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Global studies Semester Presentation

Global Studies first semester PowerPoint presentation. Hunting-gathering to Ancient Egypt.

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Global studies Semester Presentation

  1. 1. GLOBAL STUDIES With Mr. Gallagher
  2. 2. EXPECTATIONS  You will be expected to keep a notebook.  You will be expected to take quizzes, tests, and complete homework.  You will be expected to be inquisitive.  You will be expected to speak in class.
  3. 3. PRIMARY VS. SECONDARY SOURCES  Primary = “Of” the time.  Original, first hand account of what occurred  Historical document from the time period  Factual, non-interpretive  Secondary = “About” the time.  Analyzes and interprets primary sources  Second hand account of a historical event  Interprets creative work. (Courtesy of the Borough of Manhattan Community College Library.)
  4. 4. EXAMPLES OF PRIMARY SOURCES  Historical documents (Declaration of Independence)  Photographs  Maps  Government records  Interviews  Songs, stories, or plays from the time period studied  Paintings, drawings, sculptures EXAMPLES OF SECONDARY SOURCES - Biographies - History books - Newspaper articles or opinion pieces - Magazine articles that interpret a source
  5. 5. HOW DO WE USE SOURCES?  Sources are used by historians to contextualize, interpret, and make arguments about past events.  The job of a historian is to take contextual clues in order to make arguments about what happened through a given source.
  6. 6. On a piece of paper, make note of the following pieces of information: - What are the subjects of the painting wearing? - What does each subject hold in their hands? - How are the subjects framed? - What seems to be the background of the painting? Now, make an argument about the painting using your pieces of evidence: - What do you think is going on in this painting? What was the purpose of the painting?
  7. 7. DISCUSS  Turn to a partner and discuss your findings. Pay special attention to what details they noticed, and which ones you did not.  Next, share your arguments with one another. Do they line up? Are they the same argument, or different?
  8. 8. Let’s look again. The child on the left is a boy. The child in the middle is a boy, and probably dead. The child on the right is the only girl. What differences in each portrayal could have led us to the correct argument?
  9. 9. CRASH COURSE WORLD HISTORY  As we watch the video “Crash Course World History,” fill out the worksheet, listing advantages and disadvantages of each lifestyle. Next to the disadvantages, write a large D. Next to the advantages, place a large A. 
  10. 10. REVIEW  Let’s review what we learned yesterday about sources, hunter-gatherers, and agriculturalists.  What makes something a primary source? What are some examples of primary sources?  What makes something a secondary source? What are examples of secondary sources?  What are advantages of agricultural development? What are some advantages of hunting and gathering?  What are some disadvantages of each?
  11. 11. THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION  The Neolithic, or Agricultural Revolution began 12,000 years ago, in 10,000 BCE.  Transition from nomadic -> sedentary societies. That is, from roaming to fixed.  In order to make this transition, the societies began to manipulate the environment.  Irrigation  Deforestation  Domestication of plants and animals (selective breeding of certain crops and species)
  12. 12. FROM NOMADS TO FARMERS  Over time, the domestication of crops and animals made it easier to grow food and raise livestock.  As tribes began to settle certain areas, villages and cities grew.  In Jericho, there is evidence of a Neolithic walled town from 8000 B.C.E.
  15. 15. GUNS, GERMS, AND STEEL – OUT OF EDEN  As we watch the first episode of “Guns, Germs, and Steel,” continue to fill out your chart comparing the advantages and disadvantages of hunting and gathering versus agricultural societies.  We will spend a couple days watching the video.  W1SuHQ8  HOMEWORK: Read Chapter 1.2, answer questions 1, 2, and 3
  16. 16. QUIZ!  Take out a piece of paper and answer the following questions. I will then collect the papers. What are three major characteristics of a civilization? What similarities in physical environment did the first civilizations share?
