You will be expected to keep a notebook.
You will be expected to take quizzes, tests, and complete homework.
You will be expected to be inquisitive.
You will be expected to speak in class.
PRIMARY VS. SECONDARY SOURCES
Primary = “Of” the time.
Original, first hand account of what occurred
Historical document from the time period
Secondary = “About” the time.
Analyzes and interprets primary sources
Second hand account of a historical event
Interprets creative work.
(Courtesy of the Borough of Manhattan
Community College Library.)
Historical documents (Declaration of
Songs, stories, or plays from the time
Paintings, drawings, sculptures
- History books
- Newspaper articles or opinion pieces
- Magazine articles that interpret a source
HOW DO WE USE SOURCES?
Sources are used by historians to contextualize, interpret, and make arguments
about past events.
The job of a historian is to take contextual clues in order to make arguments
about what happened through a given source.
On a piece of paper, make note of the
following pieces of information:
- What are the subjects of the painting
- What does each subject hold in their hands?
- How are the subjects framed?
- What seems to be the background of the
Now, make an argument about the painting
using your pieces of evidence:
- What do you think is going on in this
painting? What was the purpose of the
Turn to a partner and discuss your findings. Pay special attention to what details
they noticed, and which ones you did not.
Next, share your arguments with one another. Do they line up? Are they the same
argument, or different?
Let’s look again.
The child on the left is a boy.
The child in the middle is a boy, and
The child on the right is the only girl.
What differences in each portrayal
could have led us to the correct
CRASH COURSE WORLD HISTORY
As we watch the video “Crash Course World History,” fill out the worksheet, listing
advantages and disadvantages of each lifestyle. Next to the disadvantages, write
a large D. Next to the advantages, place a large A.
Let’s review what we learned yesterday about
sources, hunter-gatherers, and
What makes something a primary source?
What are some examples of primary sources?
What makes something a secondary source?
What are examples of secondary sources?
What are advantages of agricultural
development? What are some advantages of
hunting and gathering?
What are some disadvantages of each?
The Neolithic, or Agricultural Revolution
began 12,000 years ago, in 10,000 BCE.
Transition from nomadic -> sedentary
societies. That is, from roaming to fixed.
In order to make this transition, the
societies began to manipulate the
Domestication of plants and animals
(selective breeding of certain crops and
FROM NOMADS TO FARMERS
Over time, the domestication of crops
and animals made it easier to grow food
and raise livestock.
As tribes began to settle certain areas,
villages and cities grew.
In Jericho, there is evidence of a
Neolithic walled town from 8000 B.C.E.
GUNS, GERMS, AND STEEL – OUT OF EDEN
As we watch the first episode of “Guns,
Germs, and Steel,” continue to fill out your
chart comparing the advantages and
disadvantages of hunting and gathering
versus agricultural societies.
We will spend a couple days watching the
HOMEWORK: Read Chapter 1.2, answer
questions 1, 2, and 3
Take out a piece of paper and answer the following questions. I will then collect
What are three major characteristics of a civilization?
What similarities in physical environment did the first civilizations share?
JARED DIAMOND – “THE WORST MISTAKE
IN THE HISTORY OF THE HUMAN RACE”
As you read Jared Diamond’s article, make note of the advantages and
disadvantages he lists of agricultural and hunter-gatherer lifestyles.
If we do not finish the article in class, you will be responsible for bringing it home
and continuing to fill out the worksheet.
Pull out your homework from last night –
“The Worst Mistake in the History of the
Human Race” and the worksheet on
advantages and disadvantages of hunting
and gathering vs. agriculture.
Then, partner up and share your thesis,
along with the pieces of evidence you cited.
Take turns critiquing one another’s thesis,
answering the following questions:
Is your partner making an argument?
Can you summarize the argument?
Does their evidence support the argument?
NOW, TAKE SOME TIME…
Take ten minutes and write down everything you did during the school day yesterday
in a bulleted list. For example:
Gather in groups of three and compare your list.
Then, begin reading “The First Case of Apple-Polishing.” Let me know when you’re
WHY THE SUMERIANS?
The Sumerians are a civilization of firsts:
First lunar calendar
The first plow
The first writing system
Located in Mesopotamia (“The Land Between the
Rivers”), Sumer describes a collection of city-states.
Agriculture boosts population, supports a large
population of slaves, who then build architecturally
Developed a system of time keeping based on the
As we watch the Crash Course video on
Mesopotamia, fill out the worksheet. Once
finished, we’ll briefly look at Sumerian
culture, then break off in to groups for
JOBS AND EDUCATION
Most people in Sumerian society were peasant farmers
Skilled craftsmen (blacksmiths, carpenters, house builders) were considered
Years of training—skills passed down in families
Scribes—trained in schools
Mostly wealthy boys
Mostly from wealthy families
Sargon—an example of social mobility
WAY OF LIFE
Sumerians were proud of their cities (see Gilgamesh)
Houses were made of mud brick and reeds
Houses often collapsed—the Code of Hammurabi contains punishments for builders
whose houses collapsed
Diet was based on bread
The wealthy were able to afford meat, the poor ate fish
People ate two meals a day
People lived in nuclear families, but extended family important
Father had power in family
People enjoyed board games and
sports such as wrestling and boxing
Pipes, lyres, and harps
Proverbs and riddles
THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH
Demigod of superhuman strength
Built the walls around the city-state of Uruk
The Epic of Gilgamesh
Dated at some time around 2100 BC
Considered the first work of literature
Complete the map activity on your own or
with a partner
Then we’ll talk about the different
OLD KINGDOM (2686 BCE – 2181 BCE
Old Kingdom the result of centralized government and a huge rise in population.
Notable because of the following:
Construction of the pyramids
Construction of the Great Sphinx
Central government leads to middle class – scribes, gov’t officials, etc.
Much of the cultural impact Egypt had on the modern world comes from the artwork
and architecture of the Old Kingdom.
MIDDLE KINGDOM (2000 BCE – 1700 BCE)
After decentralized, weak government arises in
aftermath of the Old Kingdom, rulers of the
Middle Kingdom aim to centralize power.
Vizier: Chief minister in the king’s stead.
Responsible for day-to-day administration of the
Under Amenemhat III, Egypt prospers
economically through mining and high waters
from the Nile.
Egypt declines toward the end of the Middle
Kingdom; descends in to the Second
CLAY MODEL OF A HOUSE DURING THE
NEW KINGDOM (1570 BCE – 1544 BCE)
Period of expansion in the Egyptian
kingdom. Pharaohs, using chariots and
other new forms of technology, were
able to conquer huge swaths of land to
the South and East.
Amenhotep IV attempts to convert
Egyptian religious beliefs to
This is the era of Tutankhamun, who will
become famous for his tomb uncovered