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BREAKER
In the eyes…
INFANT VISION
DEVELOPMENT
Birth to Four Months
• At birth, babies have not yet developed the ability to easily tell
the difference between two targe...
Five to Eight Months
• Control of eye movements and eye-body coordination skills
continue to improve.
• Around the fifth m...
Nine to Twelve Months
• Babies should be using their eyes and hands together.
• Around 9 months of age, babies begin to pu...
One to Two Years Old
• By two years of age, a child’s eye-hand coordination and depth
perception should be well developed....
EYE MYTHS AND
FACTS
MYTH 1:Doingeye exercises will keep you
from needingglasses.
FACT: Eye exercises do not enhance or
preserve vision or dimi...
MYTH 2:Readingin dim light will worsen
yourvision
FACT: Dim lighting can make your eyes
feel fatigued more quickly, but it...
MYTH 3:Eatingcarrots improvesyour
eyesight
FACT: Carrots do contain vitamin A, which is
good for the eyes. But dark green ...
MYTH 4: Youshouldn’t wear glasses all the
time. Taking a breakfrom glasses or contact
lenses allows youreyes to rest
FACT:...
MYTH 5: Staring at a computerscreen all day
is harmful to the eyes
FACT: Spending the day staring at a screen
can tire or ...
Parts and Functions of the Eyes
Cornea
• Tagged as the “window of the eye”
• It is the outer thin transparent membrane of the eyeball
• Serves to protect ...
Pupil
• The black circle
• An opening trough which light enters the inner portion of the
eye
• Changes its size to regulat...
Iris
• Colored portion of the eye
• Regulates the size of the pupil by contraction or relaxation of
its muscles
Lens
• Focuses the light on the retina
• Biconvex transparent body situated behind the iris
Aqueous Humor and Vitreous
Humor
• Responsible for giving the eye its near perfect spherical shape
• Belong to the refract...
Retina
• The inner surface of the eye
• Receives images formed by the lens and transmits them
through the optic nerve to t...
Macula Lutea
• Part of the retina
• a small yellowish central area of the retina that is rich in cones
and that mediates c...
Fovia Centralis
• Another part of the retina
• Found in the center of the macula lutea
• A small depression in the retina ...
Optic Nerve
• transmits electrical impulses from the retina to the brain
• connects to the back of the eye near the macula
A journey through the
human eye…
SIGNS OF EYE AND
VISION PROBLEMS
PRESENCE OF EYE VISION PROBLEMS AMONG
INFANTS ARE RARE
Parents need to look for the
following signs that may be
indications of eye and vision
problems:
• Excessive tearing – may...
PROBLEMS WITH SEEING
Myopia
• Medical term for
nearsightedness
• People suffering from this
visual problem can see
close objects clearly but
th...
Hyperopia
• Hypermetropia
• Farsightedness can see
distant object but cannot
focus clearly on nearby
objects
• The eyeball...
Presbyopia
• Aging eyes or old eyes
• It is a normal
consequence of growing
old and cannot be
prevented
• Crystalline lens...
Astigmatism
• A person suffering from
astigmatism cannot focus
simultaneously on
horizontal and vertical
lines.
• The corn...
Visual Tests
Visual Acuity Tests
• most common tests used to evaluate eyesight
• measure the eye's ability to see details at near and f...
Refraction
• a test that measures the eyes' need for corrective lenses
(refractive error)
• done after a visual acuity tes...
Visual Field Tests
• used to check for gaps in your side (peripheral) vision done
after a visual acuity test
• your comple...
Color VisionTests
• check your ability to distinguish colors
• used to screen for color blindness in people with suspected...
Keeping Eyes Healthy
What Parents Can Do
To Help With Visual
Development
Birth to Four Months
• Use a nightlight or other dim lamp in your baby’s room
• Change the crib’s position frequently and ...
Five to Eight Months
• Hang a mobile, crib gym or various objects across the crib for
the baby to grab, pull and kick
• Gi...
Nine to Twelve Months
• Play hide and seek games with toys or your face to help the
baby develop visual memory
• Name obje...
One to Two Years Old
• Roll a ball back and forth to help the child track objects with
the eyes visually
• Give the child ...
The End
Thank you for listening…
SENSE OF SIGHT
SENSE OF SIGHT
SENSE OF SIGHT
SENSE OF SIGHT
SENSE OF SIGHT
SENSE OF SIGHT
SENSE OF SIGHT
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EYES: The Windows of the Soul

