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Student presentation for PDHPE

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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  1. 1. TOPIC: Option 1 - First Aid Assessment Task Number: 4 By Jana Ovski
  2. 2. Nature of the wound- Types of wounds. <ul><li>A wound is an injury, especially one in which the skin or another external surface is torn, pierced, cut, or otherwise broken. Wounds can be classified into two main types. These are open and closed wounds. In the category open and closed wounds the wounds are then summarised again into more specific categories. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Open Wounds <ul><li>Some types of open wounds include: </li></ul><ul><li>- Incisions - caused by a clean, sharp-edged object such as a knife, a razor or a glass splinter. </li></ul><ul><li>- Lacerations - rough, irregular wounds caused by crushing or ripping forces. </li></ul><ul><li>- Abrasions (grazes) - a superficial wound in which the topmost layers of the skin are scraped off, often caused by a sliding fall onto a rough surface. </li></ul><ul><li>- Puncture wounds - caused by an object puncturing the skin, such as a nail or needle. </li></ul><ul><li>- Penetration wounds - caused by an object such as a knife entering the body. </li></ul><ul><li>- Avulsion wounds – this is a wound that occurs due to the integrity of any tissue is compromised. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Closed Wounds <ul><li>Closed wounds are like open wounds and have numerous amount of types. However closed wounds have less than open. But are just as dangerous. Explained below are the main types of closed wounds: </li></ul><ul><li>- Contusions (bruise) - caused by blunt force trauma that damages tissues under the skin </li></ul><ul><li>- Hematoma - caused by damage to a blood vessel that in turn causes blood to collect under the skin </li></ul><ul><li>- Crushing Injuries - caused by a great or extreme amount of force applied over a long period of time. </li></ul>Image above shows a person suffering from Contusion.
  5. 5. Nature of the injury <ul><li>Wounds can be divided into three main groups to emphasis their seriousness, these groups are: </li></ul><ul><li>- Minor Cuts and Scrapes </li></ul><ul><li>- Puncture Wounds </li></ul><ul><li>- Major wounds </li></ul>
  6. 6. Minor Cuts and scrapes- how to treat. <ul><li>Wash the affected area thoroughly with soap and water removing any foreign material, which may cause infection. Cover with a sterile bandage. Wash the wound area daily and reapply a clean dressing until it is completely healed. However when washing sterile area do not scrub as you will damage the wound more. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Puncture Wounds- how to treat them. <ul><li>Puncture wounds are difficult to clean. If the object has penetrated the bone, it is especially risky. Flush the area thoroughly with water, cleaning well and on a number of occasions. Elevate the wound, and if signs of infection manifest (redness, swelling, persistent pain, pus, or fever), contact a health professional </li></ul>
  8. 8. Major Wounds- How to treat them <ul><li>For severe bleeding, apply constant pressure to the wound with a sterile dressing. Hold for up to twenty minutes. If there is a foreign object in the wound don't press directly, but apply pressure along the wound area. If broken bones or dislocations are suspected, do not move the affected limb. If you are sure there are no broken bones or dislocations , you can gently elevate and support the part while keeping pressure on it. This action should minimize bleeding. Then get Medical Help. </li></ul>
  9. 9. General ways to treat any wound. <ul><li>The following are the 5 basic steps for treating a cut or wound : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Stop the bleeding. Put a clean cloth over the wound. Press down for at least 3 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Wash the wound. Washing the wound is the best way to prevent infection. Wash hands first with soap and water and rinse in purified water or sanitized solution. Wash wound with purified water and disinfectant soap. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Remove dirt particles. Lift flaps of skin gently with sterile tweezers. (Sterilize tweezers by boiling them in water for a few minutes or soaking in alcohol for 15 minutes and them covering them until they will be used.) Continue to squirt or pour purified water on the wound until it is completely clean. ( </li></ul><ul><li>4. Close the skin. A wound less than 12 hours old will heal faster with the edges held together. This can be done by stitches by a health worker or with a butterfly bandage made from adhesive tape. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Dress and cover the wound. Once the wound is clean and closed, it will heal faster. </li></ul><ul><li>Anytime a person is seriously hurt, for example with a cut or burn, they may react by going into shock. A person in shock may have a weak, rapid pulse; damp, pale, or clammy skin; and feel confused, weak, or go unconscious. Steps to follow if the person is in shock: </li></ul><ul><li>- Have there person lie down with feet elevated above the head. </li></ul><ul><li>- Cover person with a blanket if feeling cold. </li></ul><ul><li>- If person is conscious, let him drink lukewarm liquids, especially oral rehydration solution. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Image of the five basic steps.
  11. 11. The signs and symptoms of Wounds <ul><li>Redness or excessive swelling in the wound area </li></ul><ul><li>Throbbing pain or tenderness in the wound area </li></ul><ul><li>Red streaks in the skin around the wound or progressing away from the wound </li></ul><ul><li>Pus or watery discharge collected beneath the skin or draining from the wound </li></ul><ul><li>Tender lumps or swelling in your armpit, groin or neck </li></ul><ul><li>Foul odour from the wound </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized chills or fever </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 12. Specific symptoms for specific wounds. <ul><li>The general symptoms of a wound are localized pain and bleeding. Specific symptoms include: </li></ul><ul><li>- An abrasion usually appears as lines of scraped skin with tiny spots of bleeding. </li></ul><ul><li>- An avulsion has heavy, rapid bleeding and a noticeable absence of tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>- A contusion may appear as a bruise beneath the skin or may appear only on imaging tests; an internal wound may also generate symptoms such as weakness, perspiration, and pain. </li></ul><ul><li>- A crush wound may have irregular margins like a laceration; however, the wound will be deeper and trauma to muscle and bone may be apparent. </li></ul><ul><li>- A cut may have little or profuse bleeding depending on its depth and length; its even edges readily line up. </li></ul><ul><li>- A laceration too may have little or profuse bleeding; the tissue damage is generally greater and the wound's ragged edges do not readily line up. </li></ul><ul><li>- A puncture wound will be greater than its length, therefore there is usually little bleeding around the outside of the wound and more bleeding inside, causing discoloration. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bibliography <ul><li> retrieved: Sunday 2 Aug. 08 </li></ul><ul><li> retrieved: Sunday 2 Aug. 08 </li></ul><ul><li> retrieved: Sunday 27 Jul. 08 </li></ul><ul><li> retrieved: Sunday 27 Jul. 08 </li></ul><ul><li> retrieved: Sunday 27 Jul. 08 </li></ul><ul><li> retrieved: Sunday 27 Jul. 08 </li></ul><ul><li> retrieved: Sunday 27 Jul. 08 </li></ul>