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Why OER?<br />David Wiley<br />Instructional Psychology & Technology<br />Brigham Young University<br />
Why OER?<br />1. Education is Sharing<br />(the technical argument)<br />2. Buy One, Get One<br />(the political argument)...
Why OER?<br />4. The $5 Textbook<br />(the financial argument, part 2)<br />5. Continuous Improvement<br />(the quality ar...
Why OER?<br />7. Do the Right Thing<br />	(the moral argument)<br />
1. Education Is Sharing<br />the technical argument<br />
Teachers Share With Students<br />Knowledge and skills<br />Feedback and criticism <br />Encouragement<br />
Students Share With Teachers<br />Questions<br />Assignments<br />Tests<br />
If There Is No Sharing<br />There is no education<br />
Successful Educators<br />Share most compeltely<br />with the most students<br />
Knowledge is Magical<br />Can be given without being given away<br />
Physical Expressions Are Not<br />To give a book you must give it away<br />
Expressions Are Different<br />To give a book you must give it away<br />
When Expressions Are Digital<br />They also become magical<br />
E.g., Online Book<br />We can all read simultaneously<br />
An Indescribable Advance<br />The first time in human history<br />
Both Knowledge and Expressions<br />Can be given without giving away<br />
Unprecedented Capacity<br />We can share as never before<br />
Unprecedented Capacity<br />We can educate as never before<br />
What Does “Share” Mean?<br />Online it means copy and distribute<br />
Cost of “Copy”<br />For one 250 page book:<br /><ul><li>Copy by hand - $1,000
Copy by print on demand - $4.90
Copy by computer - $0.00084</li></li></ul><li>Cost of “Distribute”<br />For one 250 page book:<br /><ul><li>Distribute by ...
Distribute by internet - $0.00072</li></li></ul><li>Copy and Distribute are “Free”<br />This changes everything<br />
Educational Sharing<br />Also means adapting or editing<br />
Sense-making, Meaning-making<br />Connecting to prior knowledge<br />Relating to past experience<br />(In an appropriate l...
Digital Makes Editing “Free”<br />Editing a printed book or magazine <br />is difficult and expensive<br />
Free Copy, Distribute, Edit<br />We can share as never before<br />
Free Copy, Distribute, Edit<br />We can educate as never before<br />
Except We Can’t<br />© forbids copying, distributing, and editing<br />
© Cancels the Possibilities<br />Of digital media and the internet<br />
InternetEnables<br />CopyrightForbids<br />What to do?<br />
Use copyright to enforce sharing<br />
The 4Rs<br />Reuse – copy verbatim<br />Redistribute – share with others<br />Revise – adapt and edit<br />Remix – combine...
Over 400 Million Items<br />Using CC licenses at end of 2010<br />
The “Open” in OER<br />Free permission to do the 4Rs<br />
InternetEnables<br />OER<br />Allows<br />Sharing and educating at unprecedented scale<br />
2. Buy One, Get One<br />the political argument<br />
“Buy One, Get One”<br />Pizza in Ohio<br />
Who Pays for Research?<br />Understanding relative contributions<br />
Public Investment in Research<br />$105,385 to $119,913 per article<br />(U.S. NIH-funded research)<br />
Publisher Investment in Research<br />$2750 per article, including<br />administrative and all other costs<br />
Does This Make Sense?<br />Publishers make 2% of the investment, <br />then take © and charge you for access<br />
Public (Who Paid) Has No Access<br />I thought I bought a pizza?!?<br />
If You Buy One, You Should Get One<br />All taxpayer-funded educational resources should be OER<br />
U. S. Department of Labor<br />$2 Billion for curriculum for <br />high-demand two year programs<br />
3. The Paradox of Free<br />the financial argument<br />
Do OER Hurt Sales?<br />Won’t people stop paying for the <br />course materials or books if they’re free?<br />
Publications<br />Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (in press). Free E-Books and Print Sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing.<br />...
Findings<br />Over 2% of people who access open online courses become paying customers<br />Downloads of free online books...
