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Prolactin hormone


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Prolactin hormone

  1. 2. Relationships among hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones, the anterior pituitary hormones controlled by hypothalamic hormones, and their respective target organs or tissues .
  2. 3. Its 198 amino acid, single chain peptide MW- 23000 Secreted by lactotroph(mammotroph) cells
  3. 4. <ul><li>Hyperprolactinaemia </li></ul><ul><li>Galactorrhoea-Amenorrhoea-infertility syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of hyperprolactinaemia </li></ul><ul><li>disorders of hypothalamus removing inhibitory control over pituitary </li></ul><ul><li>Antidopamenergic and DA depleting drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Prl secreting tumours </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism with high TRH levels- inc. Prl secretion . </li></ul>
  4. 5. Bromocriptine -Ergot derivative, 2-bromo- α -ergocryptine -potent dopamine agonist Action ↓ Prl release from Pituitary ↓ GI motility ↑ GH release Hypotention Stimulate D2 receptor in CTZ Levodopa like action in CNS
  5. 6. <ul><li>Start at low dose 1.25 mg BD </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperprolactinemia </li></ul><ul><li>Acromegaly </li></ul><ul><li>Parkinsonism </li></ul>Side effects Early- Nausea, vomiting, constipation etc Late- behavioral alterations, mental confusion.
  6. 8. Anterior pituitary secrets two Gns FSH & LH Function - promote gametogenesis and secretion of gonadal hormones. FSH- in female in male Induces follicular growth Development of ovam Secretion of estrogens Supports spermatogenesis Ovarian and testicular atrophy
  7. 9. LH In Females- In male- Progesteron secretion occurs only under the influence of LH. Induces preovulatory swelling of the ripe graafian follicle and triggers ovulation Stimulates testosterone secretion Disturbances of Gn secretion- Delayed puberty in girls and boys Inadequate Gn secretion – amenorrhoea & sterility in women impotence and infertility in men
  8. 10. <ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><li>Amenorrhoea and infertility </li></ul><ul><li>Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in males </li></ul><ul><li>Cryptorchism </li></ul><ul><li>4. To aid in vitro fertilization </li></ul>Adverse effects ovarian hyperstimulation- polycystic ovary, pain in lower abdomen
  9. 12. <ul><li>It is 210 amino acid, two chain glycoprotein </li></ul><ul><li>MW 30000 </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates thyroid to synthesize and secrete thyroxin (T4) </li></ul><ul><li>& Triiodothyronin (T3) </li></ul><ul><li>Induces hyperplasia & hypertrophy of thyroid follicles </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes trapping of iodide by thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes organification of trapped iodine & its incorporation into </li></ul><ul><li>T3 & T4 By increasing Peroxidase activity </li></ul><ul><li>-Enhances endocytotic uptake of thyroid colloid by the follicular cells </li></ul><ul><li>-Proteolysis of thyroglobulin to release more T3 & T4. </li></ul>
  10. 14. 39 amino acid single chain peptide MW- 4500 Derived from larger peptide pro-opio melanocortin (MW 30,000) Function- - promotes steriodogenesis in adrenal cortex by stimulating formation in cortical cells - Increase the availability of cholesterol for conversion to pregnenolone
  11. 16. Excess production- Cushing’s syndrome USES Diagnosis of disorders of pituitary adrenal axis Injected 25 IU i.v. causes increase in plasma cortisol if adrenals are functional.