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Ethics in cyber space


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My presentation on Cyber Ethics in Human Values and Organization course.

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Ethics in cyber space

  1. 1. Ethics in Cyber Space
  2. 2. What are Ethics anyway? Understanding how your actions affect other people Knowing right from wrong Taking personal responsibility for your actions So , “Ethics is about putting principles into action. Consistency between whatwe say and … what our actions say… is a matter of integrity.”
  3. 3. Unethical vs. Illegal What is unethical is not necessarily illegal. For example, the issue of a company legally monitoring Employee‟s E-mail isvery controversial issues. Employees have limited protection against employer‟s electronic surveillance. The law appears to support employer‟s rights to read electronic mail andother electronic documents of their employees. Here, The definitions of “Right” and “Wrong” are not clear. Also, thedistinction between what is illegal and what is unethical is not always obvious
  4. 4. What do we mean by CYBERETHICS ? Cyberethics is the philosophic study of ethics pertaining to computernetworks, encompassing user behaviour. what networked computers are programmed to do, and how thisaffects individuals and society. Cyber-Ethics is the Ethics applied to the online environment.
  5. 5. Why should we be Concerned aboutCyber Ethics ? Anonymous posting to blogs, websites and social media can encourage badbehaviour anytime. Information in cyberspace can be accessed globally. what is right and wrong for Internet users can do, what are the social impacts of Information Technology (IT). understand security, privacy issues, and major negative impacts of IT oncyberspace Computer Networks can be threatened by many internal and external hazardsinternationally,
  6. 6. Why Cyber Ethics ?Cyber Ethics underpin actions that must betaken not only to harness the power of the ITitself, but also to survive its revolution so itshould be the concern of everyone.
  7. 7. Three main types of Ethical issues PrivacyIT enables exchange of information on a large scale enables increasedpotential for disclosing information and violating the privacy Access RightThe topic of computer security and access right has moved quickly frombeing a low priority for corporations to high priority for governmentagencies. Harmful ActionsHarm to any of users, the general public, employees, and employers .Harmful actions include intentional destruction or modification of files andprograms leading to serious loss of resources or unnecessary expenditure ofhuman resources.
  8. 8. Let’s review and discuss some commoncyber-ethicalconcerns…
  9. 9. Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)Violations Disregard for technology ornetwork rules and policies. Thiscould be willful or unintendeddisregard.
  10. 10. Piracy Unauthorized duplication and distribution ofitems such as games, software, DVDs, music, etc. End User License Agreement Violation : Whenyou purchase a game or CD, you are purchasing alicense to USE them; you do not OWN them.
  11. 11. Plagiarism Using another person’s ideas,words, images, or original worksas your own withoutacknowledging the source.
  12. 12. Cyber-bullying"Cyber-bullying" is when a child orteen is tormented, threatened,harassed, humiliated, embarrassed,or otherwise targeted by anotherchild or teen using the Internet,interactive and digital technologies,or cell phones.
  13. 13. Cyber-libel Deliberate misrepresentation ofpeople or events. False statements that harmanother’s reputation.
  14. 14. Worms and Viruses Malicious programs sharedwith the intent of shutting downa computer or computer system.
  15. 15. Violating Privacy Willfully using another person’spassword to access his or heremail or documents online,distributing private informationof or about another.
  16. 16. Cyber-stalking The use of the Internet, email,or other electroniccommunications devicesto stalk anotherperson.
  17. 17. 79.573.159.3 5955.248.510.40102030405060708090FraudulentInformationviolation ofprivacyFalse Rumors ObscenceInformationLibel Information Civil RightsViolationGamblingInformationIllegal Information on Internet
  18. 18. Call into Questions… Is it ok to display personal informationabout other on the Internet ? Who owns digital data ( such asmusic, movies, books, webpages etc.)and what should users be allowed to dowith it ? Who is allowed to access the data andinformation? How can we safeguards to ensure thatthe information can be accessed only bythe right person or organizations?
