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Fabric softness evaluation by fabric extraction

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This presentation includes my research work done during my M.tech. In this i summarised the functional working of Fabric Feel Tester. In future my research gives an idea for replacing subjective assessment of fabric feel in textile processing industry.

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Fabric softness evaluation by fabric extraction

  1. 1. PAVAN KUMAR GUPTA 10/19/20161 STUDY ON FABRIC SOFTNESS CHARACTERISTICS BY NOZZLE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
  2. 2. Presentation Outline Introduction Objectives Experiments Results Conclusions Future scope
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Fabric softness is one aspect of fabric handle feeling.  Although there is lack in common definition about fabric softness.  Kawabata defined fullness and softness as “a feeling comes from a bulky, rich and well formed fabric. Springy property in compression and the thickness accompanied with warm feeling.”  General handle value, which are as follows: 40% softness-stiffness, 35% roughness-smoothness, 25% thinness-thickness, and 5% warm- cool feeling.  Fabric softness is still being judged subjectively to a large extent.
  4. 4. OBJECTIVES 10/19/20164 The main objective is to study the softness characteristics of different types of fabrics by nozzle extraction method in single test and correlate with various fabric properties. Sub-objectives  Find out correlation between subjective assessment and nozzle extraction predicted value.  Find out fabric properties that affect the extraction and radial force during fabric extraction through nozzle.  Find out the relation between extraction and radial force.  Finding out a fabric feel factor that is combination of the extraction force and radial force which can be used for fabric grading according the softness.
  5. 5. 10/19/20165 Material & Methods
  6. 6. Materials 10/19/20166  Commercial denim fabric have been procured from the Ginni International, Nimrana (Rajasthan).  For measuring the softness effect of functional softener and different denim finishing treatment on the fabric one fabric is taken. The fabric constructional parameters are given below. Warp Weft EPI PPI Width Wt.(oz) Weave Shade RING + OE OE 73 54 61"-62" 10 3/1 RHT IBST
  7. 7. Specification of Functional softener (IITD lab) 10/19/20167 Silicon softener (Microgenix SW 375) Time 20 min, ph 5-6 at room temp, Dosage 20, 40, 60, 80 gpl
  8. 8. 10/19/20168 Sample No. Finish Types (Denim wash) Calculated GSM 1 Raw wash – Desize only 258.3 2 Enzyme wash for 60 min 257.4 3 Enzyme +heavy bleach wash 253.4 4 Enzyme + bleach +tint wash 260.9 5 Enzyme + tint wash 267.6 6 Enzyme + ice wash 258.3 7 Enzyme + ball wash 262.4 8 Stone wash for 75 min 269.8 9 Enzyme + slight bleach wash 256.7 10 Raw fabric 274.7 Different Commercial Washing Treatments Range ~ 21gsm
  9. 9. 10/19/20169 Methods Subjective Assessment (1st survey) Rank the softness of the fabric samples based on a five-point scale. Evaluation Softness rating Very soft 1 Better soft 2 Moderate soft 3 Just soft 4 Least soft 5 The assessors divided into 2 groups according to their textile knowledge. Group 1 Textile person 11 Group 2 Non- textile person 10
  10. 10. (2nd survey) Fabric Subjective Softness Criteria Groups for Subjective Assessment 10/19/201610 Group 1 Male 15-30 14 Assessors Group 2 Male 31-60 15 Assessors Group 3 Male Textile students 45 Assessors Group 4 Male professionals 10 Assessors Group 5 Female 15-30 10 Assessors Group 6 Female 31-60 10 Assessors Group 7 Female Textile students 10 Assessors Group 8 Female Professionals 9 Assessors
  11. 11. Objective Measurement (Nozzle Extraction Instrument) Fabric deformation during extraction through nozzle  Low complex stresses Compression Bending Biaxial extension Friction
  12. 12. 10/19/201612  Sample Preparation  A total of five readings for each fabric sample (size of 24 cm dia.) were taken and averaged for analysis purpose.  The fabric sample should be free from wrinkles and crease.  Experiment procedure  Circular fabric specimen is taken and attached to sample holder . As the clamp with which the connecting pin is attached moves upward, it extracts the fabric specimen through the nozzle. The fabric specimen gets folded, sheared, rubbed, compressed and bent during extraction. The extraction force as well as radial force is recorded by the instrument; and typical force displacement curve is obtained. Nozzle Extraction Instrument
  13. 13. Schematic diagram of computerized IITD fabric feel tester Video of Testing
  14. 14. Typical Graph Extraction force curve Radial force curve Force - Displacement curve
  15. 15. Important Parameters for Nozzle Extraction Curve 10/19/201615
  16. 16. Typical Extraction Curve Showing Asymmetry And Definition Of The Parameters 10/19/201616
  17. 17. 10/19/201617 Results and Discussion
  18. 18. 10/19/201618 Fabrics ranked in increasing softness as Raw< 20 gpl<40 gpl<60 gpl<80 gpl. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Raw 20gpl 40gpl 60gpl 80gpl Group 1 Group 2 Average Softener Finishing Level SubjectiveSoftnessRatingScale Subjective assessments rating between groups Subjective Assessment (Silicon softener)
