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Civil War Presentation

Presentation on the course of the American Civil War.

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Civil War Presentation

  1. 1.   November, 1860: Lincoln elected President.  December, 1860: South Carolina secedes.  Winter, 1860: Six more states follow suit.  February, 1861: Seven southern states declare themselves the Confederate States of America.  States begin to take control of federal holdings in the Southern territories with little resistance from James Buchanan.  March 4, 1861: Lincoln delivers inaugural address.  April 12-13, 1861: Bombardment of Fort Sumter Timeline
  2. 2.   Following his election to the Presidency in 1860, Lincoln begins to make his way toward Washington.  Diverted by rumors of an attempt on his life.  Recognized the importance of connecting to common people.  http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/lincolns- whistle-stop-trip-to-washington-161974/  Once in Washington, Lincoln faces a growing crisis over Fort Sumter. Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address
  3. 3.   Lincoln calls on each state to provide a volunteer force to retake the fort.  In response, four more states secede, bringing the CSA to a total of eleven states:  Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee all join the Confederacy  Lincoln suspends habeas corpus and arrests officials in the border states. One of the most controversial acts of the Civil War. After Fort Sumter
  4. 4.   Read through Samuel J. English’s description of the Battle of the Bull Run and answer the following questions on a sheet of notebook paper.  What seems to be his tone? Surprised, frightened? Reading
  5. 5.   President Lincoln asserts his authority to suspend habeas corpus during the war and arrests dissidents, newspaper editors, and politicians.  Arises from Lincoln’s fear that Maryland would block passage of troops and cut D.C. off from the rest of the Union.  Justice Taney (a Democrat) writes a lengthy opinion against Lincoln.  Free write: When is it acceptable to suspend certain rights in the US? Ex Parte Merryman
  6. 6.  Proclamation Suspending the Writ of Habeas Corpus September 24, 1862 Whereas, it has become necessary to call into service not only volunteers but also portions of the militia of the States by draft in order to suppress the insurrection existing in the United States, and disloyal persons are not adequately restrained by the ordinary processes of law from hindering this measure and from giving aid and comfort in various ways to the insurrection; Now, therefore, be it ordered, first, that during the existing insurrection and as a necessary measure for suppressing the same, all Rebels and Insurgents, their aiders and abettors within the United States, and all persons discouraging volunteer enlistments, resisting militia drafts, or guilty of any disloyal practice, affording aid and comfort to Rebels against the authority of the United States, shall be subject to martial law and liable to trial and punishment by Courts Martial or Military Commission: Second. That the Writ of Habeas Corpus is suspended in respect to all persons arrested, or who are now, or hereafter during the rebellion shall be, imprisoned in any fort, camp, arsenal, military prison, or other place of confinement by any military authority of by the sentence or any Court Martial or Military Commission. In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the City of Washington this twenty fourth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States the 87th. By the President:ABRAHAM LINCOLN WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.
  7. 7.   The North reacts with outrage to the firing on Fort Sumter – calls for an immediate offensive against the Confederacy.  In July of 1861, Union and Confederate forces clash in Prince William County, Virginia, near D.C.  Confederacy defeats Union, who retreats to D.C.  Surprising for two reasons:  1. Confederate victory.  2. Brutal and savage warfare. Sobering The First Battle of Bull Run
  8. 8.   We’ll talk battles – briefly.  Why?  Impossible to talk about the political, the social, and the economic without the war.  Civil War ushers in era of modern war.  Each victory, each loss, will affect the politics of the North and the South  Always, the specter of peace. Gallagher’s Lies
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  10. 10.   General Winfield Scott first proposes the Anaconda Plan as the best means to suppress the South.  Gain control of the Mississippi  Blockade Southern ports  Why?  Mississippi will cut the South in half, prevent troop movement up the river.  Blockade will strangle the Confederacy economically.  Blockade will prevent any threat of assistance for the South from the British. Northern Strategy in the War
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  12. 12.   The Battle of Shiloh, fought between April 6-7, 1862, is the single bloodiest battle to this point in American history.  23k casualties  General Grants’ reputation suffers in Northern media – claim he was drunk.  Lincoln: “I cannot spare him; he fights.”  The first of nine of the largest, bloodiest battles of the war. Like Bull Run, illustrates the savagery of this new war. Turning Points of the War
  13. 13.   The Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862. McClellan prevents Lee from continuing his invasion of the North.  Single bloodiest day of the war.  Seven generals dead  24k casualties in one day  Notable, because McClellan chose to repress a third of his force from participating, despite numerical advantage over Lee.  Lincoln upset with McClellan.  Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation issued by Lincoln; all slaves in rebel states free on January 1, 1863. Turning Points (cont.)