  19. 19. Who should be Concerned about CyberEthics ? businesses and governments rely on technical measures to protect themselvesfrom false information, stealing, deny access, or even destroy valuableinformation. Self-protection is not sufficient to make cyberspace a safe place to conductbusiness. The rule of law must also be enforced. Cyber ethics must be taught and reinforced at every level of computer use From the novice user just learning to navigate a computer and theinternet, to an information technology professional Those who use the internet in any mode must be taught ethical practices inevery aspect of its use
  20. 20. The Rules of Ethical Cyber Activity Basic Rule – Do not do something in cyber space that you would considerwrong or illegal in everyday life Do not use rude or offensive language Do not be a bully on the Internet. Do not call peoples name, lie aboutthem, send embarrassing pictures of them, or anything else to try to heartthem. Don‟t encourage the cyberbullies. Do report cyberbullying. Do use internet for research and information but don‟t use copyrightedinformation as your own.
  21. 21. The Rules of Ethical Cyber Activity Do not break into someone else‟s computer. Do not attempt to infect or in any way try to make someone else‟s computerunusable. Don‟t share personal information too easily. Do use the internet to expand your social and business network but don‟thamper other in doing so.
  22. 22. Internet Safety Guard your privacy : What people know about you is up to you. Protect your reputation: Self-reflect before you self-reveal. What‟s funny oredgy today could cost you tomorrow. Nothing is private online: Anything you say or do can be copied, pasted andsent to billions of people without your permission. Assume everyone is watching: There is huge vast audience out there.Someone you don‟t know also has access to your information. Apply the golden rule: If you don‟t want it done to you, then don‟t do it withsomeone else. Watch the clock : A virtual hug never matches a real one. Balance your life.
  23. 23. Internet Safety Choose wisely: Not all the content is appropriate. You know what we mean. Don‟t hide: Using anonymity to cloak your actions doen‟t turn you into atrustworthy, responsible human being. Think about what you see: Just because you find it over internet doesn‟tmake it true. Be smart, be safe: Not everyone is who they say they are. Be smart whilesitting online and interacting with people.
  24. 24. ACM Commitments on Ethics1. Contribute to society and human being.2. Avoid harm to others.3. Be honest and trustworthy.4. Be fair and take action not to discriminate.5. Honor property rights including copyrights and patents.6. Give proper credit for intellectual property.7. Respect the privacy of others.8. Honor confidentiality.9. Contribute to society and human being.
  25. 25. CONCLUSION The new world of information society with global networks and cyberspacewill inevitably generate a wide variety of social, political, and ethicalproblems. Basic issues have been solved partially using technological approaches andlegal laws in cyberspace. Guidelines and strategies should be implemented so that global informationcan be exploited in a socially and ethically sensitive way for our futurebenefit and applications.
  26. 26. CASE STUDY 1Facebook confessions page
  27. 27. Facebook confessions page It is page on Facebook on which any one can anonymously post apersonal information. Juicy-campus launched in 2007 with the goal of enabling “onlineanonymous free speech on college campuses”. College in 2007 which peaked with over 900,000 viewsin a single day College ACB closed down in October 2011 but anonymous onlineconfession sites didn‟t go awayWhat is it ?
  28. 28. Facebook confessions page US college students began using a combination of Facebook pagesand anonymous forms such as Google Forms or SurveyMonkey tocreate school based Facebook Confession Pages. In India it started in IIT-B and just after one day It also started inLNMIIT and various other collages. These services were controversial as many of the postedconfessions hurt the school‟s image.What is it ?
  29. 29. Facebook confessions pageANONYMITY is the answer to this. Anonymity is an important and useful tool in manysituations. Most adults have at some time read newspaper advicecolumns where readers anonymously submit problems andan “Agony Aunt” responds with advice so that others withsimilar problems benefit. Voting is usually done anonymously to allow freedom ofexpression and governments protect anonymouswhistleblowers with legislation.Why do Students use them ?
  30. 30. Facebook confessions page And police “Tips” phone services assure anonymity as a wayof getting people to share others‟ misdeeds. Kids Help Phone encourages teens and children to phone inand share their problems anonymously because this helpsteens and children to address problems they can‟t in otherways What no one can deny is that the need to shareanonymously is deep-seated.Why do Students use them ?
  31. 31. Facebook confessions page Facebook Confession Pages are simply pages that allowstudents to anonymously submit their deepest secrets. The moderator of the page posts the confessions on theFacebook page. Students who „like‟ the page can see each confession andcan „like‟ each confession and comment. The moderators of the page are often unknown to thestudents, as are the contributors.How do they work ?