  19. 19. Objective Measurement 10/19/201619 2.11 2.02 1.95 1.84 1.6 2.29 2.16 2.16 1.95 1.7 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Raw 20gpl 40gpl 60gpl 80gpl Force(Kg) Fabric Samples Radial Average® Extraction Average Extraction and Radial force of different level of silicon softener finished samples
  20. 20. 10/19/201620 Subjective Assessment Ranking Between The Groups 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Male 15-30 Male 30-60 Male textile students Male professionals Female 15-30 Female 30-60 Female textile students Female professionals Total 123 assessors Scale – 1 ~ Softest Scale – 10 ~ Harshest Softest finished fabric Harshest unfinished fabric
  21. 21. Correlation Coefficient between Assessors 10/19/201621 Male15-30 Male30-60 Maletext.Stud. MaleProf. Female15-30 Female30-60 FemaleText.Stud. FemaleProf. Overallvalue Male 15-30 1 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.95 0.95 0.97 0.83 0.99 Male 30-60 1 0.96 0.95 0.96 0.93 0.96 0.81 0.98 Male textile Stud. 1 0.97 0.90 0.94 0.97 0.84 0.99 Male Prof. 1 0.92 0.94 0.96 0.82 0.98 Female 15-30 1 0.92 0.89 0.79 0.94 Female 30-60 1 0.92 0.93 0.96 Female textile Stud. 1 0.78 0.97 Female Prof. 1 0.86 Overall Value 1
  22. 22. Correlation Coefficient between Nozzle Parameters (20&25mm Nozzle Dia.) 10/19/201622
  23. 23. Feel Factor (f) 26.58 + 20.65 × PE - 0.436 × WE - 0.131 × a + 5.064 × PR - 0.361 × DR R² = 0.9775 -1 1 3 5 7 9 11 0 2 4 6 8 10 CalculatedFeelFactor Subjective Assessment Value Correlation between Subjective Assessment & Feel factor R² = 0.7204 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 PeakExtractionForceValue(kg) Subjective Assessment Value Correlation between Subjective Assessment & Peak Extraction Force
  24. 24. Relation between Extraction and Radial Force 10/19/201624 R² = 0.922 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 AverageExtractionForce(Kg) Average Radial force(Kg) Correlation between average extraction and average radial force
  25. 25. Factors Affecting Extraction And Radial Force 10/19/201625 ITEM Rank Correlation ITEM Rank Correlation EM 0.781 MIU -0.539 LT -0.839 MMD 0.287 WT 0.033 SMD 0.272 RT 0.069 LC 0.827 B -0.915 WC -0.075 2HB -0.869 RC -0.054 G -0.975 T -0.584 2HG -0.924 W -0.042 2HG5 -0.927
  26. 26. Relation Between Fabric Weight And Fabric Softness 10/19/201626 7.26 3 5.81 4.4 5.17 3.34 6.37 2.17 7.38 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Numericalvalue Fabric Number Subjective Softness Value Calculated GSM×2/100
  27. 27. Difference between subjective and calculated feel value when compare different fabrics (knitted) 10/19/201627 3.95 4.88 2.83 2.49 2.56 2.36 2.4 2.27 2.05 2.06 4.1 3.4 5.1 3 3.5 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 1 2 3 4 5 Predicted feel value/10 Fabric GSM/100 Subjective Value
  28. 28. Conclusions 10/19/201628 The effect of functional softener concentration and different denim washing treatments on fabric softness was evaluated subjectively and good correlation was found between subjective and nozzle extraction (objective) measurement. In general manufacturers and customers can reach agreement on the softest and least soft fabrics, but the most important task remaining is to predict grading of softness between these can be done by this instrument in quick time. IITD Fabric Feel Tester is able to identify the change in fabric feel/softness. This method may be very useful in verifying of a new fabric product by comparing with old fabric feel value. Fabric feel factor is calculated by using the seven parameters, obtained from the radial and extraction curve. Out of which five parameters found to be more significant named as unloaded fabric across orifice for extraction curve (a), area under the curve for extraction curve (WE), Peak distance for radial curve (DR), Peak height for extraction curve (PE) and radial curve (PR).
  29. 29. Conti…. 10/19/201629 Bending (B, 2HB), shearing (G, 2HG, 2HG5), linear compression (LC), thickness (T), extensibility (EM), linearity (LT), and surface coefficient of friction (MIU) are the most important fabric mechanical properties that influence the softness of fabric measured by nozzle extraction technique. For same fabric weight as the fabric softness increases, instrument gives different feel value according the softness of the fabrics just like a human being judgment but not for different quality & GSM fabrics. This instrument will be very useful for small and medium scale process house and garment houses.
  30. 30. Future Scope 10/19/201630  Further research needs to be undertaken to find if these factors can be identified in other sets of fabrics. It may be that other types of fabric might show quite different factor patterns. Therefore try to predict a global feel factor equation by using the fabric parameters, fabric weight, nozzle parameters, etc.  Study the change in nozzle position, change in nozzle shape, effect of the nozzle material, effect of speed variation, effect of top and bottom side, mathematical relation between nozzle diameter and fabric weight may be the topics of future research.

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