There are six factors that can increase motivation
  28. 28. Ability The capacity to do a particular action
  29. 29. Time Money Physical Effort Brain Cycles Social Deviance Non- routine Six factors can increase or decrease ability
  30. 30. Level of motivation and ability determines if action will occur Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University Motivation Trigger fails Trigger succeeds Ability
  31. 31. through the years 2009 2010 2011 2012 Today
  32. 32. through the years 2009 2010 2011 2012 Today
  33. 33. through the years 2009 2010 2011 2012 Today
  34. 34. It all starts with the Nucleus Accumbens studied by Olds & Milner. Source: Olds and Milner, 1945
  35. 35. The Nucleus Accumbens 
 is activated when we crave.
  36. 36. Were Olds & Milner stimulating pleasure? Not exactly.
  37. 37. They were stimulating
 the stress of desire
  38. 38. Source: Knutson et al 2001 Our reward system activates 
 with anticipation
  39. 39. Source: Knutson et al 2001 and calms when 
 we get what we want.
  40. 40. That’s the itch we seek to scratch.
  41. 41. There is a way to 
 supercharge the stress of desire.
  42. 42. The unknown is fascinating Variability causes us to focus and engage
  43. 43. and increases behavior.
  44. 44. The nucleus accumbens is stimulated by variability. The nucleus accumbens is stimulated by variability.
  45. 45. tribe hunt self 3 types of variable rewards Habit-forming tech uses 1 or more
  46. 46. Search for social reward tribe
  47. 47. partnershipempathetic joy competition
  48. 48. We like social rewards.
  49. 49. Search for resources hunt
  50. 50. Stems from the hunt for food and resources
  51. 51. Hunt for variable material rewards
  52. 52. Hunt for variable information rewards.
  53. 53. Search for self-
 achievement self
  54. 54. Leveling-up reflects
 mastery and competency.
  55. 55. Inbox or task management reflects 
 consistency and completion.
  56. 56. WARNING Variable rewards are not a free pass. Your product still must address the itch.
  57. 57. Build variable rewards that satiate the users itch, but leave them wanting more.
  58. 58. Users “invest” for future benefits. TimePersonal Data Money EffortSocial Capital Emotional Commitment
  59. 59. Investments increase the likelihood of the next pass through the Hook 
 in two ways.
  60. 60. Investments load the next trigger of the hook 1
  61. 61. Each new message posted on
  62. 62. is an open invitation for an external trigger to be returned.
  63. 63. 2. Investments store value, improving the product with use. 2
  64. 64. Content
  65. 65. Data
  66. 66. Followers
  67. 67. Reputation
  68. 68. The hook is an experience designed to connect the user’s problem to your product
  69. 69. Each pass through the Hook helps 
 shape user preferences and atitudes
  70. 70. 4. Is the reward fulfilling, yet leaves the user wanting more? 3. What is the simplest behavior in anticipation of reward? 5. What “bit of work” is done to increase the likelihood of returning? 1. What internal trigger is
 the product addressing? 2. What external trigger
 gets the user to the product? The Hooked Canvas
  71. 71. The morality of manipulation
  72. 72. Designing habit-forming products is a form of manipulation.
  73. 73. Users take our technologies to bed.
  74. 74. They check our devices before saying “good morning” to loved ones.
  75. 75. What responsibility
 do we have when changing user behavior?
  76. 76. Help others find meaning. 
 Engage them in something important.
  77. 77. Photo: We can design
 healthy habits
  78. 78. Build the change you want to see in the world
  79. 79. Take the survey, get the slides @nireyal