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الفصل الثالث التفس في الكائنات الحية

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الفصل الثالث التفس في الكائنات الحية

  1. 1. íÚ^ÃÖ]<íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù]<<<<<<<<< í{{é{v{Ö]l^{{{ß{ñ^{Ó{Ö]» ‹{Ë{ß{j{Ö] îŠËßi‡^ãqÐè†àÂæ]ì†#^fÚ°rŠÒ÷]î×Âî£]àñ^ÓÖ]Ùç’uíé×ÛÂî×ÂÐ×Sè‹{Ë{ßjÖ] ëçפ]‹ËßjÖ] ¼e]æ†Ö]»íÞˆ~¹]íÎ^SÖ]àÚ^ã^=ßÖíÚ‡øÖ]íÎ^SÖ]ê£]àñ^ÓÖ] ^èø}^ãe“×~jŠi7Ö]íé×ÛÃÖ] .á]çé£]^Cæ^ßjèæ_l^fßÖ]^ãÃß’è7Ö]Ý^ÃSÖ]l^ò舢 íéñ^éÛéÓÖ] l^ßñ^ÓÖ]^èø}g×Æ]á÷]†¿ÞäÖø©]íÏè†æhç׉]|^–è]‚߇çÒç×¢^e^Ûñ]Qð]„ÇÖ]ôˆqàÂUÃè †ÊçjÚ†}]ôˆqï_Ý]‚~j‰]àÚ†nÒ]íÎ^SÖ]t^jÞ÷‡çÒç×¢]Ý‚~jŠiíé£] í×ÛÂîÛŠií‘^}l^f҆ڻሡ‡çÒç×¢]ôˆq»íéñ^éÛéÓÖ]¼e]æ†Ö]YŠÓi àÚíÏ×Sß¹]íÎ^SÖ] íÎ^S×ÖíéÖæ‚Ö]í×ÛÃÖ] ATP l^éñˆqêâæ íÎ^SÖ] ATP ôˆqgéÒ†i :êâl]‚uæpøm àÚ ATP áçÓjè DíéßéqæYÞì‚Â^ÎE°ßèQù] Dáçe†ÓÖ]ê‰^¸E‡çfè†Ö]†Ó‰ .l^ˉçÊl^ÂçÛ¥ pøm íÎ^Ð×Sßi Dl^ˉçËÖ]îñ^ßm°‰çßèQ_E ADP±c( l^ˉçËÖ]îmøm°‰çßèQ]) ATPÙçvjè^Ú‚ß . ÙçÚØÓÖYfÒ ë…]†u†Ã‰MN±cSàÚêÖ]çu ‡çÒç×¢]ôˆoeïçפ]‹ËßjÖ]íé×ÛÂ_‚fi ‡çÒç×¢]àÚ‚u]æÙçÚàÚíŸ^ßÖ]íÎ^SÖ]íéÛÒ^ãéÊx–jèëçפ]‹ËßjÖ]íÖQ^ÃÚ :Øu]†Úpømî×Â^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]»íÎ^SÖ]†è†oæ‡çÒç×¢] ì‚ŠÒ_íé×ÛÂÜji .‡çÒç×¢] …^S=Þ]í×u†ÚIM .‹e†Òì…æQIN .áærÓÖý]ØÏÞí׊׉ IO Ùç‰çjéŠÖ^eÍæ†Ã¹]æ݇øeçjéŠÖ]àÚê–ÃÖ]YÆðˆ¢] »‡çÒç×¢]…^S=Þ]p‚¬ ‚qçioéu^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]Ø}]Qp‚vjÊl^ÞærÓÖý]ØÏÞí×Š×‰æ ‹e†Òì…æQl]çS}^Ú_ 7Ö]Dl^Úæ†ÒçjéŠÖ]El^ÞærÓÖý]løÚ^ul^òèˆqIì‚Â^ŠÚl^μˆÞcIl^ˉçÊ- ð^ÚI‹Ëßil^μˆÞc ±]†ÛjÖØÂ^ËjÖ]ð^ßm]°qæ…‚éC]l]…ƒÙ]ˆioéuíË×j~¹]íÎ^SÖ]l^èçjŠÚî×Âl^ÞærÓÖý] ØÛo ( Co.Enzymes)ÜèˆÞý]l]‚Â^ŠÚ ‡çÒç×¢]…^S=Þ]í×u†ÚVg÷æ_ D t^jo÷Eêñ]çâøÖ]‹ËßjÖ]æêñ]çC]‹ËßjÖ]7Ö^u» í×u†¹]å„âp‚o løÂ^ËjÖ]àÚíÂçÛr²]…^ÚDáçe†ÓÖ]îmømEÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·àÚ°òèˆq±]‡çÒç×¢]ôˆq†S=ßè l^ˉçËÖ]îñ^ßmRIM‡çjÒ†ÊÜml^ˉçÊIR‡çjÒ†ÊÜml^ˉçÊIR‡çÒç×q±]‡çÒç×¢]Ùçvjè^ãéÊ sjßéÖÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·àÚ°òèˆq±]‚ŠÒ`jéÖ‚éâ‚Ö]†Šé×qçˉçÊ°òèˆqáçÓèï„Ö]
  2. 2. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] ØeçÞìˆñ^q^ãßÂxßÚæ‹e†ÒˆÞ^âYŠÖ]çâ^ãË‘æàÚÙæ]:‹e†Ò ì…æQV^⁄éÞ^m :‹e†Òì…æQl]çS} NADH - 2ATP.NáçÓiæÔéÊæYe˜·ôˆqN±cÙç‰çjéŠÖ]»‡çÒç×¢]…^S=Þ]‚Ãe ÜèˆÞ÷]‚Â^ŠÚØéj‰_±c (CO – A) ÜèˆÞù]‚Â^ŠÚQçqæ»ÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·àÚôˆqØÒÙçvjèIM ÔÖƒàÂsjßèæ (Acetyle CO – A) D_E ‚Â^ŠÚÄÚ‚vjiæíéßéÚù] š^·ù]æíéßâ‚Ö]š^·ù]YŠÓiàÚØéj‰_l^ÂçÛ¥sjßiá_àÓμ ‹e†Òì…æ‚eÐvj×jÖ CO- AÜèˆÞù] ØÛvéÖ CO - A ÜèˆÞù]‚Â^ŠÚäßÂØ’Ëßèoéu‹e†Òì…æQ±c CO - A Øéj‰_ôˆq Ø}‚è IN .‹e†Òì…æQ±cï†}_Øéj‰_ l^ÂçÛ¥ sjßéÖ (4C áçe†ÓÖ]êÂ^e…EÔéj‰_çÖ^ŠÒù] ˜·ÄÚ D2Cáçe†ÓÖ]êñ^ßmEØéj‰ù]íÂçÛ¥‚vjiIO (6C)áçe†ÓÖ]ê‰]‚‰EÔèrŠÖ]˜· ÜmÔßéŠÒ^‰˜·ÜmÔè…^iç×qçjéÒ˜·êâíéS‰çÖ]l^fÒ†¹]àÚQ‚ÃeÔèrŠÖ]˜· †μIP ^⁄ÞçÓÚì‚è‚qØéj‰_íÂçÛ¥ÄÚ¼fi†èë„Ö]Ôéj‰_çÖ^ŠÒ]˜Û‡løÂ^ËjÖ]êãjßjÖÔéÖ^Ú ˜· (ÔèrŠÖ]˜·ì…æ‚e‹e†Òì…æQîÛŠiÔÖ„Ö (ï†}_ì†ÚÔèrŠÖ]˜· : ì…æ‚Ö]ð^ßm_ …†vjè IQ íÂçÛ¥ôˆqN‡çÒç×¢]ôˆqêSÃèoéu‡çÒç×¢]àÚôˆqØÓÖ°i†Ú‹e†Òì…æQ…†ÓjiIR :xf’iæì…æ‚Ö]àÂì…†vj¹]Q]ç¹]ÌÂ^–jiêÖ^jÖ^eæØéj‰_ 7Ö]l^ÞærÓÖý]‚ÏÊÙø}àÚÜjiì‚ŠÒù]áù°rŠÒù]Qçqæg×Sji ÷‹e†Òì…æQ l^fÒ†Ú^ã×fÏjŠi
