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Communication

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COMMUNITY AWARENESS AND COMMUNICATION

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Communication

  1. 1. Dr. Nithin Ravindran Nair (PT) P a g e | 1 COMMUNITY AWARENESS AND COMMUNICATION Introduction: (Ref: Community Based Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities – S Pruthvish, Textbook of Community Medicine and Community Rehabilitation for Physiotherapists – T Bhaskara Rao) Preliminary steps in initiating CBR activities ✓ Identification of person with disability ✓ Assessing their needs ✓ Assessing and accessing local / external resources ✓ Training and education of community resource, disabled people and their family members ✓ Creating awareness among community members ✓ Organizing disabled people, their family Community awareness is an essential tool of community health to bring about the behavioral change in the people and the key element in the community awareness is the communication. Behavioral Change Model UNAWARE AWARE CONCERNED KNOWLEDGEABLE AND SKILLED MOTIVATED TO CHANGE READY TO CHANGE TRIAL CHANGE OF BEHAVIOR ADOPTION OF NEW BEHAVIOR
  2. 2. Dr. Nithin Ravindran Nair (PT) P a g e | 2 Community Awareness: (Ref: Essentials of Community Based Rehabilitation – Satya Bhushan Nagar, Preventive and Social Medicine – K Park) A) Objectives of Community Awareness ✓ Informing the people: Disseminating scientific knowledge (Health Promotion and Disease Prevention) ✓ Motivating the people: Alteration of behavior in health practices which are detrimental to health ✓ Guiding to action: Encouraging people to judiciously use health services B) Approaches of Community Awareness ✓ Regulatory Approach: Legal approach to protect public health – enforcement of laws and regulations ✓ Service Approach: Provides facility needed by the community ✓ Educational Approach: Involves communication and decision making C) Contents of Community Awareness ✓ Human biology ✓ Nutrition ✓ Hygiene – Personal and Environmental ✓ Family health ✓ Control of CDs and NCDs ✓ Mental Health ✓ Preventive measures ✓ Use of health services D) Principle of Community Awareness ✓ Interest: Find out real felt needs and educate – to develop interest ✓ Participation: Active learning > Passive learning ✓ Known to unknown: Start from existing known knowledge and then proceed to new insights ✓ Comprehension: Important to know level of understanding, literacy and education of the people – improve comprehensibility ✓ Reinforcement: repetition of the same message periodically but in different ways for better understanding ✓ Motivation: Awaking the fundamental desire to learn – contagious – give incentives ✓ Learning by doing: Action process
  3. 3. Dr. Nithin Ravindran Nair (PT) P a g e | 3 ✓ Good human relations: Build good human relationship – successful health education ✓ Feedback – Can modify elements of systems (message/channel) in the light of feedback from audience ✓ Setting an example – Preach what you teach ✓ Leaders: Agents of change – Understands needs and demands of community – honest and impartial – requisite skills and knowledge for cooperation and coordination of various official and non-official organizations Communication: (Ref: Essentials of Community Based Rehabilitation – Satya Bhushan Nagar, Textbook of Community Medicine – Dr. AP Kulkarni et.al, Preventive and Social Medicine – K Park, Textbook of community medicine and community rehabilitation for physiotherapists – T Bhaskara Rao) Definition: Communication can be regarded as a process of exchanging or shaping ideas, feelings and information. Communication works at 3 levels ✓ Cognitive: Increasing knowledge ✓ Affective: Changing existing patterns of behavior and attitude ✓ Psychomotor: Acquiring new skills The Communication Process: It is a complex process and has the following main components: ✓ Sender/ Communicator: Source must know objectives – clearly defined, audience – interest and felt needs, message, channels, professional abilities and limitations ✓ Receiver / Communicatee: Audience single or group / controlled – homogenous (common interests) or uncontrolled – heterogenous (motives or curiosity) ✓ Message: Content should be – in line with objectives, meaningful, based on felt needs, clear and understandable, specific and accurate, timely and adequate, interesting, culturally and socially appropriate