4. The $5 Textbook<br />the financial argument, part 2<br />
Postsecondary Students<br />Pay $35 instead of $150 - $200 per book<br />115,000 students have saved $20M<br />
High School Science Classes<br />Teachers adapted CK12 books <br />for print or digital use<br />
http://opencontent.org/calculator<br />
A Chemistry Book for $4.86<br />Lean, focused textbooks<br />
1200 Students in 2010-2011<br />3500 students in 2011-2012<br />
Pedagogy and OER<br />Highlighting, annotating, taking notes<br />
Impact on Learning?<br />Data coming in two weeks!<br />
5. Continuous Improvement<br />the quality argument<br />
Each and EveryClick and View<br />Recorded and stored for analysis and quality improvement<br />
Analytics<br />Almost every industry (1) gathers and <br />(2) uses data more effectively than we do<br />
If Only We Could Get Data!<br />We could do analyses (aka research) too<br />
What Kind of Data?<br />Assessment data<br />Non-assessment behavioral data<br />
Assessment Data<br />Difficulty estimatesDiscrimination estimatesPer-standard expertise estimatesAnd “grades,” of course<b...
Behavioral Data<br />When they logged in, read, and worked<br />How long they logged in, read, and worked<br />Pathway inf...
What If You Could Know<br />Which students need the most help?<br />Specifically what those students need help on?<br />Th...
Teaching as Science<br />Possible with data, tools, and commitment<br />
Learning Analytics<br />Can tell us who and what needs help<br />
It’s Useless<br />Knowing what needs fixed, <br />when you don’t have permission to fix it<br />
Openness<br />Gives us permission to make <br />changes and improvements<br />
It’s Useless<br />Having permission to fix things,<br />when you don’t know where to start<br />
Openness + Analytics<br />Tells you what to fix and allows you to fix it!<br />Enables Continuous Quality Improvement<br />
TheLoop<br />Curriculum Redesign<br />Data Describing Curriculum Performance<br />Data Supporting Strategic Tutoring<br />...
6. Content is Infrastructure<br />the innovation argument<br />
What is Infrastructure?<br />Electric grid, telecom, roads, airports, water, sewer, etc.<br />
What is Infrastructure?<br />“The physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential...
To Speed Innovation<br />Increase quality and decrease cost <br />of infrastructure<br />
Content is Critical<br />An important part of every educational<br />institution’s infrastructure<br />
To Speed Education Innovation<br />Increase quality and decrease cost <br />of content infrastructure<br />
University of the People<br />
OER University<br />
Mozilla Badge Lab<br />
Mozilla Badge Lab<br />
7. Do the Right Thing<br />the moral argument<br />
Consider Our Responsibility<br />What kind of ethical or moral <br />responsibility do we have?<br />Who are you accountab...
Our Potential Is Limitless<br />The good we can do is constrained <br />only by our creativity and commitment<br />
Why OER?<br />To be helpful<br />
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Why OER?

Keynote address given at the 2011 Thailand International eLearning Conference, Bangkok.

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Why OER?

  1. 1. Why OER?<br />David Wiley<br />Instructional Psychology & Technology<br />Brigham Young University<br />
  2. 2. Why OER?<br />1. Education is Sharing<br />(the technical argument)<br />2. Buy One, Get One<br />(the political argument)<br />3. The Paradox of Free<br />(the financial argument, part 1)<br />
  3. 3. Why OER?<br />4. The $5 Textbook<br />(the financial argument, part 2)<br />5. Continuous Improvement<br />(the quality argument)<br />6. Content is Infrastructure<br />(the innovation argument)<br />
  4. 4. Why OER?<br />7. Do the Right Thing<br /> (the moral argument)<br />
  5. 5. 1. Education Is Sharing<br />the technical argument<br />
  6. 6. Teachers Share With Students<br />Knowledge and skills<br />Feedback and criticism <br />Encouragement<br />
  7. 7. Students Share With Teachers<br />Questions<br />Assignments<br />Tests<br />
  8. 8. If There Is No Sharing<br />There is no education<br />
  9. 9. Successful Educators<br />Share most compeltely<br />with the most students<br />
  10. 10. Knowledge is Magical<br />Can be given without being given away<br />
  11. 11. Physical Expressions Are Not<br />To give a book you must give it away<br />
  12. 12. Expressions Are Different<br />To give a book you must give it away<br />
  13. 13. When Expressions Are Digital<br />They also become magical<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15. E.g., Online Book<br />We can all read simultaneously<br />