  3. 3. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] :áærÓÖý]ØÏÞí׊׉: ^⁄nÖ^m l^ÞærÓÖý]æ°qæ…‚éC]†μoéu‹e†Òì…æQ íè^ãÞÄÚÜjiHêñ]çC]‹ËßjÖ]àÚìY}ù]í×u†¹]êâ ìQçqç¹]l^μˆÞý]l]‚Â^ŠÚ àÚÄe^jiÙø} àÚØÒî×ÂíÖçۋ]æDíéÖ^ÂíÎ^l]ƒE .l^ÞærÓÖý]løÚ^u æ_l^Úæ†ÒçjéŠÖ]îÛŠi^è…‚ÞçÒçjéÛ×Öê×}]‚Ö]ð^=ÇÖ]» .íË×j§ íÎ^l^èçjŠÚ»l^ÞærÓÖý]ØÛol^Úæ†ÒçjéŠÖ] .†}_Ýæ†Òçj鉱cÝæ†Òçjé‰àÚl^ÞærÓÖý]†³ ATPl^f҆ڻሡíÎ^ ÑøSÞ]ÔÖƒgu^’è :íè‚ŠÒ`jÖ]ì†ËŠËÖ] íÒ†uàÚíÏ×Sß¹]íÎ^SÖ]Qçqæ» ADP ÄÚl^ˉçÊíÂçÛ¥Q^o] àÚ ATP l^fÒ†ÚàèçÓi ADP + P + E ……….. ATP l^Úæ†ÒçjéŠÖ] î×Âl^ÞærÓÖý] (gÖ^‰áçè_xf’iæáærÓÖcNØfÏjŠi°rŠÒ_ ì…ƒØÒEl^ÞærÓÖý]°rŠÒù]ØfÏjŠè ð^ÚðˆqàèçÓjÖgqçÚ°qæ…‚éâáçè_ NÄÚgÖ^ŠÖ]°rŠÒù]áçè_‚vjè
  4. 4. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] ATP.OêSÃè NADH ôˆqØÒ íé×Û»‡çÒç×¢]àÚ‚u]æôˆqì‚ŠÒ_àÚíŸ^ßÖ] ATP l^éñˆqQ‚Âh^Šu ^ßßÓμÔÖƒî×Âð^ßeæ :êiù^Òêñ]çC] ‹ËßjÖ] ^ãßÚÔ×ãjŠèEÔéÊæYfÖ] ˜·ôˆqN±c‚éâ‚Ö]†Šé×qçˉçÊôˆqNÙçoð^ßm_ATP Psjßè IM (ATPNEîÏfèæ ‚éâ‚Ö]†Šé×qçˉçÊôˆqN±c‡çÒç×¢]…^S=Þ]ð^ßm_ATP N 6ATP áærÓÖý]ØÏÞí׊׉» ^ãßÂsjßè7Ö] 2NADH ‡çÒç×¢]…^S=Þ]í×u†Úð^ßm_sjßè IN í׊׉»^ãßÂsjßè7Ö]æØéj‰_ôˆqN±cÔéÊæYfÖ]˜· ôˆqNì‚ŠÒ_ð^ßm_ 2NADH sjßè IO 6ATP áærÓÖý]ØÏÞ .‹e†Òì…æQØfÎ^Úí×u†¹]» ATP = 14 l^éñˆqQ‚Âxf’è áærÓÖý] ØÏÞí׊׉^ãßÂsjßè 6 NADH-2ATP (°i†Ú…†Óji7Ö]E‹e†Òì…æQð^ßm_ sjßè IP D 4ATPáærÓÖý]ØÏÞí׊׉»^ãßÂsjßè( 18ATP) - .‹e†Òì…æQí×u†Ú» ATP = 24 l^éñˆq Q‚Âxf’è 38ATPêñ]çC]‹ËßjÖ^e‚u]æ‡çÒç×qôˆqì‚ŠÒ_ àÚíÏ×Sß¹]íÎ^SÖ]xf’iÔÖ„eæ êñ]çâøÖ]‹ËßjÖ] Ý]‚ÃÞcæ_“ÏÞíÖ^u»ÔÖƒæ^⁄éñ]çâ ÷^⁄ŠËßiìYÛ¤]æ^èrÓfÖ]ØnÚíé£]l^ßñ^ÓÖ]˜Ãe‹Ëßi .°rŠÒù] .l^μˆÞý]àÚíÂçÛ¥Qçqæ»Üji^ãßÓÖæ °rŠÒ_t^jo÷†Û~jÖ]íé×Û ‡çÒç×¢]…^S=Þ]p‚¬oéuêñ]çC]‹ËßjÖ]àÚ±æù]Øu]†¹] ‹Ëßeêñ]çâøÖ]‹ËßjÖ]íé×Û†³IM …^S=Þ]ð^ßm_íŸ^ßÖ] 2NADH Õøãj‰]Q^Ãè 2ATP (ÔÖƒàÂsjßèæÔéÊæYe ˜·ôˆqNàèçÓiæ íéÖ^jÖ]l÷çvjÖ]»‡çÒç×¢] :íéפ]ÅçÞgŠu êñ]çâøÖ]‹ËßjÖ]»ÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·Ùço‚vjè IN Ùçvjè°rŠÒ÷]“ÏÞ‚ßÂêñ]çâøÖ] ‹ËßjÖ]±c`r×iDlø–ÃÖ]^èø}ØnÚEíéÞ]çé£]^èø¤]» †Ê]çiÝ‚Âæê×–ÃÖ]gÃjÖ]^⁄ffŠÚlø–ÃÖ] »ÜÒ]rèë„Ö]ÔéjÒøÖ]˜·±cÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·
  5. 5. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] †Ê]çi]ƒcæÜmï†}_ì†ÚÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·±c ÙçvjèÔéjÒøÖ]˜·ádÊÔÖƒ‚Ãe°rŠÒù] CO - A Øéj‰_Ümï†}_ì†ÚÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·±c ÙçvjèÔéjÒøÖ]˜·ádÊÔÖƒ‚Ãe°rŠÒù] .êñ]çC]‹ËßjÖ]±cêñ]çâøÖ] ‹ËßjÖ]YÇjèæ‹e†Òì…æQ»Ø}‚éÖ Í†ÃèDëQ^eˆÖ]^èYjÓeØnÚEÔéjÒøÖ]˜·±c ÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·Ùçvjè^èYjÓfÖ]àÚÅ]çÞ_˜Ãe» . ê–Û£]†Û~jÖ^e ÔÖƒ ͆Ãè Ð×Sßèæê×énècÙçvÒ±cÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·Ùçvjèl^i^fßÖ]írŠÞ_˜ÃeæìYÛ¤]†SÊ » êÖçvÓÖ] †Û~jÖ^e ÔÖƒ
