Slang• is the use of informal words or expressionsthat are not considered standard in thespeaker‟s language.• is often used by people in a group that arefamiliar with it like teenagers.• makes speech more emotionallyexpressive and shorter.• is usually taboo when speaking to people ofhigher social status.
English or American slang?• Cockney is history• The globalisation of culture tends to bethe culture that is globalised in English ormore precise, in American English.• The vehicle: Rap, hip hop, rock music, …• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u4DJnbkAvTk
Bad language is nothing new• Slang says a lot about attitudes,particularly male attitudes.• It is related with insults, with racism, withnationalism, with all forms of cruelty.• There are 1500 words for fucking, butthere is not word for love.
16th Century• Words for penis: daggers, swords, guns,clubs and needles (basically toys for boys)• Words for vagina: they are basicallynarrow alleyways, traps, snares, pits,…:again they are something that boys arefrightened of.
Slang of American youth• Slang is ephemeral, and so to survive itmust constantly regenerate;• Both the ephemeral and regenerativetraits are nowhere more apparent than inthe slang of American youth.
The medium can be the message.• Slang is the “tribe” identity and themanifestation of the identity‟s benefits.• At times the primary message is not in themeaning of what is said.
4 Factors• The four factors that are the most likely toproduce slang are youth, oppression,sports and vice, which provide an impetusto coin and use slang for differentsociolinguistic reasons.• Of these four factors, youth is the mostpowerful stimulus for the creation anddistribution of slang.
My generation• When we are young, we are subject to thegenerational imperative to invent a slangvocabulary that we perceive as our own.• We reject the slang of our older brothersand sisters (let alone our parents) in favorof a new lexicon.
Born in the USA• The Global Spread of American Slanglets young people around the world sharea common culture.• American slang has become a globalcode, with colorful examples from themusic scene.• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u4DJnbkAvTkhttp://www.pbs.org/speak/words/sezwho/globalslang/
Cool, wicked, chill, dope, nerd.• Young people around the world use thiskind of slang to show they‟re connected toAmerican pop culture.• Slang‟s main social function is to signalbelonging: American slang marks thespeaker or writer as an active andinformed member of global youthculture.
Exclusive and global• Vernacular English is powerfully expressivebecause — paradoxically — it is both exclusiveand global. In any host society.• American slang lives in a world of linguistic andcultural knowledge not available at school.• American slang lives in the specialized media ofthe young, such as CD booklets, songs andvideo clips, magazines and Web sites.
Global code for youth• Through the media, young people enterfan communities where they learn toincorporate certain forms of English intoboth their speech and writing to show thatthey‟re a part of youth culture.• As a result, American slang have becomea global code for youth worldwideincluded in a local code — the nationallanguage.
Flipped out = flipar• When host languages incorporate slang,speakers inflect loan nouns and verbs justlike native items and build compounds ofEnglish and native nouns.• For instance, flipped out comes asausgeflippt in German, flippato in Italian,flippé in French, and fliparisménos inGreek, and flipar in Spanish.
Signals social identity abroad• Items such as hi, cool and cu ( as in „see you‟ )are spreading into general German and Spanishslang, openers such as aight heads have aspecific social meaning among hip-hopenthusiasts.• They identify writer (and addressee) not only astrendy young people, but as members of thesame fan community, (in this case, Hip Hop).
Conversational Routines• greetings and farewells — hi, hey, whatsup, bye, cu, peace, cheers• thanks and apologies — thanx, sorry• discourse markers — ok, anyway,whatever, yeah, yes• various “chunks” — no way! thats all! Imready! lets go! shut up!
Non-standard spellings• In print and on the Internet, English oftencomes with non-standard spellings thatmay indicate colloquial or non-standardpronunciation or may serve as purelyvisual distinction.
Vernacular spelling patternsThe following vernacular spelling patterns arecommon in various countries:• participial suffix -in (e.g. livin, movin, rockin)• reductions, assimilations (e.g. wanna, ya, mo)• noun plural ending -a/-ah instead of -er (e.g.brotha, sistah)• noun plural ending -z for -s (e.g. newz, boyz,beatz, propz)• spelling variants ph and k (e.g. phat, phunky,kool, komradz)• lexical substitutions (e.g. u, 2, 4, cu la8tr)
Slang, Globalization and Englishas a Foreign Language• American slang has a global currency inyouth-cultural contexts.• It is not transmitted through theinstitutional teaching of EFL.• It is the outcome of rapid linguistic transfervia non-curricular sources, reachingteenagers before entering English-language dictionaries.
Slang and EFL• However, American slang does notthreaten institutional EFL. The relationshipis best viewed as complementary, bothlinguistically and in terms of languageattitudes.• Knowledge of slang extends theknowledge of English with respect toparticular semantic fields and speechstyles.
Slang and EFL• Although slang could never substitute forEFL in its instrumental value, it clearlyconnects foreign-language learning withadolescent cultural experience.