  32. 32. Facebook confessions page The Facebook Confession Page model has caught on andspreading fast. The pages are free, easy to set up and tap into this deep-seated need teens and young adults have to share whatthey‟re really thinking and feeling without fear of adultsanctions.How do they work ?
  33. 33. Facebook confessions page While the original intent of Facebook Confession Pages wasto offer a forum for students to share problems, concernsand secrets that isn‟t all students are sharing. The onlinedis-inhibition effect, a loosening of social restrictions andinhibitions that would normally be present in socialinteractions, means that many students want to also usethe confessions pages to share stories of alcohol and druguse or sexual behaviour. In some cases the pages lead tocyberbullying or even slander.What are the problems ?
  34. 34. Facebook confessions page Invasion of Privacy Character AssassinationWhat is Unethical here ?
  35. 35. Facebook confessions page Experience in other jurisdictions suggests that taking pagesdown won‟t solve the problem. Pages are easy to setup, and often when one is taken down another pops upright away moderated by a different student. Teens expressing depression, issues with body image oralcohol and drug use should concern us all and rather thanpreventing them from posting about it we should be lookingat the behavior and trying to address it.What can educators and parents to do?
  36. 36. Facebook confessions page Students clearly have a need to post anonymously abouttheir problems, concerns and fears. Schools should embrace the opportunity and set up theirown “Confessions Pages”, moderated by students but withguidelines Confession Pages and their associated problems alsohighlight the need for greater education about digitalcitizenship for studentsWhat can educators and parents to do?
  37. 37. Facebook confessions page need to better understand the risks of posting and thepermanent and public nature of digital spaces. This starts at an early age with parents talking to childrenabout social media and modeling good online behaviorthemselves.What can educators and parents to do?
  38. 38. CASE STUDY 2Napster vs RIAA
  39. 39. The Napster Controversy: RIAA vs. Napster In the summer of 1999, a website,, waslaunched in the US. The website made it possible for itsusers to freely share their music files through the Internetwith other users all over the world. The service became extremely popular within a short spanof time. The website attracted 1.6 million simultaneoususers during the height of its popularity in February 2000. Napsters offering of this peer-to-peer technology wasstrongly condemned by the Recording Industry Association ofAmerica (RIAA), a trade group representing the worldsbiggest record labels, Universal Music, Sony Music, WarnerMusic, EMI Group and Bertelsmann AG.
  40. 40. Allegation on Napster RIAA alleged that Napster was engaging in or assisting othersin copying copyrighted music without payment or theexpress permission of the rights owners. RIAA also claimed that Napster would significantly harm thesales of the recording industry. In December 1999, the body sued Napster in the FederalDistrict Court for copyright infringements and petitioned thecourt to shut down the website.
  41. 41. What Happened NEXT. The legal battle was covered extensively in the global media. In the beginning of July 2001, Napster had to stop offering its servicesdue to certain technical problems. While the company was workingtowards setting the problems right and resuming operations, in midJuly 2001, a District Court Judge order barred Napster from offeringthe file-sharing service. Even as Napster users strongly protested against the order, thecompany appealed the ruling before the US Court of Appeals in SanFrancisco. The Appeals Court granted Napster temporary reprieveagainst injunction until a further review of the injunction request. Napster was eventually acquired by Roxio. In its second incarnationNapster became an online music store until it was acquired byRhapsody from Best Buy on 1 December 2011.
  42. 42. Questions Raised The controversy raised several questions regarding theimpact of the emergence of newer technologies like Napsteron the traditional modes of conducting business. Was the recording industry using its financial power tosuppress technological innovations in the music business? Was Napster wrong in allowing people across the globe toaccess music without paying for it and without the artistespermission? The case eventually came to be seen as a struggle by thepowerful entertainment industry against a new technologythreatening it.
  43. 43. Ethical Point of View Shared Music For Free But NotFREE MUSIC.What went wrong ?
  44. 44. Ethical Point of View Firstly, Because it caused Heavy Loses to the Recordingindustry; Artists & Recording houses who spent millions inproductions. Secondly, It directly encouraged Piracy of Music and givingbirth to Many other similar websitesWhy was it Unethical ?
  45. 45. Thank You…