  6. 6. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] á^{{Š{Þý]»‹{Ë{ßj{Ö] VêŠËßjÖ]‡^ã¢] :àÚ áçÓjè .½^§‡†Ëèæl]YÃ#æìYnÒíèçÚQl]YÃ=eàSfÚ: ÌÞù] .ð^¹]æð]çC]àÚØÓÖÕr=ÚÐè†: ÝçÃ×fÖ] Dlç’Ö]Ñæ‚ß‘Eì†rߣ^e_‚fiæíéÊ憖Æl^Ïׇ ìQæˆÚ: íéñ]çC]íf’ÏÖ] Ø’jiíÏéÎQl^†Ëjeêãjßil^féÃ#±c^ã×}]‚eņËjiæíñ…»ífÃ#ØÒØ}‚i: °jéñ]çC]°jfÃ=Ö] .íéñ]çC]lø’èç£]îÛŠi OE^éÒ`e ^â…‚qæí×’èçuáçé×ÚRLLêÖ]çuíñ…ØÒ»^âQ‚ÂØ’è 7Ö]íéñ]çC]lø’èç£]î×Âëçjo: °jñ†Ö] DíËénÒ íèçÚQl]YÃ#^ãe¼éoíÏéÎ… VêŠËßjÖ]‡^ãr×ÖíéËé¾çÖ]íÚðø¹] DÌÞù]g†èE½^§æD°jñ†Ö]±cØ}]‚Ö]ð]çC]íòÊ‚jÖEìYnÒíèçÚQl]YÃ# î×ÂÌÞù]ëçj¬ IM Díe†iù]àÚð]çC]xé#†iî×ÂØÛÃi (l]YÃ#æ h]‚â`eØ}]‚Ö]àÚàSfiæD…]†Ûj‰^eíuçjËÚ^ã×ßEíéÊæ†–Æ l^Ï×uî×Âíéñ]çC]íf’ÏÖ]ëçjoIN Dð]çC]ÄÚØ}‚i7Ö]ífè†ÇÖ]Ý^Šqù]Q†SÖ (î×Â_±cØˉ_àÚÕ†vji ÙQ^fiÜjèîjuEíèçÚ‚Ö]l]YÃ=Ö]àÚíËénÒíÓf=eí^¦æ íÏéÎ…íéñ]çC]lø’èç£]…‚q IO Díéñ]çC]lø’èç£]àÚ°rŠÒù] î×ÂÝ‚Ö]Ø’¬æl]‡^ÇÖ] .íé×ÃÊ íéŠËßixS‰_íéñ]çC]lø’èç£]…‚qUjÃi]„Ö l^fßÖ]»‹ËßjÖ] å„âàÚ…‚ÏÖl^fßÖ]t^éju]‚ßÂæêñç–Ö]ð^ßfÖ]íé×ÛÃeáçÓè ë„Ö]ð]„ÇÖ]l^éñˆq»íÎ^SÖ]l^fßÖ]áˆ− D‹e†Òì…æQîÛŠiEløÂ^ËjÖ]àÚí׊׉»ð]„ÇÖ]l^éñˆq àÚ^â†è†vjeÝçÏèíÎ^SÖ] Vl^fßÖ] »‹ËßjÖ]Å]çÞ_ D°rŠÒù]Qçqæ»ÜjèEð]çâ‹ËßiIM D°rŠÒù]h^éÆ »ÜjèEêñ]çâ÷‹ËßiIN Vì†#^fÚì…ç’eÜjèl^fßÖ]»‹ËßjÖ] .^ãq…^}±c †=jßèæ^èø¤]Ø}]Q±c †=jßèíSéŠfÖ]l^i^fßÖ] àÚYnÒ» ØnÚíË×j§Ñ†Ùø}àÚ^èø¤]±c°rŠÒù]Ø’èíéñ^ÂçÖ]l^i^fßÖ] » Ñ]…æù] …çÇm IM ð^v×Ö]gée^Þ_IN …æ„¢]IO l^Šè‚ÃÖ]æ l^ÏÏ=jÖ]IP ^Ú_Ið]çã×Ö ì†#^fÚ핆ù]^èø¤]àÚ†#^f¹]…^=jÞ÷^e‹ËßjÖ]àÚsi^ßÖ] àÚl^fßÖ]“×~jèæ .t…^¤]±cÜm…çÇnÖ]±cÜmð^v×Ö]æ_g=¤]±c …†ÛjÊì‚éÃfÖ]^èø¤]
  7. 7. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] :l^fßÖ]»‹ËßjÖ^eêñç–Ö]ð^ßfÖ] íÎø Q]ç¹]àÚíÎ^SÖ]†è†o»l^fßÖ]äÚ‚~jŠèì‚éj‰øfÖ]»êñç–Ö]ð^ßfÖ]íé×ÛÂàÚ si^ßÖ]°rŠÒù] .^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]»‹ËßjÖ]íé×ÛÂð^ßm_íèç–ÃÖ] »Üjè^Úá_ë_Hêñç–Ö]ð^ßfÖ]íé×Û»l^fßÖ]Ý‚~jŠè‹ËßjÖ]íé×Û àÚsi^ßÖ]áçe†ÓÖ]‚éŠÒ_êÞ^m .^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]»‹ÓÃßè ì‚éj‰øfÖ] : êñ]çC]‹ËßjÖ]Ùø} ÑøSÞ]|^–è÷íe†Ÿ : ð]†–¤]íéi^fßÖ]ð]ˆqù]‹ËßiI_ Vl]çS¤] .Ðñ]…Yqð^Ú ëçj¬^⁄‰`ÒäÃÚ^⁄–è_Ä–Þæêq^q‡OEçÎ^ÞØˉ_“é‘_»Åæ…ˆÚ†–}_l^fÞÄ–ÞIM .ð]Q牙^ÛÎíÃSÏeêq^qˆÖ]OEçÎ^ßÖ]êSÇÞIN ™^ÛÏeîSÇÚêq^q‡OEçÎ^Þ^ÛãÎçÊ‹ÓßÞæYqð^ÚäeOE`ÒäÃÚæl^fßÖ] àÚêÖ^}“é‘_Ä–Þ IO .^⁄–è_Qç‰_ .ð]çC]»Ðñ]…Yqð^Úäe^⁄‰^ÒÄ–ÞIP .kÎçÖ] àÚìrÊìˆãqù]å„âÕrÞIQ í¿uø¹] °‰`ÓÖ]»Qçqç¹]Y¢]ð^Ú†ÓÃjè÷æOEçÎ^ßÖ]Øˉ_ l^fßÖ]…]çoeìQçqç¹]OE`ÓÖ]»Y¢]ð^Ú†ÓÃjè D¼éŠe YÓÃjÖ]áçÓèæ_Eàè†}û] Vt^jßj‰÷] OEçÎ^ßÖ]íéSÇigf‰IY¢]ð^Ú‹ÓÂë„Ö]áçe†ÓÖ]‚éŠÒ_ êÞ^mt†}_æ‹Ëßi“é‘ù]»Åæ…ˆ¹]l^fßÖ] .‹ËßjÖ]àÚsi^ßÖ]áçe†ÓÖ]‚éŠÒ_êÞ^mÔ×ãjŠèæêñç–Ö]ð^ßfÖ]íé×ÛÃel^fßÖ] ÝçÏè÷îjuQç‰_™^ÛÏe ð]çC]»ð]ç‰ áçe†ÓÖ]‚éŠÒ_êÞ^mífŠÞíÖb•±cÄq†èàè†}û]°‰`ÓÖ]»Y¢]ð^Ú†ÓÃiÝ‚Âgf‰