  16. 16. An Indescribable Advance<br />The first time in human history<br />
  17. 17. Both Knowledge and Expressions<br />Can be given without giving away<br />
  18. 18. Unprecedented Capacity<br />We can share as never before<br />
  19. 19. Unprecedented Capacity<br />We can educate as never before<br />
  20. 20. What Does “Share” Mean?<br />Online it means copy and distribute<br />
  21. 21. Cost of “Copy”<br />For one 250 page book:<br /><ul><li>Copy by hand - $1,000
  22. 22. Copy by print on demand - $4.90
  23. 23. Copy by computer - $0.00084</li></li></ul><li>Cost of “Distribute”<br />For one 250 page book:<br /><ul><li>Distribute by mail - $5.20
  24. 24. Distribute by internet - $0.00072</li></li></ul><li>Copy and Distribute are “Free”<br />This changes everything<br />
  25. 25. Educational Sharing<br />Also means adapting or editing<br />
  26. 26. Sense-making, Meaning-making<br />Connecting to prior knowledge<br />Relating to past experience<br />(In an appropriate language)<br />
  27. 27. Digital Makes Editing “Free”<br />Editing a printed book or magazine <br />is difficult and expensive<br />
  28. 28. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit<br />We can share as never before<br />
  29. 29. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit<br />We can educate as never before<br />
  30. 30. Except We Can’t<br />© forbids copying, distributing, and editing<br />
  31. 31. © Cancels the Possibilities<br />Of digital media and the internet<br />
  32. 32. InternetEnables<br />CopyrightForbids<br />What to do?<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Use copyright to enforce sharing<br />
  35. 35. The 4Rs<br />Reuse – copy verbatim<br />Redistribute – share with others<br />Revise – adapt and edit<br />Remix – combine with others<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Over 400 Million Items<br />Using CC licenses at end of 2010<br />
  38. 38. The “Open” in OER<br />Free permission to do the 4Rs<br />
  39. 39. InternetEnables<br />OER<br />Allows<br />Sharing and educating at unprecedented scale<br />
  40. 40. 2. Buy One, Get One<br />the political argument<br />
  41. 41.
  42. 42. “Buy One, Get One”<br />Pizza in Ohio<br />
  43. 43. Who Pays for Research?<br />Understanding relative contributions<br />
  44. 44. Public Investment in Research<br />$105,385 to $119,913 per article<br />(U.S. NIH-funded research)<br />
  45. 45. Publisher Investment in Research<br />$2750 per article, including<br />administrative and all other costs<br />
  46. 46. Does This Make Sense?<br />Publishers make 2% of the investment, <br />then take © and charge you for access<br />
  47. 47. Public (Who Paid) Has No Access<br />I thought I bought a pizza?!?<br />
  48. 48. If You Buy One, You Should Get One<br />All taxpayer-funded educational resources should be OER<br />
  49. 49. U. S. Department of Labor<br />$2 Billion for curriculum for <br />high-demand two year programs<br />
  50. 50. 3. The Paradox of Free<br />the financial argument<br />
  51. 51. Do OER Hurt Sales?<br />Won’t people stop paying for the <br />course materials or books if they’re free?<br />
  52. 52. Publications<br />Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (in press). Free E-Books and Print Sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing.<br />Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (in press). Open access textbooks and financial sustainability:  A case study on flat world knowledge. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.<br />Johansen, J. & Wiley, D. (2011). A sustainable model for opencourseware development. Educational Technology Research & Development. <br />Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). A sustainable future for open textbooks? The Flat World Knowledge story. First Monday, 15(8). <br />Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). Free: Why authors are giving books away on the Internet. Tech Trends, 54(2).<br />Hilton, J., Wiley, D. (2010). The short-term influence of free digital versions of books on print sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 13(1)<br />http://davidwiley.org/<br />
  53. 53. Findings<br />Over 2% of people who access open online courses become paying customers<br />Downloads of free online books correlate strongly with sales of print books<br />A for-profit business can be financially successful using CC licenses on its textbooks<br />
  54. 54. 4. The $5 Textbook<br />the financial argument, part 2<br />
  55. 55.