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  15. 15.  No other campaign and battle in the war had such momentous, multiple consequences as Antietam. In July 1863 the dual Union triumphs at Gettysburg and Vicksburg struck another blow that blunted a renewed Confederate offensive in the East and cut off the western third of the Confederacy from the rest. In September 1864 Sherman's capture of Atlanta reversed another decline in Northern morale and set the stage for the final drive to Union victory. These also were pivotal moments. But they would never have happened if the triple Confederate offensives in Mississippi, Kentucky, and most of all Maryland had not been defeated in the fall of 1862. McPherson on Antietam
  16. 16.   Ulysses S. Grant pushes forward in attempting to capture Vicksburg, seat of the Mississippi despite numerous setbacks.  Lincoln: “I think Grant has hardly a friend left, except myself, but what I want is generals who will fight battles and win victories. Grant has done this, and I propose to stand by him.” Turning Points (cont.)
  17. 17.   From May to July of 1863, Grant engages in a series of four battles known collectively as the Vicksburg Campaign.  Grant winds his way up the Mississippi, eventually taking the Confederate fort.  Huge Union victory.  North now controls the Mississippi – fulfilling one goal of the Anaconda Plan. Turning Points (cont.)
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  20. 20.   Issued on September 22, 1862, Lincoln frees all slaves in rebel territory.  Does not affect territories not in rebellion – in essence, frees 3 of 4 million slaves.  Effects:  White southerners outraged.  Angered Northern Democrats set on peace.  Complicated and undermined foreign intervention by the British.  Satisfied anti-slavery groups in the North.  Many more slaves begin to escape North. Emancipation Proclamation
  21. 21.   Criticism:  Does not affect half a million slaves in border states.  Not passed by congress – an executive order. Sound familiar?  Does not make slavery illegal.  Does affect Union occupied territories.  Seen as more a political than moral move. Emancipation (cont.)
  22. 22.   Praise: “The change in attitude of the Government is vast and startling. For more than sixty years the Federal Government has been little better than a stupendous engine of Slavery and oppression, through which Slavery has ruled us, as with a rod of iron. The boast that Cotton is King was no empty boast… What a glorious day when Slavery shall be no more in this country, when we have blotted out this system of wrong, and made this United States in fact and in truth what it is in theory—The Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave.” Emancipation (cont.)
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  27. 27.   Confederate army wins a major victory at Chancellorsville in 1863.  Lee then plans to invade the North and sue for peace.  Invasion could help peace movement in the North, especially during election of 1864. Before Gettysburg
  28. 28.   Fought July 1-3, 1863.  Union Victory – repels Southern invasion of the North, prevents Confederate victory.  Ends in somewhere between 46 and 51k casualties overall – deadliest battle of the war.  Confederates retreat.  Major turning point for the North – coincides with victory at Vicksburg just a day earlier.  Months later, Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address. Gettysburg
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  30. 30.   Clip from Ken Burns’ The Civil War:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qCXUbQ4JjXI The Gettysburg Address
  31. 31.   Union continues to press.  Sherman begins his march to the sea.  From May to September 1864, Sherman attacks and captures Atlanta.  He then begins to move – without supply lines – from Atlanta to Savannah.  Revolutionary military tactic. Lives off the land, destroys the countryside as he marches. Total War.  War has turned in to more than just military tactics – economic, political, cultural. March to the Sea
  32. 32.   “This war differs from other wars, in this particular. We are not fighting armies but a hostile people, and must make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war.”  “My aim, then, was to whip the rebels, to humble their pride, to follow them to their inmost recesses, and make them fear and dread us. Fear is the beginning of wisdom.”  “I am tired and sick of war. Its glory is all moonshine. It is only those who have neither fired a shot nor heard the shrieks and groans of the wounded who cry aloud for blood, for vengeance, for desolation. War is hell.”  “I think I understand what military fame is; to be killed on the field of battle and have your name misspelled in the newspapers.” Sherman Quotes
  33. 33.   Lincoln v. McClellan who runs as a peace candidate.  Sherman’s successful campaign across the South helps reelect Lincoln.  Lincoln wins 55% of the vote to McClellan’s 45%.  Second Inaugural Address  Let’s review the first inaugural address.  As we read, think about the differences in message and tone between the first and the second. Election of 1864
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  35. 35.   In groups, discuss, then answer, the following questions.  1. Why did the North ultimately win the Civil War? What were some of the reasons for their victory?  2. What new tactics and strategies did the Civil War introduce?  3. What were some of the criticisms levied against Lincoln for his issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation? Why could it be seen as more of a political than moral move? Welcome Back
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  37. 37.   https://www.gilderlehrman.org/sites/default/files /inline-pdfs/T-02474.pdf “Your Late Lamented Husband”

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