  8. 8. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] .OEçÎ^ßÖ]ð]çâ»æ_ëç¢] .áçe†ÓÖ]‚éŠÒ_êÞ^mÔÖƒàÂÐ×Sßèæ‹Ëßjè †–}ù]l^fßÖ]á_ÔÖƒàÚsjßjŠÞ Dêñ]çâøÖ]‹ËßjÖ] )êÖçvÓÖ]†Û~jÖ]íé×ÛÂx•çiíe†Ÿ :l]çS¤] àÚ…‚ÎäéÖcÌé–ÞæÑ…æQ»ð^¹]àÚäÛruÌÖeÌË~¹] Qç‰ù]ØŠÃÖ]àÚë†Ó‰ÙçצĖÞIM Dl^è†SËÖ]àÚEìYÛ¤] .Yqð^ÚäeOE`Ò»^ãʆ†ÛÇÞØé‘çiíeçfÞ_^ãßÚ„ËßiìQ]‚ŠeÑ…æ‚Ö]‚ŠÞ IN .óÊ]Qá^ÓÚ»l^Â^‰ì‚‡^ã¢]ÕrÞIO í¿uø¹] .Ñ…æ‚Ö]l^èçj¦àÚívñ]…Ü=ÞæY¢]ð^Ú †ÓÃil^Â^ÏÊ‚Â^’ji :t^jßj‰÷] (ìYÛ¤]†SÊ‹ËßiàÚsjßèEáçe†ÓÖ]‚éŠÒ_êÞ^m…^Æ‚Â^’jï×ÂØéÖQY¢] ð^Ú†ÓÃi- (ì†Ûé¤]†SÊ‹ËßiàÚsjßèEÙçvÓÖ]ívñ]…êâ^ãÛ=Þ7Ö]ívñ]†Ö]- áçe†ÓÖ] ‚éŠÒ_êÞ^m‡^Æ‚Â^’i‹ËßjÖ]]„âíréjÞæ^⁄éñ]çâ÷‹ËßjèìYÛ¤]†SÊá_ÔÖƒ àÚsjßjŠÞ- (êÖçvÓÖ] †Û~jÖ]E܉]‹ËßjÖ]àÚÅçßÖ]]„âî×ÂÐ×Sè]„Öê×énèý]ÙçvÓÖ]áçÓiæ
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  10. 10. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] VêÛ×ÃÖ]YŠËjÖ]æløé×ÃjÖ]í×ò‰_DN JÑ]ru÷]àÂëçפ]‹ËßjÖ]Ì×j−IM Ñ]ru÷] ëçפ]‹ËßjÖ] Jê£]àñ^ÓÖ]íé×}Ø}]QÜjè • Ý‚{{{Âæ_Dêñ]ç{{{âE°rŠ{{{Òù]Qç{{{qæ»Üj{{{è • JDêñ]çâ÷E°rŠÒù]Qçqæ ì‚Â^Š{{{{{²ÜŠ{{{{{¢]ì…]†{{{{{uí{{{{{q…Q»Üj{{{{{è • Jl^μˆÞý] ATPl^{{{fÒ†Ú»áˆ{{{¡í{{{Ÿ^ßÖ]í{{{Î^SÖ] • Jíéפ]íS=Þù^ãßÚQ^ËjŠèæ Jíéפ]t…^}ëç¢]ð]çC]»Üjè • t^{{{{{{{j¬÷æ°rŠ{{{{{{{Òù]Qç{{{{{{{qæ»Üj{{{{{{{è • Jl^μˆÞþÖ Jg]‚qíéÖ^Âì…]†uíq…‚Öt^j¬ • J^â…^}Q]àÓμ÷æìYfÒíŸ^ßÖ]íÎ^SÖ] • N J‹e†Òì…æQ»íéS‰æl^fÒ†ÚàèçÓiI †{μo{éuíéS{‰çÖ]l^fÒ†¹]å„â°eÙçvjÖ]ð^ßm_íq…‚jÚØu]†Úî×ÂíÎ^SÖ]àÚíéÛÒÐ×SßiêÓÖ Ü{{mÔéߊ{{Ò^ŠÖ]˜{{·Ü{{mÔ{{è…^iç×qçjéÓÖ]˜{{ۇ_‚{{fiíéS{{‰æl^{{fÒ†Úpøn{{eÔèréŠ{{Ö]˜{{· Vêâ¼ÏÊímønÖ]l^fÒ†¹]å„â°e‹e†Òì…æQàÚì‚u]æíËÖØÓÖí×’‹]áçÓjÊÔéÖ^¹]˜· 9 ATP = 1 ATP + 2 ATP + 6 ATP = 1 ATP + 1 FADH2 + 2 NADH J18ATPYêâD‹e†ÒàÚá^jËÖE‡çÒç×qôˆqØÒàÚíéñ^ãßÖ]í×’‹]áçÓjÊ Jl^fßÖ]»‹ËßjÖ^eêñç–Ö]ð^ßfÖ]½^fi…]IO o{éu‹ËßjÖ^{eí{Î^SÖ]†{è†vjÖ^è…‚{ÞçÒçjé¹]»‹ÓÃß{èì‚éj{‰øfÖ]»Üj{è^{Úád{Ê^ÛãßéeíÎøÂÕ^ßâ êñç– {{Ö]ð^{{ßfÖ]í{{é×ÛÂÜj{{jÖÝ^{{}Q]ç{{ÛÒì‚éj{{‰øfÖ]±cáø}‚{{èæ‹Ëß{{jÖ]à{{ÚCO2HH2OÐ{{×Sßè J^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]Ø}]Qêñ]çC]ëçפ]‹ËßjÖ]Ý^³ýØÇjŠèëçÞ^msi^ßÒ°rŠÒù]Ð×SßéÊ Jëçé£]½^=ß×Öíè…憕íè‚ŠÒ`jÖ]ì†ËŠËÖ]IP ‚{{ßÂADPôˆ{{qì‚Š{{Ò_à{{ÚATPðëˆ{{q»í{{Î^SÖ]àèˆ{{~jÖí{{é×ÛÂê{{âíè‚Š{{Ò`jÖ]ì†ËŠ{{ËÖ]áù ±c„{ñ‚ßÂATPÙç{vjèo{éuHATPl^{ò舢t ^{j¬ëç{éu½^={Þë_æHl^ˉçÊíÂçÛr²ä^fi…] Ø{ÓÖYf{Òë…]†u†Ã‰MNIS°e^Ú…‚ÏèíÎ^SÖ]àÚ…]‚ÏÚÐ×SßèæDl ^ˉçËÖ]êñ^ßm°‰çßèQ_EADP JÙçÚ Jíéפ]»íÎ^SÖ]í×ÛÂATPôˆqUjÃèIQ ìYÇ’{{Ö]í{{×ÛÃÖ^e^ããéf={{ià{{Óμ7{{Ö]ATPQç{{qæê–{{jÏi^âYe‚{{i±cí{{éפ]t^{{joí{{Î^Ø{{Òáù J^ãʆ‘æ^Cæ]‚iíÖçãŠeˆéÛji7Ö]DíÓËÖ]E Jíé×ÃÊíéŠËßixS‰_íéñ]çC]lø’èç£]…‚qUjÃiIR ð]ç{{âà{{Ú°rŠ{{Òù]^{{ãÚQ¼Ïj{{×èí{{èçÚ‚Ö]l]YÃ={{Ö]à{{ÚíÛ~{{•íÓf{{#t…^{{¤]à{{Ú^{{ãe½^{{¬ä{{Þù JíË×j~¹]ÜŠ¢]^èø}±cä×ÏßÖ…‚¢]íÏéÎ…lø’èç£] J°rŠÒ_Qçqæ‹e†Òì…æQg×Sji÷IS à{{ÚØ{{ÒíS{{‰]çeØfÏjŠ{{iløÂ^{{ËjÖ]ð^{{ßm_áç{{e†ÓÖ]l]…ƒì‚Š{{Ò_»Ù]ˆ{{i7{{Ö]l^{{ÞærÓÖý]Ø{{Òáù NAD JFADæ + Jêñ]çâøÖ]‹ËßjÖ]±cê£]àñ^ÓÖ]ðç¢IT