  4. 4. Dr. Nithin Ravindran Nair (PT) P a g e | 4 ✓ Channel(s): Medium interpersonal communication – face to face, mass media – TV, radio, printed media etc., traditional media – drama, puppetry, folk dance, burrakatha, harikatha, nautanki etc. ✓ Feedback: Effect reverse flow – information/remarks - from audience to the sender The Communication Process Steps Involved in Communication of Message Types of Communication: ✓ One – way Communication: Didactic method – Message flows from communicator to the audience (unidirectional) ✓ Two – way Communication: Socratic method – Both audience and communicator take part (two – way method) ✓ Verbal Communication: word of mouth SENDER MESSAGE CHANNEL RECEIVER IDEATION ENCODING TRANSMISSION RECEIVING DECODING ACTION TYPES ONE -WAY TWO - WAY VERBAL NON - VERBAL FORMAL INFORMAL VISUAL TELE & INTERNET AWARENESS INTEREST EVALUATION ADOPTION (BEHAVIOR CHANGE) FEEDBACK
  5. 5. Dr. Nithin Ravindran Nair (PT) P a g e | 5 ✓ Non – Verbal Communication: Includes body movements, postures, gestures, facial expression and even silence. ✓ Formal Communication: Follows lines of authority ✓ Informal Communication: Grape-vine communication ✓ Visual Communication: Comprises of charts, graphs, pictograms, tables, maps and posters ✓ Telecommunication and Internet: It is done using electromagnetic instruments over distance e.g.: Radio, TV and internet (mass communication; Telephone and telegraph (point-to-point telecommunication system) Barriers of Communication: Obstacles in communication are classified as ✓ Physiological: Difficulties in hearing, expression ✓ Psychological: Emotional disturbances, neurosis, levels of intelligence, language or comprehension difficulties ✓ Environmental: noise, overcrowding, invisibility ✓ Cultural: illiteracy, level of knowledge, customs, beliefs, religion, attitude, economic or social class differences etc. WHO Strategic Communications Framework for Effective Communications
  6. 6. Dr. Nithin Ravindran Nair (PT) P a g e | 6 WHO Principles for Effective Communications: ✓ Accessible ▪ Planning questions to ensure communications are accessible ▪ Identify effective channels ▪ Make information available online ▪ Ensure PWD can find and use information they needed ✓ Actionable ▪ Planning questions to ensure communications are actionable ▪ Move audience towards action – the communications continuum ▪ Design a behavior change campaign ▪ Encourage action during a healthy emergency ✓ Credible and trusted ▪ Planning questions to ensure communications are trusted ▪ Ensure technical accuracy ▪ Be transparent ▪ Coordinate with partners ▪ Speak as “One WHO” ▪ Using the WHO brand for maximum impact ✓ Relevant ▪ Planning questions to ensure communications are relevant ▪ Know the audience ▪ Listen to the audience ▪ Tailor the message ▪ Motivate the audience ✓ Timely ▪ Planning questions to ensure communications are timely ▪ Communicate what WHO knows early ▪ Communicate at the right time ▪ Build the conversation ✓ Understandable ▪ Planning questions to ensure communications are understandable ▪ Use plain language ▪ Tell real stories ▪ Make it visual ▪ Use familiar language
  7. 7. Dr. Nithin Ravindran Nair (PT) P a g e | 7 References: ❖ Community Based Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities – S Pruthvish ❖ Textbook of Community Medicine and Community Rehabilitation for Physiotherapists – T Bhaskara Rao ❖ Essentials of Community Based Rehabilitation – Satya Bhushan Nagar ❖ Preventive and Social Medicine – K Park ❖ Textbook of Community Medicine – Dr. AP Kulkarni et.al ❖ WHO Strategic Communications Framework for Effective Communications

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