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TYPE OF MULTINATINAL MARKET
GROUPS AND THEIR ROLE IN RELAXING
BORDER
MD. Omar Faruk Hasib [ID:132011013]
Kazi Arafath [ID:...
OPEC
 OPEC is defined as an abbreviation for Organization of Petroleum
Exporting Countries.
 A union of oil producing co...
Country Joined OPEC Location
Algeria 1969 Africa
Angola 2007 Africa
Ecuador ** rejoined 2007 South America
IR Iran * 1960 ...
• Headquarters : Vienna, Austria
• Official language : English
• President : Rostam Ghasemi
• Secretary general : Abdallah...
OBJECTIVE
 Stable oil market, with reasonable prices and steady supplies to
consumers
 OPEC was made to make sure that t...
SIDELINE OBJECTIVE
 Manipulate supply of oil in the market, in hopes of
keeping prices, and profits, high by producing le...
COMPETITIVE DYNAMICS OF OPEC
Before 1970
 No Major Role played by OPEC
During 1970
 Power of Price setting shifted from ...
OIL PRODUCING SCENARIO
OFID was established in January 1976.
All non-OPEC developing countries are, in
principle, eligible for OFID assistance....
TAXES ON OIL
 For example, in the UK the government in 2014 earned
about 60.1% of the price charged for every liter of pu...
THE EUROPEAN UNION
The European Union is a group of countries whose
governments work together.
It's like a club. To join you have to agree to...
How many people live in the EU?
Population in millions
(2015)
508 million in total
TIMELINE
THE END
OF THE
II WORLD
WAR
TREATY OF
ROME
makes the
EUROPEAN
ECONOMIC
COMMUNITY
(EEC) Common
market/ Single
Mark...
HOW THE EUROPEAN UNION
HAS GROWN: ENLARGEMENT: FROM 6 TO 28 COUNTRIES
2004 is the
biggest
expansion
(enlargement
) of the ...
EUOBJECTIVES The purpose of the EU is protect and strengthen the rights of its
members
Political
Objectives
•To promote de...
THE EURO
It was introduced in 2002
It is a symbol of unity
There are 7
bank notes
The coins have the same
design on one si...
SINGLE MARKET
In 1993, the most of the trade
barriers (physical, fiscal, technical)
have been...
REMOVED!
GOODS, MONEY,
PE...
WHAT ADVANTAGES ARE THERE OF BEING AN
EUCITIZEN?
Employment Mobility: FREEDOM TO WORK
ANYWHERE WITHIN THE EU.
HAVING THE S...
NETHERLANDS GERMANY
BELGIUM
SAFTA-INTRODUCTION
 An agreement reached on 6 January 2004 at
Islamabad.
 It created a free trade are between all the me...
COUNTRIES IN SAFTA
OBJECTIVES OF SAFTA
Elimination of trade barriers
Promoting conditions of fair
competition
Creation of effective mechan...
AGREEMENT OF SAFTA
Goods
Services
Investment
SAFTA-INSTRUMENTS
 Trade Liberalization Programme
 Non Tariff Barriers
 Sensitive List
 Rules of Origin
 Special and ...
MERCOSUR
INTRODUCTION
 "Common Market of the South America" is the
largest trading bloc in South America
 Its purpose is to promo...
MEMBER COUNTRIES
 Argentina
 Brazil
 Paraguay
 Uruguay
 Venezuela
Observer
 Mexico
 New Zealand
BOLIVIA JOINING MERCOSUR
OBJECTIVE
 The free transit of produced goods, services
 Eliminate internal barrier
 Fixing of a common external tariff...
ADMINISTRATIVE/INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE
OF MERCOSUR
 Common Market Council (CMC)
 Common Market Group ( CMG)
 Commercial...
BACKGROUND
 1991: Treaty of Asunción goes into force in 1991,
effectively mandating the creation of a common
southern mar...
FACTS
 Population : 0. 3 billion(2010) , 43% of Latin
America’s population
 Languages : Portuguese, Guaraní and Spanish
...
TRADE IN GOODS
THANK
YOU!
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HOW MULTINATIONAL MARKET GROUPS RELAXING BOARDER IN THEIR MEMBER COUNTRY.