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SENSE OF SIGHT

  1. 1. BREAKER
  2. 2. In the eyes…
  3. 3. INFANT VISION DEVELOPMENT
  4. 4. Birth to Four Months • At birth, babies have not yet developed the ability to easily tell the difference between two targets or move their eyes between two images. Their primary focus is on objects 8 to 10 inches from their face or the distance to parent’s face. • During the first month of life, the eyes start working together and vision rapidly. Infants start tracking moving objects with their ayes and reaching for them. • For the first two months of life, infant’s eyes are not well coordinated. It is normal to appear to be crossed or wandering. However, when turning is constantly, an evaluation is warranted. • Babies should begin to follow moving objects with their eyes and reach things at around three months of age.
  5. 5. Five to Eight Months • Control of eye movements and eye-body coordination skills continue to improve. • Around the fifth month, eyes are capable of working together to form a three-dimensional view of the world and begin to see in depth. • It is believed that babies have good color vision. • Most babies start crawling by 8 months, which helps further develop eye-hand-foot-body coordination.
  6. 6. Nine to Twelve Months • Babies should be using their eyes and hands together. • Around 9 months of age, babies begin to pull themselves up to a standing position. • By 10 months, baby should be able to grasp objects with thumb and forefinger. • By 12 months, most babies will be crawling and trying to walk. Parents should encourage crawling rather than early walking to help the child develop better eye-hand coordination. • Babies can now judge distances fairly well and throw things with precision.
  7. 7. One to Two Years Old • By two years of age, a child’s eye-hand coordination and depth perception should be well developed. • Children this age are highly interested in exploring their environment and in looking and listening. They recognize familiar objects and pictures in books and can scribble with crayon or pencil.
  8. 8. EYE MYTHS AND FACTS
  9. 9. MYTH 1:Doingeye exercises will keep you from needingglasses. FACT: Eye exercises do not enhance or preserve vision or diminish the need for glasses. Your vision relies on the shape of your eyes, the health of your eye tissues, and many other factors, none of which can be appreciably altered with eye exercises.
  10. 10. MYTH 2:Readingin dim light will worsen yourvision FACT: Dim lighting can make your eyes feel fatigued more quickly, but it will not harm your eyesight. Focus your reading light directly on the page you are reading, not over your shoulder. A light that shines from over your shoulder can create glare, making it more difficult to see.
  11. 11. MYTH 3:Eatingcarrots improvesyour eyesight FACT: Carrots do contain vitamin A, which is good for the eyes. But dark green leafy vegetables and fresh fruit are even better. They contain more antioxidant vitamins such as C and E, which can protect the eyes from cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. However, eating vegetables and/or taking supplements will not prevent or repair vision problems such as nearsightedness or farsightedness.
  12. 12. MYTH 4: Youshouldn’t wear glasses all the time. Taking a breakfrom glasses or contact lenses allows youreyes to rest FACT: If you are prescribed glasses for distance or reading, use them. Trying to read without reading glasses will simply strain your eyes and tire them out. Using glasses won’t weaken your vision or lead to eye disease.
  13. 13. MYTH 5: Staring at a computerscreen all day is harmful to the eyes FACT: Spending the day staring at a screen can tire or strain your eyes, but it will not hurt them. Make sure lighting doesn’t create a glare on your screen. When spending long periods at your keyboard, take a break now and then to rest your eyes to reduce fatigue. Also, don’t forget to blink. Your eyes need to stay lubricated to feel comfortable.
  14. 14. Parts and Functions of the Eyes
  15. 15. Cornea • Tagged as the “window of the eye” • It is the outer thin transparent membrane of the eyeball • Serves to protect the eye and refract most of the incident light
  16. 16. Pupil • The black circle • An opening trough which light enters the inner portion of the eye • Changes its size to regulate amount of light entering the eye
  17. 17. Iris • Colored portion of the eye • Regulates the size of the pupil by contraction or relaxation of its muscles
  18. 18. Lens • Focuses the light on the retina • Biconvex transparent body situated behind the iris
  19. 19. Aqueous Humor and Vitreous Humor • Responsible for giving the eye its near perfect spherical shape • Belong to the refractive system of the eye
  20. 20. Retina • The inner surface of the eye • Receives images formed by the lens and transmits them through the optic nerve to the brain
  21. 21. Macula Lutea • Part of the retina • a small yellowish central area of the retina that is rich in cones and that mediates clear detailed vision