  17. 17. JARED DIAMOND – “THE WORST MISTAKE IN THE HISTORY OF THE HUMAN RACE”  As you read Jared Diamond’s article, make note of the advantages and disadvantages he lists of agricultural and hunter-gatherer lifestyles.  If we do not finish the article in class, you will be responsible for bringing it home and continuing to fill out the worksheet.
  19. 19. HAPPY TUESDAY!  Pull out your homework from last night – “The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race” and the worksheet on advantages and disadvantages of hunting and gathering vs. agriculture.  Then, partner up and share your thesis, along with the pieces of evidence you cited.  Take turns critiquing one another’s thesis, answering the following questions:  Is your partner making an argument?  Can you summarize the argument?  Does their evidence support the argument?
  20. 20. NOW, TAKE SOME TIME…  Take ten minutes and write down everything you did during the school day yesterday in a bulleted list. For example:  Woke up  Ate breakfast  Etc.  Gather in groups of three and compare your list.  Then, begin reading “The First Case of Apple-Polishing.” Let me know when you’re done.
  21. 21. WHY THE SUMERIANS?  The Sumerians are a civilization of firsts:  First lunar calendar  The first plow  The first writing system  Located in Mesopotamia (“The Land Between the Rivers”), Sumer describes a collection of city-states.  Agriculture boosts population, supports a large population of slaves, who then build architecturally incredible buildings.  Developed a system of time keeping based on the number 60.
  22. 22. MESOPOTAMIA!!  As we watch the Crash Course video on Mesopotamia, fill out the worksheet. Once finished, we’ll briefly look at Sumerian culture, then break off in to groups for another activity.  XZ6Y
  23. 23. Courtesy of the U.S. Embassy in Iraq.
  24. 24. JOBS AND EDUCATION  Most people in Sumerian society were peasant farmers  Skilled craftsmen (blacksmiths, carpenters, house builders) were considered “specialists”  Years of training—skills passed down in families  Scribes—trained in schools  Mostly wealthy boys  Nobles, priests:  Mostly from wealthy families  Sargon—an example of social mobility
  25. 25. WAY OF LIFE  Sumerians were proud of their cities (see Gilgamesh)  Houses were made of mud brick and reeds  Houses often collapsed—the Code of Hammurabi contains punishments for builders whose houses collapsed  Diet was based on bread  The wealthy were able to afford meat, the poor ate fish  People ate two meals a day  People lived in nuclear families, but extended family important  Father had power in family
  26. 26. CULTURE  Recreation:  People enjoyed board games and sports such as wrestling and boxing  Music:  Pipes, lyres, and harps  Literature:  Proverbs and riddles  Religious writings  Stories  Epic poetry--Gilgamesh
  28. 28. THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH  Gilgamesh  Demigod of superhuman strength  Built the walls around the city-state of Uruk  The Epic of Gilgamesh  Dated at some time around 2100 BC  Considered the first work of literature
  30. 30. MAP ACTIVITY  Complete the map activity on your own or with a partner  Then we’ll talk about the different kingdoms.
  31. 31. OLD KINGDOM (2686 BCE – 2181 BCE  Old Kingdom the result of centralized government and a huge rise in population. Notable because of the following:  Construction of the pyramids  Construction of the Great Sphinx  Central government leads to middle class – scribes, gov’t officials, etc.  Much of the cultural impact Egypt had on the modern world comes from the artwork and architecture of the Old Kingdom.
  32. 32. Great Sphinx of Giza
  33. 33. MIDDLE KINGDOM (2000 BCE – 1700 BCE)  After decentralized, weak government arises in aftermath of the Old Kingdom, rulers of the Middle Kingdom aim to centralize power.  Vizier: Chief minister in the king’s stead. Responsible for day-to-day administration of the kingdom.  Under Amenemhat III, Egypt prospers economically through mining and high waters from the Nile.  Egypt declines toward the end of the Middle Kingdom; descends in to the Second Intermediate Period.
  35. 35. NEW KINGDOM (1570 BCE – 1544 BCE)  Period of expansion in the Egyptian kingdom. Pharaohs, using chariots and other new forms of technology, were able to conquer huge swaths of land to the South and East.  Amenhotep IV attempts to convert Egyptian religious beliefs to monotheism. Unsuccessful.  This is the era of Tutankhamun, who will become famous for his tomb uncovered in 1922.