  11. 11. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] í{Ú‡ø Ö]í{Î^SÖ]à{Ú…]‚{ÏÚî{×ÂÙç’{v×Öêñ]ç{âøÖ]‹Ëß{jÖ]±c`{r×èä{ÞdÊ°rŠÒù]†Ê]çjè÷^Ú‚ß Jíèçé£]äjS=Þ_…]†Ûj‰÷ JYʈÖ]íé×ÛÂÜjiá_‚Ãeì†ÛjŠÚíË’eð]çC]àÚðˆq°jñ†Ö]»Ì×~jèIU JØ}]‚Ö]àÚlø’èç£]…‚qÑ^’jÖ]Ý‚Âî×ÂÀÊ^¬æ°jñ†×ÖØ}]‚Ö]‚è‚¢]ð]çC]íòÊ‚i»Å†ŠéÖ Jê×–ÃÖ]gÃjÖ^e͆Ãè^Úpæ‚uIML ˜{·Ø{èço±c^èø¤]`r×jÊ^ãeQçqç¹]°rŠÒù]ØÒlø–ÃÖ]^èø }„ËßjŠi^Ú‚ßÂÔÖƒp‚¬ DC3H6O3)Ô{éjÒ÷˜{·±cDNADHî{×Â7{Ö]l^ÞærÓÖý]ÄÚåQ^o]EäÖ]ˆj}]‚ÃeÔéÊæYfÖ] Ô{éjÒøÖ]˜{·Ùç{vjèoéu°rŠÒù]†Ê]çi]ƒcÙæˆèë„Ö]æê×–ÃÖ]gÃjÖ]gfŠéÊÜÒ]rèë„Ö]æ JD_EÜèˆÞý]‚Â^ŠÚØéj‰_Ümï†}_ì†ÚÔéÊæYe˜·±c Jl^ÞærÓÖý]ØÏÞí׊׉»Y}ù]ØfÏjŠ¹]çâ°rŠÒù]UjÃŁèIMM H l^{{ÞçiæUÖ]à{{Útæ‡Ä{{Ú‚{{vjil^{{ÞærÓÖý]à{Útæ‡áù »^{{ÛÒð^{{¹]àèç{{ÓjÖ°rŠ{{Ò_ì…ƒÄ{{ÚÜ{{m + 2e H2OVíéiû]íÖQ^ù] - + 2 H+ + 1/2 O2 JÔèréŠÖ]˜·ì…æ‚e‹e†Òì…æQîÛŠi‚ÎIMN JÔèréŠÖ]˜·àèçÓjeêãjßi‹e†Òì…æQløÂ^Ëiáù Jð]çŠÖ]î×Âêñ]çâøÖ]‹ËßjÖ]æêñ]çC]‹ËßjÖ]7Ö^u»‡çÒç×¢]…^S=Þ]í×u†ÚÜjiIMO JÔéÊæYe˜·ôˆqN±c‡çÒç×¢]ôˆq…^S=Þ]ð^ßm_íÎ^SÖ]t^jÞýÔÖƒæ J°rŠÒù]Qçqæ»^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]±cÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·Ø}‚èIMP ÔÖ„{ÖHí{é£]l^{ßñ^ÓÖ]»í{èçé£]Ìñ^¾çÖ]ð]QùíéÊ^ÒYƇçÒç×¢]…^S=Þ]àÚíŸ^ßÖ]íÎ^SÖ]áù ^{Ûâ°iç{S}Ùø{}U{Ò_í{Î^t^jÞý°rŠÒù]Qçqæ»^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]±cÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·Ø}‚è Jl^ÞærÓÖý]ØÏÞí׊׉æ‹e†Òì…æQ J^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]Ø}]QáærÓÖý]ØÏÞí׊׉æ‹e†Òì…æQl]çS}pæ‚uIMQ l^{μˆÞcæíéŠ{Ëßil^μˆÞcî×Â^ãñ]çju÷íéפ]»íéñ^éÛéÓÖ]løÂ^ËjÖ]ØÏuUjÃi^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]áù Jð^¹]æl^ˉçËÖ]æl^Úæ†ÒçjéŠÖ]æ_l^ÞærÓÖý]løÚ^ul^òèˆqæì‚Â^ŠÚ JäÖø©]l]çS}æhç׉_|^–èc‚߇çÒç×¢]ðëˆoeìQ^Âð]„ÇÖ]ôˆqàÂUÃèIMR ð]„{Æðëˆqëù^ãÚ]‚~j‰]àÚ†nÒ_íÎ^SÖ]t^jÞý‡çÒç×¢]Ý‚~jŠiíé£]l^ßñ^ÓÖ]^èø}g×Æ_áù J†ÊçjÚ†}a JYʈÖ]íé×ÛÂð^ßm_ˆq^£]h^r£]æÅç×–Ö]lø–Âð^¡…]IMS J°jñ†Ö]t…^}±cð]çC]ÄÊ‚ßéÊê×}]‚Ö]¼Ç–Ö]‚èˆèæë…‚’Ö]ÌèçrjÖ]Üru“ÏßéÖ JÐéã=Ö]íé×ÛÂð^ßm_ˆq^£]h^r£]í×–ÂæÅç×–Ö]°e7Ö]lø–ÃÖ]š^fÏÞ]IMT ¼f{ãjÖˆq^{£]h^{r£]í×–{˜fÏßiæ°fÞ^¢]æî×Â_±c^ãÃÊrÖÅç×–Ö]°e7Ö]lø–ÃÖ]˜fÏßi ð]ç{{C]ÄÊ‚{{ßéÊê×}]‚{{Ö]äSÇ{{•ÔÖ„{{e“Ïß{{éÊë…‚’{{Ö]Ì{{èçrjÖ]É]†{{ÊÜ{{ru Q]Qˆ{{éÊ°jñ†{{Ö]ØË{{‰_ J°jñ†Ö]Ø}]Q±dÊíéñ]çC]íf’ÏÖ]»Øˉ_±cÜmÌÞù]Ø}]Q±cêq…^¤] íÂçßjÚæíÚ^Âí×ò‰_ J‹e†Òì…æQ»Ôéjé‰_çÖ^ŠÒù]˜·…æQàÂ솒j§ì„fÞgjÒ]IM ˜{·Ä{Ú‚{vjéÖØéjé{‰ù]Õrè(CoA)ÐÊ]†¹]ádÊ‹e†Òì…æQ ±cD_ÜèˆÞcçÒØéjé‰_EÙç}Q‚ßÂV J‹e†Òì…æQløÂ^ËiàÚìçS}Ùæ_»ÔèrŠÖ]˜·g^ÞçÓÚÔéjé‰_çÖ^ŠÒù]