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Multinational markets groups

  1. 1. TYPE OF MULTINATINAL MARKET GROUPS AND THEIR ROLE IN RELAXING BORDER MD. Omar Faruk Hasib [ID:132011013] Kazi Arafath [ID: 132011063] Madina Islam Protiva [ID:132011114] Israt Tabassum [ID:132011058] Sharmil Ahmed [ID:132011172]
  2. 2. OPEC  OPEC is defined as an abbreviation for Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.  A union of oil producing countries that regulate the amount of oil each country is able to produce.
  3. 3. Country Joined OPEC Location Algeria 1969 Africa Angola 2007 Africa Ecuador ** rejoined 2007 South America IR Iran * 1960 Middle East Iraq * 1960 Middle East Kuwait * 1960 Middle East Libya 1962 Africa Nigeria 1971 Africa Qatar 1961 Middle East Saudi Arabia * 1960 Middle East United Arab Emirates 1967 Middle East Venezuela* 1960 South America
  4. 4. • Headquarters : Vienna, Austria • Official language : English • President : Rostam Ghasemi • Secretary general : Abdallah el-Badri • Currency : USD per barrel • The OPEC Conference: The Conference generally meets twice a year, in March and September. • The Heads of Delegation : Representatives are normally the Ministers of Oil, Mines and Energy of Member Countries.
  5. 5. OBJECTIVE  Stable oil market, with reasonable prices and steady supplies to consumers  OPEC was made to make sure that the price of the oil in the world market will be properly controlled.  Their main goal is to prevent harmful increase in price of oil in global market and make sure that nations that produce oil have a fair profit
  6. 6. SIDELINE OBJECTIVE  Manipulate supply of oil in the market, in hopes of keeping prices, and profits, high by producing less oil than the market needs.  While OPEC always wants to maximize profits for themselves, they also don’t want to kill the golden goose by driving prices so high that alternative energy exploration becomes a top priority.  OPEC tracks the oil production of NON-OPEC nations and then adjusts its own production to maintain its desired barrel price.
  7. 7. COMPETITIVE DYNAMICS OF OPEC Before 1970  No Major Role played by OPEC During 1970  Power of Price setting shifted from MNC Oil Companies to OPEC By 1973  OPEC countries changed the Pricing System 1975-1985  Oil Production Increase from 48% to 71% Mid 1980  Survival became uncertain  Market shares fell from 52% 30% in 1985
  8. 8. OIL PRODUCING SCENARIO
  9. 9. OFID was established in January 1976. All non-OPEC developing countries are, in principle, eligible for OFID assistance. However, the least developed and other low- income countries are accorded priority and, therefore, receive a larger share. Over the years, OFID has spread its financing to 134 countries, of which 53 are in Africa, 43 in Asia, 31 in Latin America and the Caribbean, and seven in Europe.
  10. 10. TAXES ON OIL  For example, in the UK the government in 2014 earned about 60.1% of the price charged for every liter of pump fuel sold to consumers. On the other hand, oil producing countries (including OPEC) earned about 29.7% of the total pump fuel price.
  11. 11. THE EUROPEAN UNION
  12. 12. The European Union is a group of countries whose governments work together. It's like a club. To join you have to agree to follow the rules and in return you get certain benefits. This group of countries have to pay taxes but they have benefits. For example, if there is a natural disaster in one of the member countries the others give them money or also in wars. WHAT IS THE EU?
