Chapter 2: INDIVIDUAL
MARS Model of
What is MARS Model of Individual
Behavior and Performance?
M RA S
MARS is the acronym for:
• ROLE PERCEPTIONS and
• SITUATIONAL FACTORS
•These four factors directly
influence voluntary individual
behavior and performance.
1. EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
• Motivation- the forces within a person that affect his or her direction,
intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior.
• Intensity- is the amount of effort allocated to the goal. It is all bout
how much people push themselves to complete a task.
• Persistence- is the continuing effort for a certain amount of time.
• Ability- includes both the natural aptitudes and learned
capabilities required to successfully complete a task.
• Aptitudes- are the natural talents that help employees learn
specific tasks more quickly and perform them better.
• Learned capabilities- are the skills and knowledge that you
• Competencies- are skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and other
personal characteristics that lead to superior performance.
• Person-Job Matching Strategies
1. To matcha person’s competencieswiththe job’stask requirementsis to select applicantswho
alreadydemonstratethe required competencies.
2. To provide training so that employees developrequiredskills and knowledge.
3. To redesignthe job so that employees are given tasksonlywithin their current learned
3. ROLE PERCEPTIONS
• The extent to which people understand the job duties (roles)
assigned to or expected of them.
• Three components of role
1. Employees have accurate role perceptions when they
understand the specific tasks assigned to them, that is
when they know the specific duties or consequences
for which they are accountable.
2. People have accurate role perceptions when they
understand the priority of their various tasks and
3. Understanding the preferred behaviors or procedures
for accomplishing the assigned tasks.
4. Situational Factors
• Situational Factors- this include conditions
beyond the employee’s immediate control that
constrain or facilitate behavior and performance.
• Some situational characteristics—such as consumer
preferences and economic conditions—originate from
the external environment and, consequently, are beyond
the employee’s and organization control.
• However, other situational factors—such as time, people,
budget, and physical work facilities—are controlled by
people within the organization.