  12. 12. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] å„{Cí{éñ^ãßÖ]si]ç{ßÖ]^{Ú[íè‚Š{Ò`jÖ]ì†ËŠ{ËÖ]í{é×ÛÂp‚{oëç{פ]‹Ëß{jÖ]Ø{u]†Úà{Úí×u†Úë`eIN [í×u†¹] »ì†}‚{Úí{Î^æð^{¹]à{Úá^{òèˆq^{ãßÂsj{ßèæáær{ÓÖý]Ø{ÏÞí{×u †Ú»íè‚Š{Ò`jÖ]ì†ËŠ{ËÖ]p‚{o JATP [‹ËßjÖ]àÂsi^ßÖ]áçe†ÓÖ]‚éŠÒ_êÞ^màÚl^fßÖ]“×~jèÌéÒIO Jêq…^¤]¼‰çÖ]æl^fßÖ]^èø}°eì†#^fÚ…^=jÞ÷^eVíévSŠÖ]^èø¤] Jð^v×Ö]æg=¤]íéÂæ_àÚ^ãéÖcäÖ^ÏjÞ]‚Ãe…çÇnÖ]Ðè†àÂVíÏéÛÃÖ]^èø¤] Jêñç–Ö]íé×Û»‹ËßjÖ]àÚsi^ßÖ]CO2àÚg]ðˆql^fßÖ]Ô×ãjŠèoéuVêñç–Ö]ð^ßfÖ^e VàÓÚ_ácgfŠÖ]á^éeÄÚívév’Ö]íe^qý]r}] JJJ{el^ÞærÓÖþÖl^ÞærÓÖý]ØÏÞí׊׉xÛŠiIM JØéÊæ…ç×ÓÖ]±cíéŠÛ=Ö]íÎ^SÖ]àÚÙ^ÏjÞ÷]–h J^ÚærŠÖ]±c^Þ]†¢]àÚÙ^ÏjÞ÷]I_ íÎ^ÑøSÞ]–Q J°iæ…^Ò±cÙçvjÖ]–t JJJàèçÓjÖáçe†ÓÖ]êÂ^e…gÒ†ÚÄÚØéj‰ù]íÂçÛ¥Q^o^e‹e†Òì…æQ_‚fiIN JDÔéÖ^¹]˜·–°ßèQ_–Ôéפ]˜·–ÔèrŠÖ]˜·E JJJJÙø}àÚêñ]çC]ëçפ]‹ËßjÖ]íÖ^u»‡çÒç×¢]ì‚ŠÒ_ÜjiIO J°qæ…‚éã×Ö‡çÒç×¢]‚ÏÊ–h J°rŠÒù^e‡çÒç×¢]Q^o]–_ Jl^ÞærÓÖþÖ‡çÒç×¢]‚ÏÊ–Q J°qæ…‚éC^e‡çÒç×¢]Q^o]–t CO2ôˆqÐ×SßèIP JJJJíréjÞ JÔéjÒøÖ]˜·†Û¡–h J‡çÒç×¢]…^S=Þ]–_ J°qçÓé×r×Öêñ^¹]Ø×vjÖ]–Q JêÖçvÓÖ]†Û~jÖ]–t JJJáçÓéÖÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·Ùˆj−IQ JÙçÞ^nèý]æáçe†ÓÖ]‚éŠÒ_êÞ^m–h PGAL–_ JÔéÖ^¹]˜·–Q Jl^ˉçÊRIM‡çjÒ]†Ê–t JJ^ãÞ`el^ÞærÓÖý]ØÏÞí׊׉̑çiIR Jì…]†v×ÖQ…^ØÂ^Ëi–h Jíè…çˉçËÖ]ì‚ŠÒù]ì…æQ–_ DCO2 –ê×énècÙçvÒ–íßéÃÚl^μˆÞ_–°rŠÒù]EJJJQçqæêñ]çâøÖ]ëçפ]‹ËßjÖ]g×SjèIS pæ‚uî×ÂÙ‚èATPàÚ°òèˆqáçÓiæÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·àÚ°òèˆq±c‡çÒç×¢]ôˆqÙçoIT D‹e†Òì…æQ–êñ]çâ÷‹Ëßi–êñ]çâ‹ËßiE JJJôˆq»ì…„ÒØ}‚èl^ÞærÓÖý]Ù^ÏjÞ]Ý^¿ÞàÚg]ðˆqØÓ=èë„Ö]¼=ßÖ]°rŠÒù]IU CO2I‡çÒç×¢]E JD°rŠÒù]– [ATPðëˆqJJJJJêSÃiÍç‰^ãÞdʇçÒç×¢]àÚl^òèˆqíÃe…_…^S=Þ]‚ßÂIML
  13. 13. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] DMN–MR–P–TE JJJ»áçÓiíÏ×Sß¹]ATPl^òèˆqàÚQ‚ÂUÒ_ëçפ]‹ËßjÖ]»IMM DáærÓÖý]ØÏÞí׊׉–†Û~jÖ]–‹e†Òì…æQ–‡çÒç×¢]…^S=Þ]E VáçÓi±cëQöèATPôˆqàÚì‚u]æíéi^ˉçÊíSe]…Ø×oIMN JíÎ^ÑøSÞ]Ý‚ÂæADP–h JíÎ^ÑøSÞ]æADP–_ J°ßèQù]ì‚Â^ΖQ Jê‰^Û¤]‡çfè†Ö]†Ó‰–t ôˆqíòéâî×Âêñ]çC]ëçפ]‹ËßjÖ]»DíéßéÚù]æ_Eíéßâ‚Ö]š^·ù]Ø}‚iIMO DÐf‰^ÚØÒ–áçe†ÓÖ]êmøm–áçe†ÓÖ]êñ^ßm–áçe†ÓÖ]ëQ^u_E JJJçâáçe†ÓÖ]‚éŠÒ_êÞ^mæê×énècÙçvÒ±cÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·Ùç¬ë„Ö]ê£]àñ^ÓÖ]IMP D^féÚù]–ìYÛ¤]–^ßé×qçéÖ]–]YqæYf‰ý]E Dð^¹]–l]…‚éâçe†ÓÖ]–l^ßéiæUÖ]–áçâ‚Ö]EêâíÎ^SÖ^eíéפ]‚³÷7Ö]ìQ^¹]IMQ VêÖcY=iíÖQ^ù]å„â2ATPGÔéjÒ÷˜·ÜèˆÞc‡çÒç×qIMR DêÖçvÒ†Û¡–êñ]çâ‹Ëßi–êñ]çâ÷‹Ëßi–êñ^ÚØ×oE 2C6H12O6IMS C12H22O11 + H2OJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJÜèˆÞc JDˆé×éÚù]–ˆè†ÓŠÖ]–ˆéjÒøÖ]–ˆéjÖ^¹]EçâíÏe^ŠÖ]íÖQ^ù]Ý^³ý݇øÖ]ÜèˆÞý] JJJ]‚Â^Úáçe†ÓÖ]êÂ^e…gÒ†Úê×è^ºØÒIMT JDÔè…^iç×qçjéÒ˜·–Ôéjé‰_çÖ^ŠÒ_˜·–ÔéߊÒ^ŠÖ]˜·–ÔéÖ^¹]˜·E JJJ]‚Â^Ú^ãŠËÞíñ†Ö]géÒ†i»Ø}‚èêi`è^ºØÒIMU Díéñ]çC]lø’èç£]–íèçÚ‚Ö]l]YÃ=Ö]–l^féÃ=Ö]–á^jfÃ=Ö]E JD˜fÏßè–ÄËi†è–˜Ë~ßèEë…‚’Ö]“ËÏÖ]ádÊYʈÖ]íé×ÛÂð^ßm_INL JD¼Šfßè–ÄËi†è–˜Ë~ßèEë…‚’Ö]“ËÏÖ]ádÊÐéã=Ö]íé×ÛÂð^ßm_INM JJJíé×ÛÂð^ßm_áçÓèå†ÃÏiæˆq^£]h^r£]íז½^ŠfÞ]INN JD^ÃÚYʈÖ]æÐéã=Ö]–YʈÖ]–Ðéã=Ö]E JJJJJíé×ÛÂð^ßm_áçÓèävS×Ëiæˆq^£]h^r£]íזš^fÏÞ]INO JD^ÃÚYʈÖ]æÐéã=Ö]–YʈÖ]–Ðéã=Ö]E J†nÒ_æ_í×–ÂJJJJêÖ]燅‚ÏiÜŠ¢]lø–ÂQ‚ÂINP DRLN–NLR–RNL–NRLE IVáçÓiì‚u]æ‹e†Òì…æQð^ßm_íŸ^ßÖ](ATP : CO2)l^òèˆqQ‚ÂífŠÞINQ D†Ë‘VN–MVP–MVOIMVN–NVNE Vêâ‹e†Òì…æ‚Öì‚u]æíËÖ»íŸ^ßÖ](FADH2 : NADH)l^òèˆqQ‚ÂífŠÞINR DOVP–MVO–MVN–NVNE D°qçÓé×¢]–‡çÒç×¢]–ÔéjÒ÷˜·–ATPEJJçâí×–ÃÖ]Ø}]QíÎ^S×Öê×ÃËÖ]áæˆ~¹]INS