  22. 22. Fovia Centralis • Another part of the retina • Found in the center of the macula lutea • A small depression in the retina of the eye where visual acuity is highest
  23. 23. Optic Nerve • transmits electrical impulses from the retina to the brain • connects to the back of the eye near the macula
  24. 24. A journey through the human eye…
  25. 25. SIGNS OF EYE AND VISION PROBLEMS PRESENCE OF EYE VISION PROBLEMS AMONG INFANTS ARE RARE
  26. 26. Parents need to look for the following signs that may be indications of eye and vision problems: • Excessive tearing – may indicate blocked tear ducts • Red/Encrusted eyelids – could be a sign of an aye infection • Constant eye turning – may signal a problem with eye muscle control • Extreme sensitivity to light – may indicate an elevated pressure in the eye • Appearance of a white pupil – may indicate the presence of eye cancer
  27. 27. PROBLEMS WITH SEEING
  28. 28. Myopia • Medical term for nearsightedness • People suffering from this visual problem can see close objects clearly but the distant ones are blurred. • The eyeball is larger than the normal or too curved • This can be corrected by diverging lens.
  29. 29. Hyperopia • Hypermetropia • Farsightedness can see distant object but cannot focus clearly on nearby objects • The eyeball is too short and the image of the object is formed behind the retina • This can be correct by converging lens.
  30. 30. Presbyopia • Aging eyes or old eyes • It is a normal consequence of growing old and cannot be prevented • Crystalline lens hardens and the ciliary muscles become less flexible • Bifocal lens is prescribed • Progressive lens may be used
  31. 31. Astigmatism • A person suffering from astigmatism cannot focus simultaneously on horizontal and vertical lines. • The cornea have unequal curvature • Some people prefer wearing contact lenses instead of eyeglasses.
  32. 32. Visual Tests
  33. 33. Visual Acuity Tests • most common tests used to evaluate eyesight • measure the eye's ability to see details at near and far distances • involve reading letters or looking at symbols of different sizes on an eye chart
  34. 34. Refraction • a test that measures the eyes' need for corrective lenses (refractive error) • done after a visual acuity test • done as a routine part of an eye examination for people who already wear glasses or contact lenses • will also be done if the results of the other visual acuity tests show that your eyesight is below normal and can be corrected by glasses
  35. 35. Visual Field Tests • used to check for gaps in your side (peripheral) vision done after a visual acuity test • your complete visual field is the entire area seen when your gaze is fixed in one direction • the complete visual field is seen by both eyes at the same time, and it includes the central visual field-which detects the highest degree of detail-and the peripheral visual fields
  36. 36. Color VisionTests • check your ability to distinguish colors • used to screen for color blindness in people with suspected retinal or optic nerve disease or who have a family history of color blindness • also used to screen applicants for jobs in fields where color perception is essential, such as law enforcement, the military, or electronics • only detect a problem-further testing is needed to identify what is causing the problem
  37. 37. Keeping Eyes Healthy
  38. 38. What Parents Can Do To Help With Visual Development
  39. 39. Birth to Four Months • Use a nightlight or other dim lamp in your baby’s room • Change the crib’s position frequently and change your child’s position in it • Keep reach-and-touch toys within your baby’s focus, about 8 to 12 inches • talk to your baby as you walk around the room • Alternate right and left sides with each feeding
  40. 40. Five to Eight Months • Hang a mobile, crib gym or various objects across the crib for the baby to grab, pull and kick • Give the baby plenty of time to play and explore on the floor • Provide plastic or wooden blocks that can be held in the hands • Play patty cake and other games, moving the baby’s hands through the motion while saying the words aloud
  41. 41. Nine to Twelve Months • Play hide and seek games with toys or your face to help the baby develop visual memory • Name objects when talking to encourage the baby’s word association and vocabulary development skills • Encourage crawling and creeping.
  42. 42. One to Two Years Old • Roll a ball back and forth to help the child track objects with the eyes visually • Give the child building blocks and balls of all shapes and size to play to boost fine motor skills and small muscle development • Read or tell stories to stimulate the child’s ability to visualize and pave the way for learning and reading skills
  43. 43. The End Thank you for listening…
  • ViaHegino

    Nov. 14, 2020
  • SheilaMangaring

    Aug. 26, 2016

EYES: The Windows of the Soul

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