  56. 56. Postsecondary Students<br />Pay $35 instead of $150 - $200 per book<br />115,000 students have saved $20M<br />
  57. 57.
  58. 58. High School Science Classes<br />Teachers adapted CK12 books <br />for print or digital use<br />
  59. 59. http://opencontent.org/calculator<br />
  60. 60. A Chemistry Book for $4.86<br />Lean, focused textbooks<br />
  61. 61. 1200 Students in 2010-2011<br />3500 students in 2011-2012<br />
  62. 62. Pedagogy and OER<br />Highlighting, annotating, taking notes<br />
  63. 63. Impact on Learning?<br />Data coming in two weeks!<br />
  64. 64. 5. Continuous Improvement<br />the quality argument<br />
  65. 65.
  66. 66. Each and EveryClick and View<br />Recorded and stored for analysis and quality improvement<br />
  67. 67. Analytics<br />Almost every industry (1) gathers and <br />(2) uses data more effectively than we do<br />
  68. 68. If Only We Could Get Data!<br />We could do analyses (aka research) too<br />
  69. 69.
  70. 70.
  71. 71. What Kind of Data?<br />Assessment data<br />Non-assessment behavioral data<br />
  72. 72. Assessment Data<br />Difficulty estimatesDiscrimination estimatesPer-standard expertise estimatesAnd “grades,” of course<br />
  73. 73. Behavioral Data<br />When they logged in, read, and worked<br />How long they logged in, read, and worked<br />Pathway informationSocial network analysis<br />
  74. 74. What If You Could Know<br />Which students need the most help?<br />Specifically what those students need help on?<br />The least effective parts of you curriculum?<br />Which parts of your tests are malfunctioning?<br />
  75. 75. Teaching as Science<br />Possible with data, tools, and commitment<br />
  76. 76. Learning Analytics<br />Can tell us who and what needs help<br />
  77. 77. It’s Useless<br />Knowing what needs fixed, <br />when you don’t have permission to fix it<br />
  78. 78. Openness<br />Gives us permission to make <br />changes and improvements<br />
  79. 79. It’s Useless<br />Having permission to fix things,<br />when you don’t know where to start<br />
  80. 80. Openness + Analytics<br />Tells you what to fix and allows you to fix it!<br />Enables Continuous Quality Improvement<br />
  81. 81.
  82. 82. TheLoop<br />Curriculum Redesign<br />Data Describing Curriculum Performance<br />Data Supporting Strategic Tutoring<br />Curriculum Use<br />Student<br />Performance<br />Data<br />
  83. 83. 6. Content is Infrastructure<br />the innovation argument<br />
  84. 84. What is Infrastructure?<br />Electric grid, telecom, roads, airports, water, sewer, etc.<br />
  85. 85. What is Infrastructure?<br />“The physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance” societies or enterprises.<br />
  86. 86. To Speed Innovation<br />Increase quality and decrease cost <br />of infrastructure<br />
  87. 87. Content is Critical<br />An important part of every educational<br />institution’s infrastructure<br />
  88. 88. To Speed Education Innovation<br />Increase quality and decrease cost <br />of content infrastructure<br />
  89. 89.
  90. 90. University of the People<br />
  91. 91.
  92. 92. OER University<br />
  93. 93. Mozilla Badge Lab<br />
  94. 94. Mozilla Badge Lab<br />
  95. 95. 7. Do the Right Thing<br />the moral argument<br />
  96. 96.
  97. 97. Consider Our Responsibility<br />What kind of ethical or moral <br />responsibility do we have?<br />Who are you accountable to?<br />
  98. 98. Our Potential Is Limitless<br />The good we can do is constrained <br />only by our creativity and commitment<br />
  99. 99. Why OER?<br />To be helpful<br />
  100. 100. Thank You<br />david.wiley@byu.edu<br />@opencontent<br />http://davidwiley.org/<br />

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Keynote address given at the 2011 Thailand International eLearning Conference, Bangkok.

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