  13. 13. How many people live in the EU? Population in millions (2015) 508 million in total
  14. 14. TIMELINE THE END OF THE II WORLD WAR TREATY OF ROME makes the EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (EEC) Common market/ Single Market TREATY OF PARIS: creation of EUROPEAN COAL AND STEEL COMMUNIT Y (ECSC) Euro banknotes and coins replaced national currencies in member states. 2013,Croatiabecame the28thEUmember 1945 1951 1957 The European Union was formally established when the MAASTRICHT TREATY came into force setting clear rules for the future currency 1992 2002
  15. 15. HOW THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS GROWN: ENLARGEMENT: FROM 6 TO 28 COUNTRIES 2004 is the biggest expansion (enlargement ) of the Union since it started
  16. 16. EUOBJECTIVES The purpose of the EU is protect and strengthen the rights of its members Political Objectives •To promote democracy and freedom in Europea and around the world •To prevent diseases and promote medical research •To fight cybercrime, terrorism and human trafficking •To improve working conditions and promotes equal opportunities Economic Objectives •To create jobs and promote economic growth •To develop small businesses and encourage innovation •To act together to help member states with economic problems. •To make it posible for goods, money and services to move freely between countries
  17. 17. THE EURO It was introduced in 2002 It is a symbol of unity There are 7 bank notes The coins have the same design on one side but the other side is country-specific It is based on a Greek letter. The two bars across the middle are a symbol of stability 8 coins SPANISH € FRENCH €
  18. 18. SINGLE MARKET In 1993, the most of the trade barriers (physical, fiscal, technical) have been... REMOVED! GOODS, MONEY, PEOPLE AND SERVICES COULD MOVE FREELY ALL GOODS ARE PRODUCED ACCORDING TO THE SAME STANDARDS/QUALITY SO…THIS MAKES THIS MARKET MORE COMPETITIVE BECAUSE… All companies are under the same trading rules and stantards SO… SO…
  19. 19. WHAT ADVANTAGES ARE THERE OF BEING AN EUCITIZEN? Employment Mobility: FREEDOM TO WORK ANYWHERE WITHIN THE EU. HAVING THE SAME CURRENCY MAKES IT EASIER TO BUY (IMPORT) AND SELL (EXPORT). NO BORDER TAXES. Residential Mobility: FREEDOM TO LIVE IN OTHER EU COUNTRIES. As a citizen of the European Union, you deserve all the rights and privileges offered by the country in which you live: Health, education, unemployment programs, pension...
  20. 20. NETHERLANDS GERMANY BELGIUM
  21. 21. SAFTA-INTRODUCTION  An agreement reached on 6 January 2004 at Islamabad.  It created a free trade are between all the member countries.  The SAFTA agreement came into force on 1 January 2006.  The purpose of SAFTA is to encourage and elevate common contract among the countries such as medium and long term contracts.
  22. 22. COUNTRIES IN SAFTA
  23. 23. OBJECTIVES OF SAFTA Elimination of trade barriers Promoting conditions of fair competition Creation of effective mechanism Framework for regional co-operation
  24. 24. AGREEMENT OF SAFTA Goods Services Investment
  25. 25. SAFTA-INSTRUMENTS  Trade Liberalization Programme  Non Tariff Barriers  Sensitive List  Rules of Origin  Special and Differential treatment Provision for LDC
  26. 26. MERCOSUR
  27. 27. INTRODUCTION  "Common Market of the South America" is the largest trading bloc in South America  Its purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people, and currency  It also establishes a common trade policy with respect to non-members
  28. 28. MEMBER COUNTRIES  Argentina  Brazil  Paraguay  Uruguay  Venezuela Observer  Mexico  New Zealand
  29. 29. BOLIVIA JOINING MERCOSUR
  30. 30. OBJECTIVE  The free transit of produced goods, services  Eliminate internal barrier  Fixing of a common external tariff (CET)  Allow free movement of resources
  31. 31. ADMINISTRATIVE/INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE OF MERCOSUR  Common Market Council (CMC)  Common Market Group ( CMG)  Commercial Commission of MERCOSUR (CCM)  Joint Parliamentary Commission (CPS)  Social-Economic Consultative Forum (FCES)
  32. 32. BACKGROUND  1991: Treaty of Asunción goes into force in 1991, effectively mandating the creation of a common southern market (MERCOSUR) by December 31, 1994. Original signatories are Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay  1994: Creation of Mercosur  1995: Creation of customs union. MERCOSUR and the European Union sign an agreement of trade association and cooperation in various areas  1999: Free trade agreement with two trading block EU and NAFTA  2004: Preferential trade agreement with India
  33. 33. FACTS  Population : 0. 3 billion(2010) , 43% of Latin America’s population  Languages : Portuguese, Guaraní and Spanish  Combined GNI : $1.1 trillion(2010) ,encompasses roughly 50% of Latin America’s Gross Domestic Product  Land : 7,941,856 sq. miles, 59% of its total landmass  Climate : most types of climate from Arctic to tropical  4th largest trading bloc in the world after EU, NAFTA, ASEAN (2010)
  34. 34. TRADE IN GOODS
  35. 35. THANK YOU!

HOW MULTINATIONAL MARKET GROUPS RELAXING BOARDER IN THEIR MEMBER COUNTRY.

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