  14. 14. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] V»NADHôˆ¢ì‚ŠÒ_íé×ÛÂp‚o–NT êñ]çâøÖ]‹ËßjÖ]»ÔéÊæYfÖ]˜·Ù]ˆj}]ð^ßm_–hJáærÓÖý]ØÏÞí׊׉–_ Jg^ÃÚhH_–Q J‡çÒç×¢]…^S=Þ]–t JJçâê×–ÂQçã¥Ù„eð^ßm_‹ËßjÖ]àÚsi^ßÖ]áçe†ÓÖ]‚éŠÒ_êÞ^m…‚’Ú–NU Dg^ÃÚ^ÛâøÒ–‹e†Òì…æQ–‡çÒç×¢]…^S=Þ]E
  15. 15. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] ØÏßÖ]î×Âí×ò‰] V…^’j}^eîi`è^¹Ø×ÂVDMOE °rŠÒ_Qçqæg×Sji÷‹e†Òå…æQ IO l^ÞærÓÖ÷]ØÏÞä׊׉îÊ°qæ…‚éã×ÖY}ù]ØfÏjŠ¹]çâ°rŠÒù] IP °jñ†Ö]Ø}]QYʈÖ]ð]çâàÚðˆqÌ×~jè IQ äé×ÃÊäéŠËßixS‰_äéñ]çC]lø’èç£]UjÃi IR ‚u]æ‡çÒç×qïˆqå‚ŠÒù°i†Ú‹e†Òå…æQp‚o IS ‹ËßjÖ]íé×ÛÂàÂp‚vjÖ]‚߇çÒç×¢]ôˆoeìQ^Âð]„ÇÖ]ôˆqàÂUÃè IT FAD, NAD ÜèˆÞ÷]‚Â^ŠÚàÚØÒgÃ×è IU + J‹ËßjÖ]íé×ÛÂîÊÝ^â…æQ J^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]Ø}]Qîñ]çC]‹ËßjÖ]løÂ^ËiÜ¿ÃÚp‚o IMMMMLLLL JáærÓÖ÷]ØÏÞí׊׉í×u†Úíè^ãÞîÊð^¹]áçÓjè IMMMMMMMM J^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]îÊ‚Öçji‡çÒç×¢]ôˆqì‚ŠÒ_àÂíŸ^ßÖ]íÎ^SÖ]ØÒkŠéÖ IMMMMNNNN Jîñ]çâøÖ]‹ËßjÖ]±]ìYÛ¤^Òl^ßñ^ÓÖ]˜Ãe`r×i IMMMMOOOO Jîñ]çâøÖ]‹ËßjÖ]àÂîñ]çC]‹ËßjÖ]Ø–Ëè IMMMMPPPP JYfÒî×–ÂQçãr²Ý^éÏÖ]‚ßÂî×–ÃÖ]“×ÏjÖ]ì†â^¾x–ji IMMMMQQQQ îñ]çâøÖ]‹ËßjÖ]îÊî×énè]ÙçvÒ±]‡çÒç×¢]Øèço‚ßÂNADHá^òèˆqsjßè÷ IMMMMRRRR Já^fÖ÷]l^rjßÚíÂ^ß‘îÊ^èrÓfÖ]Å]çÞ]˜ÃeÝ‚~jŠi IMMMMSSSS JÜËÖ]Ðè†àÂäÖç}QàÂíév’Ö]íéu^ßÖ]àÚØ–Ê_ÌÞù]àÚ‹ËßjÖ]ð^ßm]ð]çC]Ùç}Q IMMMMTTTT JíéŠËßjÖ]^ãjËé¾çÖíéñ]çC]íf’ÏÖ]géÒ†iÜñøè IMMMMUUUU J‹ËßjÖ]íé×ÛÂÝ^³÷íÖçãŠeYÇjèá]ï…‚’Ö]ÌèçrjÖ]ÜruÄéSjŠè INNNNLLLL J‹ËßjÖ]íé×ÛÂÜé¿ßiîÊÝ^â…æQ«¹]gÃ×è INNNNMMMM J^éq]†}]]…æQá^ŠÞ÷]îÊ‹ËßjÖ]íé×ÛÂgÃ×i INNNNNNNN JÝ]æ‚Ö]î×Âg …íéñ]çC]lø’èç£]…‚q INNNNOOOO Jîq^q‡OEçÎ^ÞkoÜãÕæ‚Ãe“é‘_îʆ–}_l^fÞ…]çoeQçqç¹]Y¢]ð^Ú†ÓÃjè INNNNPPPP
  16. 16. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] íéSÇiàÚ‚e÷ð]†–¤]íéi^fßÖ]ð]ˆqøÖîñ]çC]‹ËßjÖ]Ùø}CO2ÑøSÞ]|^–è]íe†ŸîÊ INNNNQQQQ Jð]Q牙^ÛÎíÃSÏeOEçÎ^ßÖ] J^è…‚ßÒçjé¹]àÚíéÖ^ÂífŠÞî×Âlø–ÃÖ]æ‚fÓÖ]^èø}ïçjo INNNNRRRR î×}]‚Ö]ð^=ÇÖ]îÊáærÓÖ÷]ØÏÞí׊׉løÂ^Ëi^–è_æ‹e†Òì…æQløÂ^ËiÜ¿ÃÚp‚o INNNNSSSS J^è…‚ßÒçjéÛ×Ö Jì…]‚j‰÷]í×Ú^ÒYÆíéÊ憖Æl^Ï×uî×Âíéñ]çC]íf’ÏÖ]…]‚qïçj¬ INNNNTTTT JÐéã=Ö]íé×ÛÂÙø}íè…‚’Ö]lø–ÃÖ]^–è]æˆq^£]h^r£]íז˜fÏßi INNNNUUUU Jíéq…^¤]íòéfÖ]ÄÚ]†#^fÚl^i^fßÖ]Ü¿ÃÚîÊl]‡^ÇÖ]ÙQ^fiíé×ÛÂp‚o IOOOOLLLL íéñ^ÂçÖ]l^i^fßÖ]îÊl]‡^ÇÖ]ÙQ^fiíé×ÛÂîÊ…æQð^v×Ö]æg=¤]séŠÞgÃ×è IOOOOMMMM äÖçuð]çC]†ÊçiÜÆ…îñ]çâøÖ]‹Ëßj×Ö⁄^Þ^éu_á^ŠÞý]`r×è IOOOONNNN Väéiû]l÷^£]îÊp‚¬]ƒ^ÚVNOE äéÊ憖ÇÖ]l^Ï×£]àÚäéñ]çC]äf’ÏÖ]ç×} DM lø–ÃÖ]ärŠÞ_îÊ°rŠÒ÷]“ÏÞ DN h]‚â÷]àÚäéñ]çC]äf’ÏÖ]ç×} DO ADP±]ATPàÚ‚u]æðïˆqÙço DP ‹ËßjÖ]ð^ßm]íéñ]çC]lø’èç£]àÚYʈÖ]ð]çâØÒtæ†} DQ ^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]îÊl^Úæ†Òçj鉂qçè¬]ƒ] DR Vîi`è^¹îÛ×ÃÖ]x×S’¹]†Òƒ]VOOE äË×j§äÎ^ l^èçjŠÚî×Âl^ÞærÓÖ÷]ØÛo^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]îÊl^μˆÞ÷]l]‚Â^ŠÚàÚÄe^ji IM ^è…‚ÞçÒçjéÛ×Öî×}]‚Ö]ð^=ÇÖ]îÊp‚oïçפ]‹ËßjÖ]Øu]†ÚàÚä×u†Ú IN ÔèrŠÖ]˜·àèçÓiîÊÕ…^=è‹e†Òå…æQîÊáçe†ÓÖ]îÂ^e…gÒ†Ú IO †Û~jÖ]îÊäÖ]ˆj}]Üjèæîñ]çC]ïçפ]‹ËßjÖ]îÊ‚ŠÒ`jègÒ†Ú IP Ý^ÃSÖ]l^ò舢äfñ^éÛéÓÖ]¼e]æ†Ö]îÊäÞˆ~¹]äÎ^SÖ]î£]àñ^ÓÖ]^ãet†~jŠèîjÖ]äé×ÛÃÖ] IQ ‡çÒç×qðïˆqå‚ŠÒ_‚ßÂl^ÞærÓÖ÷]ØÏÞä׊׉løÂ^ËiäréjÞl^òèˆqRäßÚsjßègÒ†Ú IR ‚u]æ ïçפ]‹ËßjÖ]æîñç–Ö]ð^ßfÖ]îjé×ÛÂàÚØÒîÊîS‰ægÒ†Ú IS °jñ†Ö^e¼é¬ÌèçŸ IT
  17. 17. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] Vîi`è^ºØÓeQç’Ϲ]^ÚVPOE ±çvÓÖ]†Û~jÖ] DM äéŠËßjÖ]å…æ‚Ö] DN ‡çÒç×¢]…^S=Þ] DO äè‚ŠÒ`jÖ]å†ËŠËÖ] DP Vävév’Ö]äe^q÷]r}]DQOE JJJJJJsjßèÔéjé‰]çÖ^ŠÒ_˜Û£ÔéÖ^¹]˜·Ùço‚ß IM FADHIQNADHItATPIhADPI_ JJJJJJJJJ±]çuð^Ú…^­^éÚçètæ†}ÜjèYʈÖ]îÊ IN ܉OLLI_ O ܉QLLIh O ܉MLLLIt O ܉MQLLIQ O JJJJJJJJJJ±]çuÜŠ¢]îÊäéñ]çC]lø’èç£]Q‚ IO áçé×ÚMNLLIQ áçé×ÚULLIt áçé×ÚRLLIháçé×ÚOLLI_ JJJJJJJJJJÙø}äéf=¤]l^fßÖ]Ñ^‰±]°rŠÒ÷]Ø}‚è IP g=¤]IQ ð^v×Ö]Itl^Šè‚ÃÖ] Ih…çÇnÖ]I_ JJJJJJJJJJJîÊ‹ËßjÖ]æîñç–Ö]ð^ßfÖ]íé×ÛÂîÊPGALgÒ†ÚáçÓjè IQ æ^Þ]†¢]IQ^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]æ^Þ]†¢]It^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]æ^ÚærŠÖ]IhÙç‰çjéŠÖ]æ^ÚærŠÖ]I_ Ùç‰çjéŠÖ] JJJJJJJJJJJsjßèl^ˉçÊIR‡çÒç×¢‡çÒç×¢]Ùço‚ß IR FADHIQATPItNADHIhADPI_ JJJJJJJJJJJJJ‹e†Òîi…æQàÚ…†vjè IS 1FADHIQ3NADHIt2ATPIh1ATPI_ JJJJJJJJJJäS‰]çeØfÏjŠiÙç‰çjéŠÖ]îÊÙ]ˆiîjÖ]°qæ…‚éC]l]…ƒ IT NAD I_ + NAD ItFADIh + °rŠÒ÷]IQFADæ JJJJJJàèçÓjÖáçe†ÓÖ]îÂ^e…gÒ†ÚÄÚØéj‰]íÂçÛ¥Q^o^e‹e†Òì…æQ_‚fi IU ÔéÖ^¹]˜·IQÔéjÒøÖ]˜·ItÔéjé‰]çÖ^ŠÒ÷]IhÔèrŠÖ]˜·I_ JJJJJJJàÚíéÖ^ÂífŠÞáçÓiÌéß½^=ßeÝçÏiîjÖ]lø–ÃÖ]^èø} IMMMMLLLL Ôéj‰ù]˜·IQÔèrŠÖ]˜·ItÔéjÒøÖ]˜·IhÔéÊæUÖ]˜·I_
  18. 18. íÚ^ÃÖ]íèçÞ^n×Ö ð^éuù] íÏ×Sß¹]íÎ^SÖ]Ý]‚~j‰]æí–Ë~ßÚíÎ^ l^èçjŠÚ±]íéÖ^ÂíÎ^ l^èçjŠÚàÚl^ÞærÓÖ÷]½çfâ IMMMMMMMM JJJJJJJJJJJJJJîÛŠiADPàÚATPð^ßeîÊ ‡çÒç×¢]…^S=Þ]DQEíè‚ŠÒ`jÖ]ì†ËŠËÖ]DtE†Û~jÖ]DhE‹fè†Òì…æQD]E JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJˆq^£]h^r£]á^Êá^ŠÞ÷]îÊÐéã=Ö]íé×ÛÂð^ßm] IMMMMNNNN ÄËi†èDQE^je^mîÏfèDtExS×ËjèDhE†ÃÏjèD_E JJJJJJJpæ‚uî×ÂÙ‚èATPôˆqNàèçÓiæC3H6O3ðïˆqN±]C6H12O6Ùço IMMMMOOOO ‹e†Òì…æQDQEl^ÞærÓÖ÷]ØÏÞDtEîñ]çâ÷‹ËßiDhEîñ]çâ‹ËßiD]E JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJçâ^è…‚ÞçÒçjé¹]Ø}]‚e‡çÒç×¢]ôˆ¢í×Ú^ÓÖ]ì‚ŠÒ÷]íréjÞíÏ×Sß¹]íÎ^SÖ]…]‚ÏÚ IMMMMPPPP ATPàÚôˆq OTDQEORDtENPDhEND]E JATPNGÔéjÒ÷˜·‡çÒç×qVíéi÷]íÖQ^ù]äé×ÂÙ‚iï„Ö]^Ú IMMMMQQQQ îñç•ð^ßeDQEîñ]çâ‹ËßiDtEîñ]çâ÷‹ËßiDhEîñ^ÚØ×oD]E DÙæ÷]EQçÛÃÖ]Üñøè^ÚDîÞ^nÖ]EQçÛÃÖ]àÚY¡ROE îÞ^nÖ]QçÛÃÖ] Ùæ÷]QçÛÃÖ] JJJJJJJUjÃè°rŠÒ÷] IM JJJJJUjÃèÝæ†ÒçjéŠÖ] IN JJJUjÃèÔéjÒøÖ]˜· IO JJJJCO2æî×énè÷]ÙçvÓÖ] IP JJJJJJJCO2 æð^¹] IQ Jîñ]çC]‹ËßjÖ]îÊl^ÞærÓÖøÖîñ^ãÞØfÏjŠÚ . JìYÛ¤]îʆÛ~jÖ]íé×ÛÃÖ^éñ^ãÞ^Ÿ^Þ . Jl^ÞærÓÖøÖØfÏjŠÚ . Jîñ]çC]‹Ëßj×Ö^éñ^ãÞ^Ÿ^Þ . Jlø–ÃÖ]îʆÛ~jÖ]íé×ÛÃÖ^éñ^ãÞ^Ÿ^Þ . Jl^ßéiæUÖ]àèçÓiîÊ^ÛãÚøÚ^ .

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